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MAR 2115 Differential Equations & Series - WorkSheet 1 Method of finding Laplace Transform 1.

1 Sketch the given functions and find their Laplace Transforms from first principles.
i.

ft  ft 

et 0 t 1

0ࣘtࣘ2 t2 0ࣘtࣘ1 t1

ii.

1.2 From first principles, find the Laplace transform F s  ࡀ f t where i. f t  3t ii. f t  e ࢤ2t Check your answers by using the table of standard transforms. 1.3 Use the properties and table of standard Laplace transforms to find ࡀ f t i. f t  1 ࢤ 2t  t 2 2 ii. f t  3 cos 2t ࢤ 2e ࢤ3t iii. f t  2 sinh 3t ࢤ t 4 iv. f t  cos 2 t v. f t  2 sin 3t   Hint :use the addition formula to expand f t . 3 Simplify your answers where appropriate. Answers 1. 1 i. 1. 2 i. 1. 3 i. iii. v. 1 ࢤ e ࢤ2 sࢤ1 sࢤ1 3 s2 sࢤ2 2 2s 3 6 ࢤ 24 s5 s ࢤ9
2

if

ii. ii. ii. iv.

1 ࢤ e ࢤs s2 1 s2 s 2  9s ࢤ 8 s  3 s2  4 s2  2 s s2  4

3s3 s2  9

Further Properties of Laplace Transform 2.1 Use the First Shift Theorem to find ࡀ f t i. f t  2te ࢤ3t ii. f t  e ࢤt sin 2t iii. f t  1 e ࢤ2t sinh 3t 3 iv. f t  1 t 4 e t 4 if

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2.2 Use the theorem on differentiating the Laplace Transform to find ࡀ f t i. f t  t cos 3t ii. f t  t sinh 3t iii. f t  te ࢤt sin t Answers 2. 1 i. iii. 2. 2 i. iii. 2 s3 2 1 s 2  4s ࢤ 5 s2 ࢤ 9 s2  9 2 2 s1 s 2  2s  2
2

where

ii. iv. ii.

2 s 2  2s  5 6 sࢤ1 5 6s 2 s2 ࢤ 9

Method of finding Inverse Laplace Transform 3.1 Use the table of standard transforms to find the inverse Laplace transform of 1 i. s2  4 ii. 2 ࢤ 3 s2 s3 2 iii. s3 ࢤ 3s iv. 10 s 2  25 sࢤ3 v. 22 s ࢤ4

3.2 Use partial fractions and the table of standard transforms to find the inverse Laplace transform of s2 i. s 2  4s 2s ࢤ 1 ii. s2 sࢤ3 iii. 2 3 s  5s  4 5 iv. s ࢤ 2 s2  1

3.3 Use the First Shift Theorem to find ࡀ ࢤ1 F s 4 i. F s  2 s ࢤ 6s  13 5 ii. F s  s2 3 iii. F s  2 s ࢤ 1 s ࢤ 2s  5 iv. F s  2 2s  3 s  4s  3

where

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Answers 3. 1 ii. iii. 2e ࢤ3t 2t ࢤ 3 t 2 2 iv. 2 sin 5t ࢤ 3 cos 5t v. 2 cosh 2t ࢤ 3 sinh 2t 2 1 1  e ࢤ4t 3. 2 i. ii. e ࢤ2t  e 3t 2 iii. e ࢤt ࢤ e ࢤ4t iv. e 2t ࢤ cos t ࢤ 2 sin t 5 t 2 e ࢤ2t 3. 3 i. 2e 3t sin 2t ii. 2 t iii. e cos 2t iv. e ࢤ2t 2 cosh t ࢤ sinh t

Application of Laplace Transforms to Differential Equations 4.1 Obtain the Laplace transform of the following expressions in y t where ࡀ yt Ys: dy i. 3 ࢤ 2y if y  1 at t  0 dt
ii.

y"  2y ߰ ࢤ 3y if y 0  ࢤ1 , y ߰ 0  2

4.2 Use the Laplace transform method to solve the following initial - value problems: i. 2y ߰ ࢤ y  0 ; y 0  2
ii.

dx  4x  2 ; x 0  0 dt dy ࢤ 2y  5 sin t ; y 0  0 dt [Hint: use the solution of Q2.4 (iv)]

iii.

