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Chemical Process Products

... because we your problems into

mass transfer


About KEVIN Packed Tower Systems
Medal-Pak Tall-Pak Pall Rings Raschig Rings ME-II Structured Packing Omni-Pak Saddles


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Alumina/Inert Balls


Importance of Liquid Distribution Pan Type Distributor/Redistributor (Model DPC501/RPC502) Riser Deck Distributor/Redistributor (Model DRD503/RRD504) Trough Type Distributor with Parting Box (Model DTP505) Trough Type Distributor/Redistributor with Sump (Model DTS506/RTS507) Trough Type Distributor/Redistributor with End Closure (Model DTE508/RTE509) Deck Type Distributor/Redistributor with Flow Point Multipliers (Model DDM510/RDM511) V-Weir Distributor (Model DVW512) Spray Nozzle Distributor (Model DSN513) Pipe Arm Distributor (Model DPA514) 9 11 11 12 12 13 13 13 14 14

Liquid Feed Pipe (Model LFP541/LFP542) Flash Feed Gallery (Model FFG543) Flash Feed Chamber (Model FFC544) Flashing Feed Pipe (Model FFP545) Vapor Feed Distributor (Model VFD546) Vapor Distribution Plate (Model VDP547) 15 16 16 16 17 17


Liquid Collector Tray (Model LCT551) Vane Collector Tray (Model VCT552)

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Support Plate (Model SPL521) Support Plate (Model SPM522) Support Plate (Model SPS523) Support Grid (Model SGS524)

Bed Limiter for Random Packing (Model BLR531) Bed Limiter for Structured Packing (Model BLS532) Hold Down Plate (Model HDP533)

Light Phase Disperser/Support Plate (Model LLE561-LP) Heavy Phase Disperser/Support Plate (Model LLE562-HP)


Tray Tower Systems
Valve Trays Sieve Trays Bubble Cap Trays Tray Hardware Baffle Trays

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Feasibility Study Design & Drafting Site Installation Trouble Shooting

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Technical Appendix
Performance Curves for Medal-Pak 29

The installation of our cost effective products has served to improve the performance of our valued customers' critical distillation and absorption processes. and fine chemicals throughout the world. petroleum refineries.. engaged in the design. and timely delivery of mass transfer products has been consistently demonstrated to our customers throughout our history. our valued customer. Our core strength of technical capabilities and expertise has been developed over a period of 15 years as a licensee of Saint GobainNorpro Corporation (formerly Norton Chemical Process Products Corporation) and through our own independent experience built over a period of nearly 30 years.kevincpp. Our record of quality and success in the design. Kevin Enterprises has grown to become one of Asia's pre-eminent mass transfer equipment companies. Our proven record of success is clearly evident given our extensive list of satisfied and repeat customers in the field of fertilizers. manufacture.About KEVIN . because we your problems into mass transfer solutions Kevin Enterprises is an ISO 9001 certified company established in 1972. supply. petrochemicals. ISO 9001 www. During this time. Established in 1972 One of Asia’s premier mass transfer equipment company 1 . Our manufacturing facility is equipped with modern equipment and with dedicated engineering and manufacturing professionals to ensure timely delivery of our quality mass transfer products to you.. and installation of mass transfer equipment.

Feed Device Liquid Distributor Bed Limiter Random Packing Support Plate Liquid Redistributor Hold Down Grid Structured Packing Support Grid Chimney / Collector Tray Fractionation Trays Vapor Distributor 2 . or stripping performance. absorption.a tower that contains well-matched components to optimize its distillation.About KEVIN PRODUCTS We offer a broad range of mass transfer products to provide you with a high performance system .kevincpp.

5 Packing Factor 51 41 24 18 12 Tall-Pak Tall-Pak (formerly sold as Hy-Pak®) is an excellent substitute for traditional Pall Rings and is considered to be one of the most efficient ring-type random packings.6 97.8 (68.8 (45. Titanium and Zirconium.e.1 (17.5 97. absorption. and low cost.3) Voidage (%) 95. Aluminum.5) 60 (18.8) 225. Copper. Item / Size Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) Voidage (%) Packing Factor Tall-Pak # 1 (30mm) Tall-Pak # 1.8 97.7 98 3 . Other advantages include large effective interfacial area. Medal-Pak Medal-Pak (formerly sold as IMTP®) gives the best of both worlds in terms of performance (i. Stainless Steel.8) 150. it provides lower pressure drop than a Pall Ring. In order to derive enhanced yields from a packed tower.kevincpp. Medal-Pak can be fabricated from a variety of metals including.4) 96. one must select and install well matched components to optimize distillation. It can be effectively used in both high pressure and vacuum towers.5 (45mm) Tall-Pak # 2 (60mm) Tall-Pak # 3 (90mm) 30000 (850) 9400 (265) 3870 (110) 1100 (31) 171.0) 88 (26.03 (36. thus reducing procurement costs when compared to traditional Pall Rings. Carbon Steel.TOWER PACKINGS TOWER PACKINGS While packed towers have been in existence for over a century. but not limited to. Its monolithic construction overcomes the problem of "opening out" at the ends as can be experienced with ring-shaped packings. At almost the same efficiency. many improvements have been developed to maximize column performance. It's unique design incorporates strength reinforcing ribs that allow for lower thickness and taller beds. It also increases the interfacial area available for gas-liquid contact.7 44 26 24 16 www.3 (88.04 97.6 96. or stripping performance. lowpressure drop and high efficiency).8) 57. Medal-Pak is available in an array of sizes to provide multiple combinations of efficiency and pressure drop.7) 100 (30. Item / Size Medal-Pak # 15 Medal-Pak # 25 Medal-Pak # 40 Medal-Pak # 50 Medal-Pak # 70 Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) 347500 (9840) 135000 (3825) 50000 (1415) 15000 (425) 4625 (130) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) 291. high mechanical strength.4) 118.9 (52.

