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Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II

Edited by EDWARD D. PALIK Institute of Physical Sciences and Technology University of Maryland College Park, Maryland

Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Publishers
Boston San Diego New York London Sydney Tokyo Toronto

Contents List of Contributors Preface xv xix Part I DETERMINATION OF OPTICAL CONSTANTS Introductory Remarks Chapter 1 EDWARD D. II. m. IV. PELLETIER Introduction An Example of Comparison between the Different Techniques of Index Determination Principle Methods of Index Determination Sensitivity and Accuracy of the Determination Methods Overlapping and Tests of Validity of the Model Results and Conclusion References 3 3 5 6 7 7 8 11 21 Chapter 2 I. VII. IV. II. III. r. V. v . T. III. HOLM Introduction Units Wave Equation Polarization Fresnel's Amplitude Reflection Coefficients Nomenclature Concluding Remarks Acknowledgments References Methods for Determining Optical Parameters of Thin Films E. IV. V. VI. VI. Introduction The Chapters The Critiques The Tables The Figures of the Tables General Remarks Errata References Convention Confusions R. PALIK II. VII. 21 22 22 26 37 50 51 52 52 Chapter 3 57 57 58 60 64 67 71 71 I. VI. V.

V. IV. VI. V. JENSEN Introduction The Quantum-Density-Matrix Formulation of the Complex Dielectric Constant Comparison with Experimental Results Summary References 125 125 128 138 147 148 I. n and k. J. II. IV. II. in the Interband Region A. HUNDERI Introduction The Classical Optical Response of a Multilayer System Semiconductor Superlattices Amorphous Superlattices Collective Excitations Lattice Disorder The Effect of Nonlocal Dielectric Functions Concluding Remarks References Caiculation of the Refractive Index of Compound Semiconductors below the Band Gap B. III. IV. n(E) Discussion Examples Summary References Chapter 8 Temperature Dependence of the Complex Index of Refraction MICHAEL E. and the Refractive Index. 151 151 154 163 166 174 175 I. Chapter 6 Optical Properties of Superlattices P. The Attenuated Total Reflection Method G. II. . IV. SWALEN Introduction Surface-Plasmon Oscillations Optical Analysis of ATR Structures Guided Modes Applications of ATR Conclusion References 75 75 77 81 84 87 94 94 97 97 98 101 109 112 118 120 122 122 Chapter 5 I. III. II. APELLANDO. D. k(E). THOMAS Introduction Temperature Dependence of n and k 177 177 179 I. VIII. III. Chapter 7 Caiculation of Optical Constants. R. SPROKEL AND J. VII.VI Contents Chapter 4 I. BLOOMER Introduction The Extinction Coefficient. FOROUHI A N D I. III. II. VI. V.

VIII.VII III. R. VI. Introduction General Considerations Aluminum Reflectance versus Angle in UHV Determination of n and k Comparison with Other Results References 203 204 206 207 210 212 213 Chapter 10 Spectroscopic Ellipsometry in the 6-35 eV Region J. II. 213 217 226 237 244 245 245 Chapter 11 Methods Based on Multiple-Slit Fourier Transform Interferometry for Oetermining Thin-Film Optical Constants in the VUV/Soft X-Ray Range ROMAN TATCHYN I. VII. III. AND M. iL Introduction The Bessy VUV Eilipsometer Theory Results and Comparison with Reflectance Spectra Summary Acknowledgment References m. BLESSING. CARDONA I. Photoelectric-Yield Measurements H. V. BARTH. III. SCOTT I. JOHNSON. IV. IV. II. V. II. L. III. Conclusions References Measurement of n and * in the XUV by the Angle-of-Incidence Total-External-Reflectance Method 199 199 Chapter 9 203 MARION L. Introduction Theoretical Background Experimental Details 279 280 285 247 253 254 258 265 270 272 273 274 274 247 Chapter 12 279 . BIRKEN. KUNZ I. A N D C. Introduction to MSFTI Fundamental Dimensional Constraints and Inequalities Relationship of MSFTI to Alternative Metrological Techniques General Experimental Equations and Sensitivity Analysis A Characterization of the Optical Constants of Au Using MSFTI in the 280-640 e V Range Problems and Prospects in Sample Preparation Prospects for MSFTI in Other Spectral Regimes Summary Acknowledgments References Determination of Optical Constants from Angular-Dependent. C.-G. V. IV.

VC. II. Introduction References Alkali Metals References Lithium (Li) References Sodium (Na) References Potassium (K) References Chromium (Cr) References Iron (Fe) References Niobium (Nb) References Tantalum (Ta) References .VIII Contents IV. PALIK Introduction The Parameters References 286 289 292 293 I. IV. PFLÜGER AND J. III. V. VII. Chapter 14 293 295 297 298 299 300 300 303 310 313 I. VII. Chapter 13 Examples Conclusions and Future Prospects References Determination of Optical Constants by High-Energy. III. V. VIII. HUNTER 341 341 341 342 344 345 347 354 357 364 367 374 376 385 387 396 397 408 409 I. and VN References Optical Parameters for the Materials in HOC I and HOCH EDWARD D. VI. II. Electron-Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) J. 313 313 334 Part II Subpart 1 CRITIQUES Metals An Introduction to the Data for Several Metals DAVID W. II. R. FINK Introduction Description of an EELS Experiment Scattering Cross-Section Exact Determination of the Loss Function Kramers-Kronig Analysis Brief Summary of the Evaluation Procedure Comparison with Reflectivity Measurements Optical Properties of TiC. IV. LYNCH A N D W. VIII. VI. V. TiN. IX.

