You are on page 1of 79

It is said that behind every successful man, there is a woman…… Thanks to the woman behind me……….

who is my biggest critic, cheer leader, support, guide & friend.

PLCC Protection coupler
Basic Concepts & Demonstration

S.V. Kulkarni DyEE PLCC MSETCL Pune

PLCC Protection coupler
• • • • • Visit to Learning center PLCC PLCC introduction PLCT PLCC outdoor equipment Coupling schemes 30 min 15 min. 15 min. 15 min. 15 min. 15 min 15 min. 15 min. 15 min. 15 min. 30 min.

• Tea Break • • • • • Conventional & CAP NSD 50 Transmitter & Receiver G4AA G4AC QA Protection coupler demo

– Express agreements. – Express love. – Learn/ Teach – Share knowledge – Communico (Latin) .To communicate is Human Nature • We communicate to – Convey feelings.

PLCC & OPGW .

Data & protection signal transmission. .The PLCC is a technology which uses power line as physical media for speech.

PLCC Network .

Exercise Look at the pictures & write their names .

PLCC Indoor & Outdoor equipment .

Power Line Carrier Terminal • PLCT converts a input signal of 4 KHz bandwidth to the RF signal & amplifies this signal to the desired output power levels up to 40 watts. • The RF range in PLCC system is 50 KHz to 500 KHz .

.Modulation & Demodulation • Modulation is a technique used to convert a low freq signal( information signal) to a higher freq signal ( modulated signal) using high freq signal (carrier) • Demodulation is the opposite technique where information signal is extracted from the carrier. • Modulation & Demodulation requires Carrier frequency which is generated in PLCT.

PLCC Panel ( type: ABB ETL 41/42) Cabinet Modules .

.

( 428/456 U KHz) Or (96/92 U KHz) ( 232/108 UL KHz) Or 480/ 488 UL KHz Tx Rx Rx Rx Tx Tx Frequency space 4 + 4 = 8 KHz required Frequency space 4 + 4 +4 +4 = 16 KHz required .

Music 15 KHz. TV 6 MHz BW .Telephone Bandwidth • 1000 Hz • 2000 Hz • 3000 Hz • 4000 Hz • 5000 Hz • 6000 Hz Human voice 4 KHz.

488-492 K BW 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 =16KHz .96 KHz Rx Tx Frequency Spectrum BW 4+4= 8 KHz Tx Tx Rx Rx U KHz Tx band – 480-484 K Rx band.Single Channel ABB Make ETL 41 PLCC Panel ( 96/92 U KHz) Adjacent Frequency Twin Channel ABB Make ETL 42 PLCC Panel ( 480/488 UL KHz) Adjacent Frequency L KHz U KHz Tx band – 476-480 K Rx band.484-488 K Tx band – 96-100 KHz Rx band – 92.

108-112 K Tx Tx + 4 + 4 + 4 =16KHz .Single Channel ABB Make ETL 41 PLCC Panel ( 428/456 U KHz) Separate Frequency Twin Channel ABB Make ETL 42 PLCC Panel ( 232/108 UL KHz) Separate Frequency L KHz U KHz Tx band – 228-232 K Rx band.104-108 K Tx band – 428-432 KHz Rx band – 456-460 KHz Tx Rx Frequency Spectrum BW 4+4= 8 KHz Rx BW 4 Rx U KHz Tx band – 232-236 K Rx band.

Single channel Maximum 56 no. of PLCC panels for 50 to 500 KHz range Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx Tx / Rx .

of PLCC panels for 50 to 500 KHz range Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II Tx/Rx I Tx/Rx II .Twin channel Maximum 28 no.

fm .Modulating signal Speech Data Protection Carrier Amplitude Modulated Signal AM signal fc + fm fm fc fc fc .

Modulating signal Speech Data Protection Carrier Amplitude Modulated Signal fm1 Channel I Input signal fc Carrier signal Lower Sideband f c – f m 1 Carrier & USB removed fm2 Channel II Input signal fc Carrier signal Upper Sideband f c – f m 2 Carrier & LSB removed .