4 www.5”) Plastic Pall Ring 50mm (2”) Plastic Pall Ring 75mm (3”) Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) 214000 (6060) 51000 (1445) 14300 (405) 6500 (185) 2100 (60) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) 344.7 (63. and carbon material.7) Voidage (%) 93. They are available in metal & plastic material. ceramic. They are resistant to most acids.0 95.8 96.4 (39.7) 102.4”). They also have high crushing strength and thus.TOWER PACKINGS Pall Rings Pall Rings are a traditional ring type random packing with a large global installed base and well documented performance history. Raschig Rings made from carbon or graphite are used in specific applications demanding good corrosion and thermal shock resistance. Item / Size Metal Pall Ring 10mm (3/8") Metal Pall Ring 16mm (5/8”) Metal Pall Ring 25mm (1”) Metal Pall Ring 38mm (1.5”) Metal Pall Ring 50mm (2”) Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) 768000 (21748) 214000 (6060) 51000 (1445) 14300 (405) 6500 (185) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) 482.1) Voidage (%) 92.7 (63.9 Packing Factor 166 91 56 40 27 Item / Size Plastic Pall Ring 16mm (5/8”) Plastic Pall Ring 25mm (1”) Plastic Pall Ring 38mm (1.9) 206.9) 206.8 96. It is supplied in many sizes ranging from 5mm to 100mm (1/4”.1 94.2 (104.76 93.4 (39.0) 344.1 (31.1) 74.9 92 Packing Factor 91 56 40 27 20 Raschig Rings Raschig Rings are a generic random packing available in metallic.1 (31.0 95. alkalis and solvents at high temperatures.54 (147. graphite. a longer life.6 (22.0) 130.1 94.0) 130.2 ( .kevincpp.7) 102.

It offers superior efficiency and capacity in environmental applications such as scrubbing and 5 . wastewater treatment.5) Voidage (%) 95 Packing Factor 13 www. 90 m2/m3. acid gas absorption. It gives higher efficiency compared to Pall Rings 38mm (1. ensures there are no dry areas even at low liquid rates. Item / Size Omni-Pak Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) 5400 (150) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) 100 (30. It's corrugated sheet construction with unique surface texturing.kevincpp.TOWER PACKINGS ME-II Structured Packing ME-II structured packing exhibits exceptional liquidspreading characteristics that result in excellent efficiency/capacity combinations. Omni-Pak Omni-Pak (formerly sold as Snowflake®) is a highperformance plastic packing. Its distinctive shape lowers the pressure drop. Its various applications include fume scrubbing. 350 m2/m3. which significantly reduces energy consumption. etc. 125 m2/m3. 250 m2/m3. 170 m2/m3. VOC stripping. flue gas scrubbing. ME-II provides enhanced mass transfer and lower HETP. It is available in the following sizes: 500 m2/m3.5 inches) and larger as well as #2 Plastic Super Saddles and larger.

TOWER PACKINGS Saddles Plastic Super Saddles (PSS) are the improved version of the original saddles.kevincpp. The unique scalloped edge is the key to the product's high performance in terms of higher capacity and improved rates of mass transfer when compared to traditional plastic saddles. Saddles are also available in ceramic materials.3 64 73 74 75 Packing Factor 40 21 16 92 52 40 ENGINEERING COMPANIES WE HAVE WORKED WITH: Aker Kvaerner Chemtex Engineers India Ltd.KTI Toyo Engineering UHDE 6 www.6) Voidage (%) 90 93.7) 176 (53.5" Ceramic Saddles 2" Piece Density pcs/m3 (pcs/ft3) (approx) 57500 (1625) 6400 (180) 1450 (40) 84000 (2375) 25000 (705) 9300 (260) Surface Area m2/m3 (ft2/ft3) 199 ( . Haldor Topsoe Halliburton. It also serves to overcome the problem of nesting that is commonly encountered with ordinary saddles.0) 89 (27. We offer these with a glazed construction to enhance capacity and reduce porosity. Super Saddle packings typically find their application in processes requiring high temperature and chemical attack resistance.7) 105 (32. Item / Size Plastic Super Saddles # 1 Plastic Super Saddles # 2 Plastic Super Saddles # 3 Ceramic Saddles 1" Ceramic Saddles 1.1) 255 (77.6) 120 (36. Petrofac Snamprogetti SNC Lavalin Technip.KBR ICB Technimont Jacobs H & G L&T Chiyoda Lurgi Projects & Development India Ltd. They are designed to give enhanced internal gas and liquid distribution.

kevincpp. We are also able to provide detail engineering for specialized elliptical. lamella type plate's separators. flow smoothners. Demisters are offered in wire mesh type or Vane type or combination of both to meet specific requirements. Various flow patterns like vapor up-flow and horizontal flow as well as their attachment details.DEMISTERS DEMISTERS Entrainment Separators / Dispersion Separators In order to complete the scope of tower internals KEVIN also offers various types of Demisters & Mist Eliminators for entrainment separations and Liquid Coalescers as dispersion 7 . beam sizing and load calculations are also offered. These are extremely useful in separating fine liquid in liquid dispersions. vertical and conical shapes of demisters/mist eliminators. LIQUID COALESCER For coarser dispersion KEVIN offers a battery internals wave breaker plate. mist eliminators can be either demister pads (knitted or co-knitted wire mesh for fine mist) or Vane type separators (for coarser liquid drops). MESH TYPE DEMISTER Our Entrainment Separators work on the principles of inertia whereby small droplets of liquid entrained in vapors are coalesced into larger drops and fall downward due to gravity. KEVIN's liquid particulate separators i. Specially designed co-knitted wire mesh pads found in liquid coalescer are also offered by KEVIN. Liquid Coalescers separate immiscible liquids by breaking liquid dispersions and emulsions so that subsequent gravity setting becomes effective. overflow weir plates etc.e. They are designed for a particular liquid flow and phase ratio (o/w or w/o). Advantages: Good efficiency Easy to install No moving parts High turndown ratio Low pressure drop www.

each support chemistry has a unique range of available pore size distributions and stability to thermal. They are appropriate for intermediate pH. The supports can be treated for excellent stability at high temperatures to avoid agglomeration/sintering of surface metals. Alumina Balls are available in following sizes Nominal sizes . First. the active material milling itself to dust. An Active Bed Support may be used to augment alumina performance in most adsorption applications. Movement would result in irregular flow through the catalyst or absorbent bed and in some 3.Kgs (lbs): 50 to 1600 (110 . In addition to the active catalysts and absorbents.5 (100-156) Apparent porosity range .6 to 2.%: 1 to 20 Crushing strength range . In addition. Alumina / Inert Balls Alumina Supports have a wide range of surface areas and pore volumes. The hold-down and support materials are usually spheres in various sizes of either pure alumina or aluminasilicate depending on the duty. 13. each reactor requires inert hold-down and support materials above and below the catalyst or absorbent. hydrothermal. and ease of catalyst recycling.kevincpp. 37. or acidic conditions. The support material is loaded in sizegraded layers such that there is relatively large material at the bottom to minimize pressure drop between the bottom of the catalyst or absorbent bed and the gas outlet from the vessel. it stops the catalyst or absorbent particles from moving as a result of high gas velocities in the headspace of the vessel.CATALYST BED SUPPORTS CATALYST BED SUPPORTS The support chosen for a catalyst has a critical impact on catalyst activity. selectivity. if one is installed. The function of the hold-down material is twofold.Kgs/Liter (lbs/ft3): 1. These support media in these layers continues to decrease in size with the top layer being slightly smaller than the catalyst or absorbent particles to prevent mixing of the active materials into the support media. Functional Importance: The function of the support material is to provide a level surface on which the catalyst or absorbent . Each support chemistry has different tendencies towards impurities which can poison the desired reaction or enhance a competing reaction. the hold-down material provides a level of protection against any particulates in the feed stream that would poison or foul the catalyst or absorbent. The support can impart an acidic or basic environment for the active catalyst component. Secondly. The support material either fills the dished end of the reactor or rests on a support grid. 19. leading to poor performance and rising pressure drop respectively. 6. 50 Bulk density range .3525) 8 www. 25. This is topped with an additional two or more layers of smaller diameter support media approximately 10cm (4" in depth).

