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MAR 2115 Differential Equations & Series - WorkSheet 4 Fourier Series 1.

1 Sketch the following (periodic) functions stating in each case whether the function is even, odd or neither and give its period. fx  2 0 0ࣘxࣘ2 2x4 and f x  4  f x for all x. g t  2  g t for all .t.

i.

ii. iii.

g t  t ,

ࢤ ࣘ t   and

I t  I 0 cos t , where I 0 and  are constants.

1.2 Sketch the function f x defined by fx  0 1 ࢤ  x ࣘ 0 0x

and its periodic extensions to the range ࢤ3 to 3. Find the Fourier series of f and give its sum at x  ࢤ 3 , 7 , 2 . 2 2

1.3 Obtain the Fourier series for the function f t (sketch it first, with its periodic extensions) defined by ft  0 ࢤt ࢤ  t ࣘ 0 0t

1.4 Sketch each function and state whether it is even, odd or neither and obtain its Fourier series. fx  ࢤ1 1 ࢤ  x  0 0x

i.

ii.

gt 

t , ࢤ  t ࣘ 

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 4

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Answers 1. 1 i. ii. neither, period 4

neither, period 2  iii. even, period 2  1  2  2

1. 2

ࢣ n1

Ý

sin 2n ࢤ 1 x 2 sin x  1 sin 3x  1 sin 5x . . .  1   5 2n ࢤ 1 2 3

; 1, 0, 1 2

1. 3 

 2 ࢣ Ý cos 2n ࢤ 1 t  ࢣ Ý sin nt n  n1 n1 4 2n ࢤ 1 2 2 cos t  1 cos 3t  1 cos 5t . . .     4 9 25 4  

sin t  1 sin 2t  1 sin 3t . . . 2 3

1. 4 i.

ࢣ n1

Ý

sin 2n ࢤ 1 x 4 sin x  1 sin 3x  1 sin 5x . . . ; odd Í a n  0   5 2n ࢤ 1 3
Ý

ii. 

ࢤ 4  2

ࢣ n1

cos 2n ࢤ 1 t 4 cos t  1 cos 3t  1 cos 5t . . .   ࢤ  2 2 9 25 2n ࢤ 1

; even Í b n  0

Suggested solution: 1.3 The Fourier series of f t is given by: Ý f t  a 0  ࢣ n1 a n cos nt  b n sin nt 2 1 Þ  f t dt  1 Þ   ࢤ t dt a0    0 ࢤ 1 t ࢤ t 2      2 2 0

where

1 Þ  f t cos nt dt an   ࢤ 1 Þ   ࢤ t cos nt dt   0   1   Þ  cos nt dt ࢤ Þ t cos nt dt 0 0  1 t 1 cos nt|     n sin nt| 0 ࢤ n sin nt|  0 ࢤ 0 n2 1 ࢤ 1 cos n ࢤ 1   n2 ࢤ 1 cos n ࢤ 1 n2 2 n2 0 , , n odd n even 

since cos n  ࢤ1

n

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1 Þ  f t sin nt dt bn   ࢤ  1   Þ  ࢤ t sin nt dt 0    1   Þ  sin nt dt ࢤ Þ t sin nt dt  ࢤ Þ ࢤ 1 n cos nt dt ࢤ 0 0 0 1 ࢤ  cos nt|   t cos nt|  ࢤ 1 sin nt|    0 0 0 n n n2 1 ࢤ  cos n ࢤ 1   cos n ࢤ 0   n n  1 1    n  n Hence, Ý Ý f t  a 0  ࢣ n odd a n cos nx  ࢣ n1 b n sin nx 2 2 cos t  1 cos 3t  1 cos 5t . . .     4 9 25 

n

cos n 

sin t  1 sin 2t  1 sin 3t . . . 2 3

1.4 (i) f x 

ࢤ1 1
Ý

ࢤ  x  0 0x 2 bn  

f x odd function Í a n  0 f x  ࢣ n1 b n sin nx , 2 bn  

Þ0 

Þ0 

f x sin nx dx

1  sin nx dx

2 cos nx   ࢤn 0  2  ࢤ n cos n ࢤ 1  4 n 0
Ý

, ,

n odd n even

since cos n  ࢤ1

n

Hence f x  ࢣ n odd b n sin nx 4 sin x  1 sin 3x  1 sin 5x . . .   5 3

1.4 (ii) g t  

t , ࢤ  t ࣘ  ࢤt t ࢤ  t ࣘ 0 0tࣘ

g t even function Í b n  0

Ý g t  1 a 0  ࢣ n1 a n cos nt 2

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2 Þ  t dt a0   0 1 2     t2  0 2  2 Þ g t cos nt dt an   0   2   Þ t cos nt dt   n sin n ࢤ Þ 0 0 2 t sin nt|   1 cos nt|    n 0 0 n2  2 cos n ࢤ 1 n2 ࢤ4 n2 0 , , n odd n even

1 n

sin nt dt 

since cos n  ࢤ1

n

Hence, Ý g t  1 a 0  ࢣ n odd a n cos nt 2 4 cos t  1 cos 3t  1 cos 5t . . .   ࢤ  9 25 2

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