T x R x Amplitude Modulated Signal Speech signal fm Protection signal fm T x fc + fm AM fc signal R x Data Signal fm Carrier fc fc .fm .

PLCC Applications .

The corresponding PLCT at the other end will be designated for the reverse value of Tx/Rx freq.PLCC link • • • • PLCT are used as a pair one at each end Each PLCT is designated for a set of Tx & Rx freq. These freq may be Separate Or Adjacent. will be either in 4 KHz or 8 KHz BW depending upon single ch or Twin ch. • The ch freq. .

Protection Frequency Guard Frequency Pilot Frequency Carrier Frequency Data Freq. . Dial Freq. Speech Freq.

Data frequency band ______________________KHz .Exercise 7.

Main HF cable & HF loop connection. .Exercise Hints – 1. Selection of Blocking band of LMU 4. Selection of Pass band of LMU 3.Type & Frequency of PLCT 2. Make . PLCC Phase to phase coupling 5.

Engineering & common sense… • • • • Mode 1 coupling Center ph to Outer ph (No Mode 3) Center ph to Ground ( No mode 2) Outer ph to outer ph with Ground return (No mode 2) • Outer ph to Ground ( All 3 modes) .Coupling schemes--Economic .

PLCC Coupling LT LT Cc LT PLC LMU Cc Cc LT LT PLC LMDU LMU Phase-to-Ground PLC Cc Cc LMDU LMU Inter circuit Phase-to-Phase .

of conductors involved in the propagation. .Modal analysis • Modal analysis is a mathematical tool similar to symmetrical components used for analyzing unbalanced faults on three ph power system. 3 nodes in the case of a single circuit line with 2 earth wires earthed at each tower. • It can be shown that no. reflection free three ph line. • The ph conductor V or I can be resolved into 3 sets of natural mode components at any point on a lossy. of natural Nodes is equal to the no. • For example.

Mode distribution for a 3 ph line Mode 3 is the highest attenuated mode & more frequency dependent has Mode 1 is least attenuated & least is propagated on all 3 phases & returns& via the ground dependent more attenuation than Mode1 frequency .

Mode components for various types of coupling a) Center phase to Ground coupling b) Outer phase to Ground coupling c) Center to Outer Push Pull coupling d) Outer to Outer Push push coupling .

Protection .

Main I. Main II Substation B Substation A Zone 1 (A) Zone 1 (A & B) Zone 2 (B)  Conductor snapping  Tree fault  Bird fault Zone 1 (B) Zone 2 (A) In case of 400 KV line.M II should be operated simultaneously. . Main I & Main II are parallel commands. M I .Line Fault …PUTT…Distance relay( 21).

.Substation Fault…Direct Trip Protection Substation A  Over Voltage  LBB  Reactor Protection  Busbar  Hand trip Substation B  86ROV all commands are routed through 86ROV except Hand trip  85 LO receive command is routed through 85LO relay.

Conventional 3 Zone Protection Distance Relay 21 Distance Relay 21 400 220 Z1 Z2 Z3 0 0 300 400 500 700 .

Carrier aided Protection Distance Relay 21 Protection Coupler Protection Coupler Distance Relay 21 .

Trip logic Conventional & Carrier aided protection .

Carrier Aided Protection .

.Carrier aided Protection • In the absence of communication link. • Carrier aided protection scheme is used for simultaneous tripping of near & far end circuit breakers • Protection Coupler equipments can be used along with PLCC terminals for Tele protection requirements. the operation of End zone fault is longer & auto reclosing is not possible.

21 .Protection Coupler ABB Make NSD 50 (Full version) DSP Card G4AA Relay Interface 1 G4AC Relay Interface 2 G4AC DSP Opto coupler Alarm Contact Solid state C Solid state C Opto coupler Opto coupler Alarm Contact Solid state C Slot no. 10 Slot no. 15 Opto coupler Solid state C Slot no.