overlapping. An ideal distributor should have a DQ of 100%. but practical considerations restrict the DQ to about 95% maximum. The liquid flows down the packed bed by gravity and unlike a gas. Distributors also provide a separate passage for the upward flowing gas. A distributor allows liquid to be distributed over the packed bed in discrete streams. As the DQ decreases the number of stages that can be realized from a packed bed decreases. the liquid has poorer cross-mixing tendencies.LIQUID DISTRIBUTION IMPORTANCE OF LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Packed tower design is based on the fundamental concept of equal liquid and gas superficial velocity across the column section. proper irrigation of areas near the column wall becomes a very crucial factor in maintaining a good DQ. It relates the liquid flux across the column area at the top of the packed bed by marking circles proportional to the liquid flow through a particular orifice and then considering the irrigated. A low DQ indicates a high degree of maldistribution and some portions of the column cross sectional area may be receiving substantially different volumes of liquid when compared to other portions of the cross-sectional area. which generally.kevincpp. and un-irrigated areas of the circles. The pressure drop across the packing provides an impetus for the upward flowing gas to become uniformly distributed across the column area. A distributor with a very good DQ (85-95%) helps to exploit the full separation efficiency of a packed bed. the liquid profile adapts to the natural distribution tendency of the packings. thus decreasing the separation efficiency. Once liquid enters the packed bed. In large diameter columns. Distribution Quality: Quantifying the uniformity of liquid distribution is accomplished by calculating the distribution quality (DQ) of a distributor. It is therefore imperative to manage and ensure very uniform liquid distribution at the top of the bed. which perform the job of providing a finite liquid distribution over the packed 9 . the packing tends to redistribute the liquid by virtue of dispersion and after some height. Distributors are internals installed above a packed bed. This can be done either through orifices or V-weirs located on/in the distributor. is worse than the initial liquid distribution provided by the distributor. A packed bed irrigated by a very good distributor allows one to realize the full separation potential (Number of stages) of the packed bed. www. liquid distribution in packed beds tends to break down after fixed heights and liquid redistributors are provided to collect all the down flowing liquid and redirect it uniformly into the next packed bed. Because of this.

Very small orifice diameters are avoided to prevent fouling. Unless otherwise requested. so as to obtain the required DQ for a particular distributor. These distributors offer excellent uniformity and control of liquid flow to the packed bed. coking. The major advantage of using a pressure feed distributor is total wetting of the surface of the packed bed. For highly fouling services. liquid load. Major factors guiding selection of Distributor Model: Tower size and mechanical constraints Type of service Turn down ratio/Operating range Type and size of packing Vapor/Gas pressure drop requirements Riser layout to control the liquid cross flow velocity across the deck and vapor distribution across the Distributor Available method of attaching the Distributor to the column 10 www. gas risers etc. as in a pressure feed distributor. Pressure feed distributors can be categorized as either ladder arm type or spray nozzle type distributors. the orifice sizes in these distributors are usually small. and the ledge/support ring levelness are considered during the orifice sizing. such as. Design considerations for Distribution Quality include: the service and separation efficiency required from the packed bed and packing size. Orifices are sized to maintain a minimum liquid head at desired turn down conditions and to avoid distributor flooding/overflow during turn up conditions (maximum desired flow rates).com . V-weirs or orifices on the side-wall are recommended. Depending on the service. and the desired DQ. Multilevel orifices help in the distributor operation over a wide range of flows and are typically used whenever a very high turn-up/turn down range is required. Because these distributors operate under pressure. orifices on the deck floor are avoided. etc. Pressure feed distributors should not be used with flashing feeds. liquid gradient due to cross flow. During this stage of the distributor feed distributor can utilize either orifices or V-Weirs to feed the liquid. debris. design. the orifice to orifice flow variation is maintained within acceptable limits.. The orifices can be located on the floor of the deck/trough or on the side-wall of a trough (single level or multilevel). as in a gravity flow distributor. Smaller. so that even at very low flows. Passage for gas rising upwards is provided by riser boxes/pipes or through the gaps between the troughs. These distributors are used for very specific applications. where the liquid falls through the distributor by virtue of the liquid head on the distributor deck. A gravity Distribution Quality (DQ) : The drip points are laid out to meet specified drip point requirements. aeration of the liquid from falling liquid streams. High point to point flow variation and high cost are some of the disadvantages to these types of distributors. polymerization. A distributor can feed liquid to the packing top either under pressure. which can occur in processes with high levels of sediments in the feed stream. allowances are made for distributor construction details such as support beams.. Distributor levelness. the Hydraulic Design : This is the most important aspect of the distributor design wherein the designer determines the various dimensional details of the distributor to ensure its efficiency over the desired range of working conditions.kevincpp. or by gravity.LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Various factors to consider in the design of liquid distributors/redistributors are: Point Count : This indicates the number of irrigation points provided per square meter (foot) of the column area and is primarily a function of the packing size. heat transfer services. KEVIN always recommends a gravity flow distributor. highly efficient packings (that provide a very low HETP) require a larger number of drip points and vice-versa.

Gas risers located between the orifices propagate liquid cross-flow. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 600mm (24 inches) Maximum Turndown ratio 2:1 Liquid rates > 30 m3/m2. and adequate open area for upward flow of vapor.kevincpp.25 GPM/ft2) Low fouling www. Attachment is by clamping to a ledge/support ring that is welded to column wall. a wall wiper is also required. the type of attachments already present in the column. This style distributor is generally supplied in multipiece construction and all joints are sealed with gaskets. A Redistributor employs riser caps and when the attachment is to (2. (12. Attachment to the tower wall is usually achieved by bolting to tower attachment 11 . Redistributor risers are capped to prevent bypassing of liquid through the risers from liquid raining down from the packed bed above. Selection criteria: Column diameter between 150-900mm (6-36 inches) Maximum Turndown ratio 2:1 Liquid rates > 5 m3/m2. Mounting methods for the distributor will depend upon the location of other internals and in the case of revamps. sandwiched between the body flanges. it can be suspended from a ring. This distributor can be made in both single and multi-piece construction. This distributor can be provided with anti-migration bars in the risers to eliminate the requirement for a bed limiter. In multi-piece construction.0 GPM/ft2) Low fouling Riser Deck Distributor/Redistributor (Model DRD503/RRD504) The Riser Deck Distributor is a deck type distributor where orifices are located on the base/deck of the distributor. thereby enhancing distribution quality. uniformly laid out on the base of the pan for proper liquid down flow. It can also be sandwiched between body flanges. all joints are gasketed.LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Pan Type Distributor/Redistributor (Model DPC501/RPC502) This simple looking device for small towers is actually a high performance distributor consisting of critically sized orifices.