4.3 Use the method of Laplace transforms to solve the following initial - value problems: i. x"  x  t ; x 0  0 , x ߰ 0  2
ii.

y" ࢤ y  sin t ; y 0  0 , y ߰ 0  1

iii. x" ࢤ 2x ߰  2x  3e t ; x 0  2 , x ߰ 0  5 iv. y" ࢤ 2y ߰  y  4e t cos 2t ; y 0  y ߰ 0  1

4.4 Use the Laplace transform method to solve the system of equations dx ࢤ x  y  0 dt dy ࢤx ࢤ y  0 dt ; ; x0 1 y0 0

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4.5 Use the method of Laplace transforms to solve the initial - value system dx  x ࢤ 3y  0 dt dy  3x ࢤ y  e ࢤt dt Answers 4. 1 i. 4. 2 i. 3s ࢤ 2 Y ࢤ 3 2e 1/2t ii. ii. s 2  2s ࢤ 3 Y  s 1 1 ࢤ e ࢤ4t 2 1 3 sinh t ࢤ sin t 2 e t 2 ࢤ cos 2t ; ; x0 0 y0 0

iii. e 2t ࢤ cos t ࢤ 2 sin t 4. 3 i. t  sin t x t  e cos t
t

ii. iv.

iii. e t 3  3 sin t ࢤ cos t 4. 4 y t  e t sin t 4. 5 xt  1 3 yt  e ࢤt ࢤ cos 8 t  1 sin 8 t 8

1 sin 8 t 8

Suggested solution: 4.3 i. ࡀ x"  x  ࡀ t ; x 0  0 , x߰ 0  2 s2X ࢤ s x 0 ࢤ x߰ 0  X  1 s2 1 2 s 1 Xࢤ2  2 s 1 1 X  22  2 2 (Find partial fractions for 2 2 ) s 1 s s 1 s s 1 X  2  1 ࢤ 1 s2  1 s2 s2  1 1  1 s2  1 s2

x t  ࡀ ࢤ1 X  ࡀ ࢤ1 1  1 s2  1 s2  t  sin t  ࡀ sin t

4.3 ii.

; y 0  0 , y߰ 0  1 s2Y ࢤ s y 0 ࢤ y߰ 0 ࢤ Y  2 1 s 1 s2 ࢤ 1 Y  1  2 1 s 1 1 1 Y  2 s2 ࢤ 1 s  1 s2 ࢤ 1 ࡀ y" ࢤ y

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1  1 1 1 ࢤ ࢤ 4 sࢤ1 4 s1 s2 ࢤ 1 2 s2 ࢤ 1 1  1 1 1 y t  ࡀ ࢤ1 ࢤ ࢤ 4 sࢤ1 4 s1 s2 ࢤ 1 2 s2  1  sinh t  1 e t ࢤ e ࢤt ࢤ 1 sin t 4 2  sinh t  1 sinh t ࢤ 1 sin t (since sinh t  1 e t ࢤ e ࢤt ) 2 2 2 3 1  sinh t ࢤ sin t 2 2 
4.3 iii.

x " ࢤ 2x ߰  2x  3e t ; x 0  2 , x ߰ 0  5 ࡀ x " ࢤ 2x ߰  2x  3ࡀ e t s 2 X ࢤ s x 0 ࢤ x ߰ 0 ࢤ 2 sX ࢤ x 0  2X  3 sࢤ1 s 2 ࢤ 2s  2 X  3  1  2s sࢤ1 X   sࢤ1 3 sࢤ1
2 

1 

1 2s  2 sࢤ1 1 sࢤ1 21

3 3s 3 1 2s ࢤ    sࢤ1 sࢤ1 21 sࢤ1 21 sࢤ1 21 sࢤ1 21 3 sࢤ1 3 ࢤ  sࢤ1 sࢤ1 21 sࢤ1 21

x t  3e t ࢤ e t cos t  3e t sin t  e t 3 ࢤ cos t  3 sin t
4.3 iv.