Protection coupler At S/s A Protection coupler At S/s B Distance Relay 21 Opto coupler 85X Solid state Contact Alarm Contact Alarm Contact .

Protection coupler At S/s A Protection coupler At S/s B Opto coupler Distance Relay 21 85X Solid state Contact Alarm Contact Alarm Contact .

Protection coupler At S/s A Protection coupler At S/s B Opto coupler Opto coupler 85X 85X 30X Solid state Contact Solid state Contact 30X Alarm Contact Alarm Contact .

. when there is no fault in the line. guard frequency or frequencies G1 & G2 will be continuously transmitted through the PLC channel for monitoring the healthiness of the equipment. i. • Speech & any other Data transmission are interrupted while the trip signals are being transmitted.e.Principle of operation • Under normal conditions. • In the event of operation of protection due to fault the guard signals will be cut & corresponding trip signals will be transmitted in the Speech band.

.

21 AF Tx DA A D DA C BOOST Pilot Tx Speech . 15 DSP Relay Interfac e 2 G4AC Slot no.10 Start A Tx Command A Relay Interfac e 1 G4AC Slot no.DSP Module G4AA Slot no.

2 .Rx.DSP Module G4AA Slot no. 21 DA AF Rx A D DA C Rx Speech AGC ALARM Alarm Tx. 15 DSP Relay Interfac e 2 G4AC Slot no.10 Rx command A Rx aux O/P A Relay Interfac e 1 G4AC Slot no.COM 1.

• When found any trip frequency with absence of guard signal. • Receiver • Continuously monitor guard signal.NSD 50 Transmitter & Receiver • Transmitter • Applying DC voltage to the input Tx command interrupts the Pilot /Guard signal. . • Protection coupler will generate trip frequency which will be fed to PLCC panel & Tx Counter increments. Rx Speech is interrupted & Rx counter increments. • At the same time Rx command on the protection relay is activated. • Tx Speech cut off.

NSD 50 Trip Frequencies • • • • • • • Command A 872 Hz Command B 1090 Hz A & B Permissive Trip/ Uncoded Commands Command C 654 Hz / 1526 Hz Command D 654 Hz / 1745 Hz C &D Direct Trip / Coded Commands A.C & D Commands are transmitted in Speech band .B.

Transmission time . • The Transmission time • The Security ( Unwanted command probability) • The Dependability ( Missing command probability) .Security & Dependability • The Performance of a protection coupler is assessed by means of three criteria.

• Tripping can only take place at the receiving end if a tripping signal is being received and local protection relay detects a fault. • Transmission Time – 12ms • Command Prolongation (Trip Extension) time.Permissive & Direct • This scheme is used for protection of power line with Distance relay. • Transmission Time – 26 ms • Command Prolongation time.100 ms .20ms • The tripping command from the protection coupler goes directly to the circuit breaker.

Utilization of PLCC panels (3P+2S) Main I ABB ETL 41 A B Main II Direct Trip Sp Dialing Sp Express ABB ETL 41 A B ABB ETL 41 C ABB ETL 41 ABB ETL 41 M II Parallel v M I Parallel M II Own Direct trip Own M I Own .

Modified Utilization (2P+2/1S) Channel I ABB ETL 41 A B C Channel II Speech Dialing ABB ETL 41 A B C v ABB ETL 41 Speech Express ABB ETL 41 M I Parallel M II Parallel M I Own v Direct trip Own v M II Own Direct trip Parallel OR Channel I ABB ETL 41 A B C Channel II ABB ETL 41 A B C v v Speech Dialing/Express ABB ETL 42 Twin Channel Panel M I Parallel M II Parallel M I Own v M II Own Direct trip Parallel Direct trip Own .