Achieving adequate sealing is critical because of the large number of joints at the sump to trough connection. The parting box helps in controlling the feed velocity to the troughs and ensures proportional distribution of the liquid. When orifices are located on the wall.75-30 m3/m2. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 250mm (10 inches) Maximum Turndown ratio 10:1 Liquid rates between 0.5-12. Orifices can be located either on the wall or on the base of the troughs.25 GPM/ft2) Low to medium fouling 12 (0. Distribution points are also located at the centerline of the distributor by providing tubes in the center of the sump. Number and location of the parting boxes will depend upon the column diameter.kevincpp.LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Trough Type Distributor With Parting Box (Model DTP505) The Trough Style Distributor consists of long tunnels called troughs. which divides it proportionately to the ( . Feed enters the sump. which is replaced by a sump. conductor tubes are provided at the wall to guide the flow of liquid. and one or more parting boxes.25 GPM/ft2) Low to medium fouling Trough Type Distributor / Redistributor With Sump (Model DTS506 / RTS507) This distributor is similar to model DTP505 except for the parting box.75-30 m3/m2. Orifices for liquid can be located either on the base or on the wall of the troughs. It can also be suspended from beams. The Trough Style Distributor usually rests on a ledge/support ring. The redistributor includes riser caps and a wall wiper. This distributor rests on a ledge/support ring. Redistributors are not available in this model. All joints are gasketed for adequate sealing.5-12. for feeding liquid to the troughs. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 250mm (10 inches) Maximum Turndown ratio 10:1 Liquid rates between 0. thus providing excellent liquid seal. The advantage of a parting box is the absence of joints. The space between the troughs is available for vapor passage.

Flow multipliers are used below each orifice to increase the drip point density.0-120 m /m .LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Trough Type Distributor / Redistributor with End Closure (Model DTE508 / RTE509) This style Distributor consists of long risers that are made from the deck itself. The orifices are laid either in square pitch or triangular pitch on the deck.25 GPM/ft2) Medium fouling V-Weir Distributor (Model DVW512) V-Weir distributors are used when the fouling tendency of the system is high. At the end of the tubes.5:1 Low fouling tendency Deck Type Distributor / Redistributor with Flow Point Multipliers (Model DDM510/RDM511) This Deck Type Distributor is primarily used in very low liquid flow service. This style distributor is clamped to or rested on a ledge/ support ring.5-100 m3/m2. the liquid and the gas share the same flow area. A wide turn down range is possible due to the weirs. This distributor is clamped on a ledge/support ring. This distributor is clamped to a ledge/support ring.kevincpp.8-50 GPM/ft ) 3 2 2 Maximum Turndown ratio 2. These distributors provide a low quality of distribution compared to other (12. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 300mm (12 inches) Liquid rates: 2. Tubes are welded (1. and extend below the deck. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 250mm (12 inches) Maximum Turndown ratio 3:1 Liquid rates < 30 m3/m2. which permit greater flow rates as liquid head increases. The gas velocity through the risers usually limits the maximum flow rate of this style distributor. Selection criteria: Column diameter > 300mm (12 inches) Liquid rates between 2. With this style distributor. Construction is similar to the Riser Deck Distributor except that the orifices are located on the wall of the tubes instead of the distributor deck. giving it a trough type look with end closure plates for liquid balancing between the troughs. liquid is divided into three or more streams by means of flow point 13 .0-40 GPM/ft2) High fouling (0. V-Weir Distributors are made either in pan construction (for small columns) or deck/trough construction (for larger columns).

com .25 GPM/ft2) Low fouling 14 www. the individual laterals may also be clamped to column wall clips.kevincpp. It can also handle low liquid flow rates.LIQUID DISTRIBUTION Spray Nozzle Distributor (Model DSN513) As the name (0. The quality of distribution is somewhat inferior compared to orifice type distributors because the spray cones create areas of uneven irrigation and a significant amount of liquid is directed toward the tower wall. and applications where a large vapor handling capacity is most important.5-120 m3/m2. It is generally used for shallow beds in heat transfer applications. The main header is flanged at one end and clamped to a column wall clip at the opposite end. Depending on the column (1. this style distributor consists of spray nozzles arranged on pipe assembly. It does not provide very high distribution quality. It requires very little column height and provides high open area resulting in very low vapor pressure drop. in scrubbing services. The main header is flanged at one end and clamped to a column wall clip at the opposite end. Selection criteria: Liquid rates: 0. and thus.0-25 m3/m2.2-50 GPM/ft2) Pipe Arm Distributor (Model DPA514) This is a very simple distributor consisting of a header and a lateral assembly. has limited applications. Selection criteria: Liquid rates: 4.

or gaseous feeds. but it may require slightly more tower height. matching the hydraulic requirements of the distributor to prevent excessive turbulence and control the horizontal flow velocity in the distributor. vapor channeling can become a serious problem. The model LFP 541/542 is attached to an internal column flange and/or by tower wall clips. either as feed or as reflux. operation range. The feeds being introduced could be: Liquid only Liquid & vapor above a packed bed (flashing or suppressed flash) Vapor only below a packed bed Reboiler returns Liquid-only feed devices are required to introduce liquid into the column. The kinetic energy of the vapor and its composition at the point of introduction are the two main factors considered in designing the vapor entry device. etc. lateral branches and down pipes. Liquid Feed Pipe (Model LFP541/ LFP542) The model 541 feed pipe is a piping system of headers. which in turn feeds a distributor. The liquid is fed into/onto the distributor and its design depends on the distributor type. www. the packings themselves tend to mix the vapors. The model LFP542 feed system employs a feed pipe which feeds a parting box or a calming box. desired turndown. the type of flow at feed (flashing or suppressed). If the column offers adequate pressure drop. The primary design factors are the feed flow 15 . Each feed pipe meters flow to one or more appropriate feed areas. For liquid and vapor feed devices above a distributor. Vapor only feed devices are required for reboiler returns or to introduce vapor feed. liquid flow. separating the two phases is of primary importance. column height needed for flashing vapor distribution.kevincpp. In event of very low pressure drop across the packed beds. It can operate over a wider range of flow rates as compared to the model LFP 541.FEED DEVICES FEED DEVICES Processes demand various feeds to be introduced into the column at appropriate locations. degree of sub-cooling. and mixing of the inlet liquid with overhead liquid. and is used when liquid is fed from outside the column onto a distributor/redistributor.