y" ࢤ 2y ߰  y  4e t cos 2t ; y 0  y ߰ 0  1 ࡀ y" ࢤ 2y ߰  y  4ࡀ e t cos 2t 4 sࢤ1 s 2 Y ࢤ s y 0 ࢤ y ߰ 0 ࢤ 2 sY ࢤ y 0  Y  sࢤ1 24 4 sࢤ1 s 2 ࢤ 2s  1 Y  s ࢤ 1  sࢤ1 24 4 sࢤ1 sࢤ1  Y 2 sࢤ1 sࢤ1 2 sࢤ1 24 1  4  sࢤ1 sࢤ1 sࢤ1 24 1  1 ࢤ s 1   sࢤ1 sࢤ1 sࢤ1 24 sࢤ1 24 sࢤ1  2 ࢤ sࢤ1 sࢤ1 24 y t  2e t ࢤ e t cos 2t  e t 2 ࢤ cos 2t

Partial fractions: Bs  C 4 A   sࢤ1 sࢤ1 sࢤ1 24 sࢤ1 24 4  A s ࢤ 1 2  4  Bs  C s ࢤ 1 Let s  1, solve A  1

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Let s  0, solve C  1 s 2 term: solve B  ࢤ1 dx ࢤ x  y  0 dt sX ࢤ x 0 ࢤ X  Y  0 ࡀ sࢤ1 XY  1 dy ࢤx ࢤ y  0 dt sY ࢤ y 0 ࢤ X ࢤ Y  0 ࡀ sࢤ1 YࢤX  0
Eq.(1)

;

x0 1

4.4

Eq.(1)

;

y0 0

Eq.(2)

s ࢤ 1 ࢤEq.(2)

s ࢤ 1 2X  s ࢤ 1 Y  s ࢤ 1 sࢤ1 YࢤX  0 s ࢤ 1 2X  X  s ࢤ 1 sࢤ1
2 

1 X  sࢤ1 sࢤ1 X sࢤ1 21 x t  e t cos t

Hence

From the given first differential eq.: dx ࢤ x  y  0 dt y t  x ࢤ dx dt  e t cos t ࢤ d e t cos t dt  e t cos t ࢤ ࢤe t sin t  e t cos t  e t sin t x t  e t cos t, y t  e t sin t Hence solution is


4.5

dx  x ࢤ 3y  0  0 dt sX ࢤ x 0  X ࢤ 3Y  0 s  1 X ࢤ 3Y  0

;

x0 0

Eq.(1)

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dy  3x ࢤ y  e ࢤt dt 

0

;

y0 0

sY ࢤ y 0  3X ࢤ Y 

1 s1 s ࢤ 1 Y  3X  1 s1

Eq.(2)

Eq.(1)

3
Eq.(3)

3 s  1 X ࢤ 9Y  0
Eq.(2)

s1
Eq.(4)

s2 ࢤ 1 Y  3 s  1 X  1
Eq.(3) ࢤ Eq. (4)

ࢤ 9Y ࢤ s 2 ࢤ 1 Y  ࢤ 1 ࢤY s 2 ࢤ 1  9  ࢤ1 1  21 s2 ࢤ 1  9 s 8 y t  1 sin 8 t 8 Y

Hence

From the given second differential eq.: dy  3x ࢤ y  e ࢤt dt dy 3x t  e ࢤt  y ࢤ dt  e ࢤt  1 sin 8 t ࢤ d dt 8  e ࢤt  Hence, x t  1 3 1 sin 8 t ࢤ 8

1 sin 8 t 8

8 cos 8 t 8

e ࢤt  1 sin 8 t ࢤ cos 8 t 8

Hence solution is x t  1 e ࢤt  1 sin 8 t ࢤ cos 8 t 3 8

, yt 

1 sin 8 t 8

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