G U I Z Z E T T I A N D A . T . A N D KENICHI T A K A R A B E Acknowledgments References Aluminum Antimonide (AlSb) D A V I D F. A . B O R G H E S I A N D G. PIAGGI References 480 472 477 465 469 453 461 440 449 421 425 435 Subpart 2 Semiconductors Aluminum Arsenide (AlAs) E D W A R D D. T. J . T A K A R A B E Acknowledgments References 515 515 505 513 492 492 501 489 . W A R D References Graphite (C) A. T . W H I T E References Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AüSa. G U I Z Z E T T I References Liquid Mercury (Hg) E. C A L L C O T T . E D W A R D S A N D R I C H A R D H. G L E M B O C K I . O . PIAGGI References Vanadium (V) G. ^As) O. PALIK. A N D YUN-CHING CHANG References Cobalt (Co) L. A R A K A W A .Contents IX Beryllium (Be) E. I N A G A K I References Palladium (Pd) A . A R A K A W A A N D T. J . G L E M B O C K I A N D K. B O R G H E S I A N D A .

PALIK Acknowledgments References Tin Telluride (SnTe) H. PILLER References Cadmium Sulphide (CdS) L. PILLER References 559 563 579 586 597 601 607 611 637 639 655 666 667 691 693 694 705 706 709 713 713 725 727 . WARD References Gallium Antimonide (GaSb) DAVID F. PILLER References Mercury Cadmium Telluride (Hg. HUMLICEK.-*) J. M. F.Contents Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) H. AND E. WHITE References Silicon-Germanium Alloys (SUGe._.CdJe) P. PALIK Acknowledgments References Cubic Silicon Carbide (ß-SiC) SAMUEL A. AMIRTHARAJ Acknowledgments References Selenium (Se) EDWARD D. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H. ALTEROVITZ AND JOHN A. LUKES. WOOLLAM References Tellurium (Te) EDWARD D. SCHMIDT References Lead Tin Telluride (PbSnTe) H.

VARAPRASAD Acknowledgments References Beryllium Oxide (BeO) DAVID F. THOMAS References Notes Added in Proof Barium Titanate (BaTi03) CHUEN W O N G . J . W. WOOLLAM References Cesium lodide (Csl) JOHN E. CuO) CARL G. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H. RIBBING AND ARNE ROOS References 737 747 761 764 777 780 781 789 793 793 sos 807 815 825 837 840 853 857 875 878 . SAVVIDES. YE Y U N G TENG. SMITH. F. L. ALTEROVITZ. H.Contents Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) Zinc Telluride (ZnTe) L. A N D P. F. BEZUIDENHOUT References Amorphous Hydrogenated "Diamondlike" Carbon Films and Arc-Evaporated Carbon Films SAMUEL A. WHITE References Calcium Fluoride (CaF2) D. ELDRIDGE References Copper Oxides (CiijO. AND JOHN A. ASHOK. WARD References Subpart 3 Insulators Aluminum Oxide (Al203) FRANQOIS GERVAIS References Aluminum Oxynitride (ALON) Spinel WILLIAM J. N. TROPF AND MICHAEL E.

PALIK References Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KH2P0„ KDP) and Three of Its Isomorphs 883 887 899 903 919 939 939 957 968 989 992 IOOS DAVID F. A N D J . A N D W I L L I A M J . ASHOK. T H O M A S . COTTER. ROESSLER A N D DONALD R. THOMAS References Magnesium Fluoride (MgF2) T H O M A S M. TROPF A N D MICHAEL E. OHLiDAL A N D K. VARAPRASAD. HUFFMAN Acknowledgments References Polyethylene [CJUX J . L H. TROPF References Magnesium Oxide (MgO) DAVID M . MICHAEL E. OHÜDAL A N D K.XII Contents Magnesium Aluminium Spinel (MgAljOJ WILLIAM J . P. BIRCH References Potassium Bromide (KBr) EDWARD D. NAVRÄTIL References Strontium Titanate (SrTi03) FRANCOIS GERVAIS References Thorium Fluoride (ThF. R.) I. NAVRÄTIL References 1054 1037 1049 1024 1035 1008 1021 . WHITE References Sodium Fluoride (NaF) I. EDWARDS A N D RICHARD H.

SEGELSTEIN References Yttrium Oxide (Y203) WILLIAM J . THOMAS References Notes Added in Proof xiii 1059 1063 1079 1084 1086 X . TROPF A N D MICHAEL E. A N D DAVID J . QUERRY. WIELICZKA.Contents Water (H20) MARTIN R. DAVID M.