The feed enters through a radial inlet and is centrifuged in the chamber with the vapors coming out of the top. Liquid is then fed to a distributor or into pre-distributor (parting box). Our Flash Feed Galleries are typically seal welded after installation but fully gasketed construction is also available. This model is recommended in towers > 900mm (36 inches) ID. and the liquid flows to the outer chamber where it is fed to the distributor/pre-distributor below. The compact design of this model makes good use of available tower height. It is capable of handling any liquid to vapor feed ratio. The inside of gallery may be round or polygonal. This device is constructed in one . typically < 1200 mm (48 inches) ID. the vapors are released from the upper area of the pipe. Alternately.kevincpp. Flashing Feed Pipe (Model FFP545) The model 545 Flashing Feed Pipe is used to separate two phase feed when the inlet flow is in a separated flow region. The model can be attached to an internal column flange and further supported by the tower wall clips. 16 www. The model 545 is connected to an internal tower flange and is commonly supported by a tower wall clip. Flash Feed Chamber (Model FFC544) The model 544 Flash Feed Chamber is a two phase feed device used in small columns. multi-piece construction with gasketing can be supplied. A gallery below provides the residence time necessary to disengage the gas and the liquid.FEED DEVICES Flash Feed Gallery (Model FFG543) The model 543 Flash Feed Gallery is a two phase feed device fed by a tangential inlet tower nozzle or a radial nozzle with a flow deflector. the two-phase flow enters center pipe. Here. the model 544 is constructed in one piece. multi-piece construction is used for larger towers. The gallery is clamped to a ledge/support ring. Disengaged liquid is fed from the bottom of the Flashing Feed Chamber to a distributor/pre-distributor below. For towers between 250-530mm (10-20 inches) ID. provided access diameter is sufficient.

This distributor works by creating a pressure drop on the gas phase. It can have screwed or flanged connections and be supported using an internal pipe flange and/or wall clips. www. This distributor is supplied with liquid downpipes or a sump for removal of the liquid. Engineering Export Promotion Council for outstanding export performance. This distributor will consume some pressure drop in the vapor.kevincpp. This style distributor has construction details similar to Pipe Arm Distributor (Model DPA514) except vapor flows through the orifices in place of liquid.015 0. and is supported by a ledge/ support ring. Mid-span support beams may be required in large columns. The inlet flow and the required pressure drop determine the operating range. Vapor Distributor Plate (Model VDP547) The model 547 Vapor Distributor Plate is used when vapor enters the bottom of a column with a very high kinetic energy. Typical applications include introduction of a vapor feed into the column or introduction of vapor into the bottom of larger diameter columns. ensuring equal amounts of vapor flow from all orifices.FEED DEVICES Vapor Feed Distributor (Model VFD546) The model 546 pipe arm Vapor Distributor is used when a Vapor Feed requires uniform distribution over the tower area to ensure a uniform mix with the existing column vapor and to minimize the possibility of liquid/vapor channeling through packed beds. reduce its kinetic energy. SOME FACTS ABOUT OUR WORLDWIDE EXPORT RECOGNITION: Recognized by Ministry of Commerce (Government of India) ‘Star Export House' for exemplary export performance. and ensure good distribution below the packed bed. The pressure drop across this distributor can be anywhere between 100-1000 Pa (0. is gasketed. The model 547 is available in any weldeable sheet metal. An operating range of 4:1 is generally achievable. Awarded a certificate from M/ 17 .145 psi).

Liquid volume and residence time are controlled by utilizing tall risers (round) on the tray deck. or for pump-around sections Partial draw-off of liquid with overflow of the remaining liquid continuing down the tower Collection of liquid for mixing Collector trays come in different design styles to meet the needs of specific applications. spanning across the annular sump to reduce liquid gradients. both sides. This collector can provide 25 to 40% open area. Vane Collector Tray (Model VCT552) The model 552 is used in towers that process high vapor loads and low liquid loads (vacuum service). and are fastened to clips provided on the sump. one or more collection troughs are added. or across the center to facilitate liquid withdrawal.COLLECTOR / CHIMNEY TRAYS COLLECTOR / CHIMNEY TRAYS Liquid collection between packed beds is frequently required. to provide the feed to a reboiler. The sump is welded to tower wall and is generally supplied by the column vendor as a tower attachment. The deck and optional sump(s) rest on a ledge/tray support ring and the plate is seal-welded. Gas risers can be made in sections/pieces to allow installation through a manhole where they can be subsequently welded to the seal welded deck. The vanes rest on an annular sump. It also minimizes entrainment. Factors considered in the design of collector trays include: Height required/available for the collector tray Column pressure (Vacuum) and permissible pressure drop (to determine the required open area) Liquid and vapor loads and densities Column diameter Liquid draw-off quantity Liquid Collector Tray (Model LCT551) This deck type liquid collector is very versatile and can be used in all towers.kevincpp. Liquid collectors are used in three main applications: For total draw-off of liquid as a product. even at high vapor rates as is common with traditional gas risers in this type of service. Sumps can be added on one side. 18 www. The vane blades collect the overhead liquid and direct it into an annular . Mid-span support beams are required in large columns > 2000mm (78 inches) ID. It offers minimal pressure drop and it can provide open areas from 40-75%. For larger towers and high liquid rates. which may then be drawn from the tower or fed to a distributor below using an appropriate feeding system.

SUPPORT PLATES SUPPORT PLATES Support plates are provided to physically support the cumulative weight of the random/structured packings and the operating “liquid hold-up” in the packed bed. All support plates rest directly on a ledge/support ring since the weight of the packing is usually sufficient to keep the support plate in place. support plates are supported using I-beams in conjunction with a tray support ring.kevincpp. Special variants of this support plate are available to handle very tall beds. thus reducing pressure drop across the support plate. Factors that influence the choice and design of the support plate include the column diameter. These are the preferred type of random packing support plate and are used in majority of process applications. Support Plate (Model SPL521) Model SPL521 is a gas injection type support plate designed for random packed beds in towers generally greater than 900mm (36 inches) diameter. If required 19 . The beams are made in single units that pass through a manhole. liquid hold up. This is typically done for services where pressure surges may dislodge a packed bed. design loads (mechanical and hydraulic). Support plates are shaped and designed to provide maximum open area and minimal pressure drop. they can be clamped to the support ring. KEVIN can supply support plates in metal or thermo plastic materials. It is designed for higher mechanical strength. packing type. provide separate pathways for gas and liquid. Gas injection support plates used extensively in random packed beds. www. The model SPL521 Gas Injection Support Plate is also available in most metals and in thermo plastic materials. and system corrosivity. In such cases. An available light duty support plate is used only for very small columns and where mechanical and hydraulic loading is not severe. Very tall beds together with larger column diameters result in higher mechanical loads.