CI CB.CF.CP. A 5ms/20ms/100ms CR/CS/CT Com Prol.CC.CH.CK CE.CV CN / CO Com Prol.CD.CU.CG.CM.Relay Interface 1 G4AC I/P Volt 125 V DC…250 V DC I/P Volt 48 V DC…110 V DC Trip signal A / C Trip signal B / D Rack slot N15/ N21 CA.CQ CL. B 5ms/20ms/100ms CW/CX/CY Stand-by Battery ON/OFF BA / BB .

D) [ x ] (8) [ x ] (7) [ x ] (6) [ x ] (5) [ x ] (4) [ x ] (3) [ x ] (2) [ x ] (1) Security : Step 2 (increased) / step 1 T03 nominal Transmission time T0 = 46 ms T02 nominal Transmission time T0 = 26 ms T01 nominal Transmission time T0 = 16 ms Settings for Uncoded Tripping signals ( A.B) Security : Step 2 (increased) / step 1 T03 nominal Transmission time T0 = 19 ms T02 nominal Transmission time T0 = 12 ms T01 nominal Transmission time T0 = 10 ms .Programming DSP Switch S3 Command Settings ON /OFF Settings for Coded tripping signals (C.

Programming DSP Switch S4 Guard Setting ON /OFF [ x ] (8) Not used [ x ] (7) Local Test ON / OFF [ x ] (6) -10 dBm0 / -14 dBm0 unblocking threshold [ x ] (5) 200 Bd /100 Bd Pi filter [ x ] (4) ETL Pilot / own guard S4 (3) (2) (1) = pilot [ x ] (3) Setting of 0 0 0 = 3780 Hz [ x ] (2) Guard or Pilot Freq 0 0 1 = 3600 Hz 0 1 0 = 3360 Hz [ x ] (1) (Default = 3780 Hz) 0 1 1 = 3120 Hz 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 = 2880 Hz = 2640 Hz = 2400 Hz = 2160 Hz .

Programming DSP Switch S5 Alarm Setting ON /OFF [ x ] (8) Not used [ x ] (7) Not used [ x ] (6) Interface in Slot N 21 ? Yes / No [ x ] (5) Interface in Slot N 15 ? Yes / No [ x ] (4) Command output latching status for [ x ] (3) An alarm condition ( SNR/ Level Alarm) [ x ] (2) 6 dB / 12 dB SNR alarm threshold [ x ] (1) Cyclic loop test ON/ OFF S5 (4) (3) = statuses of the com O/P for an alarm 0 0 = no influence on receiver contacts 0 1 = uncoded tripped. . 1 1 = no influence on receiver contacts. coded contacts quiescent 1 0 = all receiver contacts quiescent.

3 s 1.AD (default) AA.6 s Alarm Relay delay = Sum of ON values (settings in steps of 50 ms) Default setting = 10 s 24 23 22 21 20 0.Programming DSP Switch S6 Alarm Delay Common alarm contacts ALARM 1.05 s . AC [ x ] (8) [ x ] (7) [ x ] (6) [ x ] (5) [ x ] (4) [ x ] (3) [ x ] (2) [ x ] (1) ON /OFF 27 26 25 6. ALARM 2 Contact closes in alarm state ( N/C) Contact opens in alarm state ( N/O) AB.8 s 0.1 s 0.5 s 3.4 s 0.2 s 0.

.

Serial Interface LEDs Signal Processor Data & Program Memories Digital signals Aux Alarm Relay .

Tx command A Start A Tx command B Start B Rx command A AUX A Rx command B AUX B Unblocking 1 Unblocking 2 .

Relay Panel Protection coupler Distance Relay 21 Trip Send Contact in RP 85X RP K102 RP K877 Opto coupler Carrier Receive Relay in RP RP K173 30X RP K169 Solid state Contact Carrier Healthy relay in RP RP K161 Alarm Contact RP K169 .

Relay Panel Distance Relay 21 Trip Send Contact in RP 85X Protection coupler Opto coupler CR relay in RP Solid state C Distance Relay 21 Trip Send Contact in RP 85X CR relay in RP Solid state C Opto coupler 30X Carrier Healthy relay in RP Alarm Contact .