Support Plate (Model SPS523) Model SPS523 is a support plate recommended for towers generally smaller than 900mm (36 inches) diameter. These support plates rest freely or can be clamped to a ledge/support ring. These support plates rest freely on. It is designed to allow free passage of gas and liquid. The slot size is based on the size of packing to be supported. a ledge support ring Support Grid (Model SGS524) Model SGS524 is a support grid used in towers for supporting structured packing. These support plates rest freely on a ledge/support ring or can be bolted/clamped directly to a tray support ring. or can be clamped/bolted to. support grids are supported using I-beams in conjunction with a tray support ring.kevincpp. This type of support plate is designed using expanded metal and is constructed as a multipiece or single piece unit depending on the column opening that will be available to install it.SUPPORT PLATES Support Plate (Model SPM522) Model SPM522 is a gas injection type support plate designed for towers generally smaller than 900mm (36 inches) diameter. In such . Very tall beds together with larger column diameters result in higher mechanical loads. 20 www. This type of support plate is designed in multi-piece or single piece construction depending upon whether the support plate will be installed through a column manway or through a column body flange.

This eliminates the need for a ledge/support ring and maintains good distribution near the column 21 . In cases where the bed limiter may be located below a high performance distributor. In place of bed limiters. Hold-down plates are used for ceramic and carbon packings. anti migration bars may also be used at the bottom of the gas risers of a distributor. The normal bed limiter is clamped on to a ledge/support ring. Bed limiters are used for metal and plastic random packings as well as structured packings. the bed limiter construction can be made expandable. It is designed to withstand an upward thrust. Bed limiters are designed to provide high open-area and reduce interference to liquid flow. They should be designed to withstand upward forces acting on the packed bed. They can also be suspended on tie rods from the liquid distributor. They do not prevent fluidization of the bed but prevent the random packing elements from being blown up through the gas risers. The opening size can be varied to suit various packing sizes and the beams can be designed to support a prescribed man-load.kevincpp. with jack screws provided to tighten on the column wall. www.BED LIMITERS BED LIMITERS Bed limiters and hold down plates are retaining devices used above packed beds to prevent fluidization and restrict packing movement. Bed Limiter For Random Packing (Model BLR531) This bed limiter is normally recommended for metal and plastic random packings. which can occur during upset conditions. They are fastened to the column wall by means of a support ring or bolting clips. They rest directly on packings and prevent packings from breaking up due to fluidization when operated at high pressure drops or during temporary surges.

Hold Down Plate (Model HDP533) Hold down plates rest directly on the tower packings and are normally recommended for ceramic and carbon random packings or where no tray support ring is available. in oil & Gas sector Export rules liberalized and identified as a national priority Globally competitive quality & cost structures 22 www. Bed limiters for structured packings are designed to reduce interference with liquid distribution. the distributor is provided with an integral retention plate. but for large diameter columns. Hold-down plates are held in place by providing weight bars and do not require any type of clamping arrangement. sections of packings may be dislodged during upset conditions. The opening size can be varied to suit various packing sizes and the beams can be designed to support a prescribed man-load. thereby eliminating need for separate bed . The major advantage of using this type of movable. For smaller columns. They are bolted to the column wall by vertical clips.BED LIMITERS Bed Limiter For Structured Packing (Model BLS532) This bed limiter is normally recommended for towers using structured packings. The emerging INDIA Business Destination for the world: SOME FACTS: Geographically well located to serve upcoming markets Large pool of skilled work force One of the largest pool of engineers available Globally acknowledged IT skills Excellent understanding of International codes Base of major engineering and Inspection companies Proficiency in English & is the official business language Mature Process industry: Fortune 500 cos. anti-migration screen is to reduce the crushing of tower packing during surges or bed expansions.kevincpp. Fluidization does not occur with structured packings.

5m).com 23 . The bottom bed is supported by a conventional support plate (see models SPL521 or SPM522). one of the liquids is the continuous phase and the other is dispersed phase. Depending on the process. the same bed depth recommendations apply as with light-phase dispersement. When multiple beds are required.liquid contactor cannot be predicted.kevincpp. each supported by a model 561. feed which enters the top of the tower. Multiple beds. and exits the column at the bottom. feed which enters the bottom of the tower.liquid contactors to facilitate mass transfer.LIQUID EXTRACTION INTERNALS FOR LIQUID – LIQUID EXTRACTION Packing is used in counter-current liquid . and which is dispersed. In addition to supporting the packing. is dispersed. Because the droplets tend to coalesce in the packing. light and heavy. beds are typically limited to a depth of 6 to 8 ft (1. The model 562. enters at the bottom of the tower. the model 561 provides maximum initial contact area between the two phases. the model 562 disperser plate is used above the top bed. In contactors where the light phase. www. In breaking the dispersed liquid into small droplets. When the heavy phase. collect. Surfactants may alter surface properties to the extent that the performance of a liquid . are recommended where a total of more than 8ft (2. to the disperser are recommended to control velocity. packed beds are supported by the model 561 disperser support plate. The lighter phase on the other hand.LIQUID . the use of feed pipes for directing the feed. The heavier phase is introduced from the top. In heavy phase dispersed contactors. and exits the column at the top. although structurally different.5m) of packing is required. The exception to this rule is when the higher volumetric flow rate phase has higher viscosity or preferentially wets the packing surface. In all cases. the plates allow proper dispersion or formation of small droplets that rise through the continuous phase. is dispersed. flows upward. Special internals are used to introduce the two liquid phases. especially the dispersed phase. flows downward. is hydraulically inverted when compared to the model 561. Selection and arrangement of the internals depends on which phase (light or heavy) is continuous. and disperse the heavy phase to the beds below.5 to 2. It is generally recommended to disperse the phase with the higher flow rate to generate maximum interfacial contact. the model 562 is also used to support the upper beds.

Downcomer tubes allow the heavy phase to travel downward through the plate. and differential densities. A special feed pipe arrangement (model 564). is recommended to feed the dispersed phase to the model 561. is recommended to feed the disperser. The light phase forms a pool or a coalesced layer under the plate and orifices generate droplets. Similarly. 24 www. Tube restrictors of different sizes are used to prevent the packing from falling through the heavier phase downpipes. The plate design depends on interfacial surface tension. Tube restrictors of different sizes are used to prevent the packing from passing upward through the riser pipes for the lighter phase. viscosity. a special feed pipe is also provided for the entry of the continuous heavier phase at the top of the bed. It serves the twin purposes of a disperser and a support plate.kevincpp.LIQUID EXTRACTION Light Phase Disperser / Support Plate (Model LLE561-LP) A special feed pipe arrangement (model 563). must be located at the bottom of the packed bed. Re-disperser plates are provided for multi-bed . The plate design depends on interfacial surface tension. The heavy phase forms a pool or a coalesced layer above the plate and orifices generate droplets. It serves the purpose of only a disperser plate and a separate standard packing support plate must be used to support the packed bed. This plate also acts as a re-disperser and a support plate in multi-bed towers. A special feed pipe is also recommended for the entry of the continuous lighter phase at the bottom of the bed. which ensures no flow of the heavier phase through the light phase riser tubes. and differential densities. This plate is supported by a full ledge/support ring. Riser tubes allow the light phase to travel upward through the plate. Heavy Phase Disperser / Support Plate (Model LLE562-HP) This model is used when the heavier phase is dispersed (the lighter phase is continuous) and is located at the top of the packed bed.LIQUID . This plate is supported by a full ledge/support ring and is designed to support the packings. which ensures no flow of the lighter phase through the heavier phase downcomer tubes. This model is used when the lighter phase is dispersed (the heavier phase is continuous) and therefore. viscosity.

e. liquid and vapor feed inlet devices etc) that will be fabricated from non-metallic materials. TFM. FEP etc. etc. These internals are designed to provide optimum performance and operating conditions. various types of distributors and collector trays. support plates. distributors. ECTFE.) out of FRP & its composites.FRP BED LIMITER . KEVIN can also provide engineered designs (hydraulic and mechanical design) for any packed tower internals (i. We can also review the column drawings and tower attachments required for nonmetallic 25 . CPVC. packing supports. These internals can be supplied up to a column diameter of 7000mm (23 feet).FRP SUMP TROUGH TYPE LIQUID DISTRIBUTOR .PLASTIC INTERNALS PLASTIC INTERNALS We have the ability to supply tower internals (i. LIQUID FEED PIPE .e. PVC. Major advantages of plastic internals are their lightweight construction and chemical resistance. bed limiters. PVDF.FRP www. bed limiters.FRP SUPPORT PLATE .kevincpp. with thermoplastic liners such as PP.

Trays are available in segmental or cartridge type construction to suit our customer's requirements. which rise above the deck to allow passage of vapor.5mm KFV2 .deck thk.deck thk.5mm The orifice on the deck is generally sharp edged. They provide higher tray efficiencies and higher capacity when compared to bubble cap trays and higher turndown ratios when compared to sieve trays. As the valve already has a fixed open position. There are two types of valves. > .kevincpp. However. They are mainly used in high-pressure distillation operations. The cage serves to prevent the valve from dislodging during process operations. A Venturi shaped orifice is provided where lower pressure drop is desirable. Dimples on the edges of the valve prevent them from laying completely flat on the tray deck when in the closed position. and vacuum operations where trayed towers are used. The selection of either type of valve will depend on the thickness of the tray deck. Both of these valves can also be provided with an anti-spin feature to prevent erosion of the deck opening and/or valve legs. there are a few atmospheric. Valve Trays Valve trays are flat perforated plates with downcomers where the perforations are covered by discs called valves.FRACTIONATION TRAYS FRACTIONATION TRAYS Trays are used in mass transfer operations where pressure drop limitations are not critical. hence this arrangement reduces pressure drop. A venturi shaped orifice is provided where lower pressure drop is desirable. < 3. which rises with vapor but has no legs. Valve trays offer many advantages over other conventional trays. the difference being leg lengths. which are embossed from the tray deck. KFV1 . there is no loss of energy associated with valve lifting.These are circular floating valves. This disc is enclosed in a four-legged rectangular cage that is installed onto the tray deck over the valve. Fixed Valves (KHV) KEVIN High Capacity valves are the Fixed Valves. Valves are available in various designs to meet different process requirements. TYPES OF VALVES : Floating Valves (KFV1 & KFV2) . moderate pressure. Further it's geometry allows directional flow which prevents liquid stagnation on the trays. Caged Valves (KCV3) Caged valves also contain a circular disc. 26 www.

Standard Bubble cap models available are: KBC. for mass transfer equipment. for their proprietary Baffle Trays. Bubble Cap Trays Bubble cap trays consist of risers for vapor on the deck that are covered by caps. The major advantages of sieve trays are low maintenance costs and low fouling tendencies when compared to valve and bubble cap trays. in the very near future. Sieve trays have good efficiency and moderate capacity but have limited turndown capabilities.2 KBC. M/s. USA for their proprietary Ripple® Trays.kevincpp. including very low turndown rates.4 Tray Hardware We also maintain a larger inventory of various types of valves and hardware for emergency delivery during your planned or unplanned shutdown. www. Look for KEVIN Hardware trailers. UOP. The riser cap assembly prevents weeping even at very low flow rates. Engineers India Ltd. Stone & Webster. These caps are essentially inverted cups with slots around the perimeter that allow for mixing of vapor from the riser into the liquid on the tray deck. M/s. which can be set on site during your turnaround. Caps are available in many sizes and 27 . WE ARE ALSO APPROVED SUB-CONTRACTORS FOR MANUFACTURE AND SUPPLY FOR: M/s. UK for their proprietary MD™/ EC-MD™ Trays. Aker Kvaerner Process Systems Ltd. M/s.FRACTIONATION TRAYS Sieve Trays These are flat perforated trays with downcomers where vapor rises through the holes on the deck and liquid flows across the tray and comes down through the downcomer. This permits bubble cap trays to operate over a wide range of conditions.

including high performance distributors/redistributors. fractionator or extractor. Our in.SERVICES SERVICES Feasibility Study Kevin Enterprises is equipped to carry out complete feasibility studies for new and revamp projects. This permits our mechanical engineers to prepare flawless fabrication and shop detail drawings resulting in fewer drawings revisions and world-class product quality. high capacity valve trays. hydraulic design of engineering and manufacturing capabilities promote efficient lines of communication between our mechanical and production departments. stripper. We have experience in designing and drafting various types of packed column internals and trays. Design & Drafting The availability of modern design software allows us to perform design and drafting services for any type of mass transfer equipment. 28 www. and more. and preparation of preliminary General Arrangement drawings for columns. baffle . our vast experience in varied industries has helped us develop a strong database in various mass transfer applications. Whether it is the design or rating of an absorber. The range of service includes process simulation. chimney trays.kevincpp.