WT

WT

Relay Panel

Protection coupler

Protection coupler

Relay Panel

21
Trip Send Contact in RP 85X

RP K102
RP K102

RP K877

Opto coupler

Opto coupler RP K877

21
85X
Trip Send Contact in RP

Carrier Receive Relay in RP

RP K173

RP K173

Carrier Receive Relay in RP

30X

RP K169

Solid state Contact

Solid state Contact

RP K169

30X

Carrier Healthy relay in RP

RP K161 Alarm Contact
Alarm Contact

RP K161
RP K169

Carrier Healthy relay in RP

RP K169

Own Commands & Parallel commands
84 + 0.872 =84.872 KHz & ETL 41 ETL 41 80 + 0.872 PLCC =80.872 KHz PLCC

MI

MI

M II

DT

Panel Having Freq 84/80 KHz with NSD 50

Panel Having Freq 80/84 KHz with NSD 50

M II

DT

MI M II DT

ETL 41 84/80 KHz with NSD 50

ETL 41 80/84 KHz with NSD 50

MI M II DT

ETL 41 96/92 KHz with NSD 50

ETL 41 92/96 KHz with NSD 50

Exercise Refer Fig A & B and Complete the following table .

.

.

when there is no fault in the line. two guard frequencies G1 & G2 will be continuously transmitted through the PLC channel for monitoring the healthiness of the equipment.BPL DC 42 Protection Coupler • The DC 42 series Digital Protection coupler can be directly inserted into the BPL Make 9505 V3 Power line carrier equipment. • • Speech & any other Data transmission are interrupted while the Trip signals are being transmitted. When there is a fault the guard signals will be cut & corresponding trip signals will be transmitted in the speech band.e. • Under normal conditions i. .

Guard & Trip frequencies of DC 42 • • • • • • • • Guard 1.1171 Hz Trip F2 – 1366 Hz Trip F3 – 1561 Hz Trip F4 – 1756 Hz Trip F5 – 1951 Hz Loop Test Frequency – 3902 Hz .2146 Hz Guard 2 – 2341 Hz Trip F1.

Block Diagram of DC 4 .

the trip signals will be extended to the DC CPU through DC COMIO module.  DC REC module decodes the command and corresponding frequency /frequencies are transmitted.  The DC CPC sends the corresponding command to the DC REC module. DC CPU module decodes the logic lines and corresponding relays are activated. The remote end breakers will be tripped only when the protection receiver depending on the nature of the fault receives the assigned combination of Trip frequencies.   . the composite signals from the DC REC is fed to DC CPU module which detects the presence of trip signal ( only in absence of the guard signals ) & gives the corresponding command logic high /low & also logic lines corresponding to frequencies to DC CPU module.  At the receiving end.DC 42 Transmitter & Receiver  When there is a fault.

•DC REC module is responsible for transmitting the frequency corresponding to command issued by DC CPU as well detecting the trip frequency and issuing corresponding trip command to DC CPU. • DC COMIO consists of DC CIC & DC COC •DC CIC provides the interface between the local distance protection relays & protection relaying equipment. . •DC COC provides the necessary interface for transferring the trip command received from the distant protection equipment to the local distance protection relays. •DC CPU module provides the commands necessary to generate the Guard & Trip frequencies.Face plan of DC 42 •The DC PSU Module provides dual 12 V DC outputs & 5 V DC output.

Permissive & Direct Commands • • • • Command I – F1 + F3 Command II – F2 + F4 Command III – F5 F1 F5 Command IV – F5 F2 F5 .

.

• The trip frequency level is 11dB higher than guard frequency level in permissive & 17 dB higher in Direct scheme.Permissive & Direct Commands • The Transmission time permissive command is < 20 msec & for Direct command is < 30 msec. . • The Direct commands are more secure whereas permissive commands are more dependable in nature.

Success will follow…… .Seek Excellence.