We aim to provide quick and reliable solutions to unforeseen problems that may arise during installation. Our service is not limited to equipment designed and supplied by KEVIN.SERVICES / TECHNICAL APPENDIX Site Installation We also provide installation services for packings. Our mass production manufacturing capabilities for components such as packings. valves. Installation consulting services are available upon request when installation of KEVIN Mass Transfer products is performed by others. TECHNICAL APPENDIX Performance Curves For Medal-Pak Note: Refer below graphs . etc. Troubleshooting You can rely on KEVIN for guidance on any design related 29 . trays and internals. Please contact your KEVIN Sales Representative for more details related to this service. will ensure that your typical emergency replenishment requirements can be met during planned and unplanned 102 103 www.all KGa values are experimentally determined by the absorption of 1% in CO2 in air in a 4% NaOH solution Mass Transfer Coefficient [KGa] for Medal-Pak Family 10 2 Medal-Pak # 25 Medal-Pak # 40 Medal-Pak # 50 Medal-Pak # 70 100 101 Liquid rate m3/m2.

5 : : : : : : 0m3/ 101 100 100 Fs : [ m/ 49m3/ 10m3/ 147m3/m2.(Kg/m3)0.(Kg/m ) ] 3 171m3/ 73m3/ 49m3/ 44m3/m2.5 Air Water Pressure Drop Data | Medal-Pak # 40 10 Pressure 36. DP : (mm of water / m) 3 102 M S P N K H G F C B A A : B : C : F : G : H : K : M: N : P : S : 0m3/ 25m3/m2. DP : (mm of water / m) K M 102 H G F C B A A : B : C : F : G : H : K : M: 0m3/ .hr 98m3/ 220m3/m2. (Kg/m ) ] 3 98m3/ 100 -1 10 Air Water Pressure Drop Data | Medal-Pak # 25 Pressure 10m3/ 147m3/ 25m3/ 10m3/m2.5m3/ 74m3/ 25m3/ 101 -1 10 100 Fs : [ m/ 122m3/m2.TECHNICAL APPENDIX Air Water Pressure Drop Data | Medal-Pak # 15 103 Pressure 49m3/ 196m3/m2. DP : (mm of water / m) C 102 F ED B A 101 A B C D E F 100 Fs : [ m/ 122m3/m2.5] 30 www.

TECHNICAL APPENDIX Air Water Pressure Drop Data | Medal-Pak # 50 103 Pressure 196m3/ 171m3/ 98m3/ 10m3/ 73m3/m2. DP : (mm of water / m) P 10 2 N M H G F C B A A : B : C : F : G : H : M: N : P : 0m3/ 74m3/ 101 10 -1 10 0 100 Fs : [ m/s.5 Air Water Liquid Holdup Data | Medal-Pak #25 10 Liquid Holdup : Volume Fraction Water 0 10-1 A B C D E 104 Liquid rate : kg / (m .hr 49m3/ 31 .(Kg/m3) 25m3/ 2 E D C B A 10-2 3 10 105 106 : : : : : 0mm WC/m 42mm WC/m 83mm WC/m 125mm WC/m 167mm WC/m 147m3/ 98m3/ 171m3/ 196m3/ 49m3/ 220m3/ 147m3/m2. (Kg/m ) ] 3 25m3/m2. DP : (mm of water / m) N 102 S P M K H G F C A A : C : F : G : H : K : M: N : P : S : 0m3/ 112m3/ 101 100 10-1 100 Fs : [ m/s.5] Air Water Pressure Drop Data | Medal-Pak # 70 103 Pressure drop.

hr) 2 : : : : : 0mm WC/m 42mm WC/m 83mm WC/m 125mm WC/m 167mm WC/m 10 3 10 -2 105 106 32 www.kevincpp.TECHNICAL APPENDIX Air Water Liquid Holdup Data | Medal-Pak #40 100 Liquid Holdup : Volume Fraction Water 10-1 E D C B A 10-2 3 10 104 Liquid rate : kg / (m .hr) 2 A B C D E 105 106 : : : : : 0mm WC/m 42mm WC/m 83mm WC/m 125mm WC/m 167mm WC/m Air Water Liquid Holdup Data | Medal-Pak #50 100 Liquid Holdup : Volume Fraction Water 10-1 E D C B A A B C D E 104 Liquid rate : kg / (m .hr) 2 : : : : : 0mm WC/m 42mm WC/m 83mm WC/m 125mm WC/m 167mm WC/m 10 3 10 -2 105 106 Air Water Liquid Holdup Data | Medal-Pak #70 10 Liquid Holdup : Volume Fraction Water 0 10-1 E D C B A A B C D E 104 Liquid rate : kg / (m .com .

India Mangalore Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd.France Gujarat Narmada Valley Fertilizer Corp.END USERS Air Liquide .Oman Petrobras . Ltd. .South Africa Saudi Aramco . . .India Sasol Synfuels (Pty) Ltd. .Australia Chang Chun Petrochemicals .Spain Zuari Agro Chemicals Ltd.USA Formosa Chemical Industries (NINGBO) Ltd.China Eastman Chemical Singapore Pvt.USA Chippewa Valley Engineering Corporation .India Technip KTI . .Japan Mitsui Chemicals .India Dairen Chemicals . .Taiwan Gas Authority of India Ltd.Taiwan Cheminova .Malaysia QAFCO .India Thai Caprolactum .India OMIFCO . Ltd. Ltd.T.India Burrup Fertilizers .Japan Narmada Chematur Petrochemicals Ltd.Japan Sembawang .Brazil Petronas .China Formosa Plastics .USA Singapore Syngas . .Singapore Tata Chemicals .Brazil Asean Bintulu Fertilizers .India Hismelt Kwinana .USA Corromandel Fertilizers . .India Indo Gulf Fertilizers Ltd.India Godrej Ltd. .India Some companies using KEVIN supplied equipment include : www.Singapore Exxon Mobil . .Malaysia Bahrain Petroleum Company .USA Aracruz .India Mitsubhishi Chemicals . Ltd.India Gujarat State Fertilizer Corp.Singapore Shell Oils . .Thailand Air Products .Qatar Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd.India Grande Paroisse .com 33 .India Haldia Petrochemicals Limited .India Hindustan Petroleum Corp. .E. Regasagunto .Japan Indian Oil Corp.Bahrain Bharat Petroleum Corp.Thailand U.Denmark Chevron .Russia Kochi Refineries . . .India Numaligarh Refineries .India Indian Petrochemicals Ltd.India Reliance Industries Ltd.Australia Idemitsu .Saudi Arabia Seibu Oils .India JSC Acron .Japan Mitsui Phenol . .kevincpp. . .India National Organic Chemical Industries .

11 Street No. 10 Website : www.Plot No.400 093 India : +91-(0) 22-2835 3498 +91-(0) 22-2832 2484 Fax : +91-(0) 22-2836 4839 E-mail : Tel . Andheri (E) Mumbai .