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1 Sketch the following (periodic) functions stating in each case whether the function is even, odd or neither and give its period. fx 2 0 0ࣘxࣘ2 2x4 and f x 4 f x for all x. g t 2 g t for all .t.

i.

ii. iii.

g t t ,

ࢤ ࣘ t and

I t I 0 cos t , where I 0 and are constants.

1.2 Sketch the function f x defined by fx 0 1 ࢤ x ࣘ 0 0x

and its periodic extensions to the range ࢤ3 to 3. Find the Fourier series of f and give its sum at x ࢤ 3 , 7 , 2 . 2 2

1.3 Obtain the Fourier series for the function f t (sketch it first, with its periodic extensions) defined by ft 0 ࢤt ࢤ t ࣘ 0 0t

1.4 Sketch each function and state whether it is even, odd or neither and obtain its Fourier series. fx ࢤ1 1 ࢤ x 0 0x

i.

ii.

gt

t , ࢤ t ࣘ

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 4

1

Answers 1. 1 i. ii. neither, period 4

neither, period 2 iii. even, period 2 1 2 2

1. 2

ࢣ n1

Ý

sin 2n ࢤ 1 x 2 sin x 1 sin 3x 1 sin 5x . . . 1 5 2n ࢤ 1 2 3

; 1, 0, 1 2

1. 3

2 ࢣ Ý cos 2n ࢤ 1 t ࢣ Ý sin nt n n1 n1 4 2n ࢤ 1 2 2 cos t 1 cos 3t 1 cos 5t . . . 4 9 25 4

sin t 1 sin 2t 1 sin 3t . . . 2 3

1. 4 i.

ࢣ n1

Ý

**sin 2n ࢤ 1 x 4 sin x 1 sin 3x 1 sin 5x . . . ; odd Í a n 0 5 2n ࢤ 1 3
**

Ý

ii.

ࢤ 4 2

ࢣ n1

cos 2n ࢤ 1 t 4 cos t 1 cos 3t 1 cos 5t . . . ࢤ 2 2 9 25 2n ࢤ 1

; even Í b n 0

Suggested solution: 1.3 The Fourier series of f t is given by: Ý f t a 0 ࢣ n1 a n cos nt b n sin nt 2 1 Þ f t dt 1 Þ ࢤ t dt a0 0 ࢤ 1 t ࢤ t 2 2 2 0

where

1 Þ f t cos nt dt an ࢤ 1 Þ ࢤ t cos nt dt 0 1 Þ cos nt dt ࢤ Þ t cos nt dt 0 0 1 t 1 cos nt| n sin nt| 0 ࢤ n sin nt| 0 ࢤ 0 n2 1 ࢤ 1 cos n ࢤ 1 n2 ࢤ 1 cos n ࢤ 1 n2 2 n2 0 , , n odd n even

since cos n ࢤ1

n

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 4

2

1 Þ f t sin nt dt bn ࢤ 1 Þ ࢤ t sin nt dt 0 1 Þ sin nt dt ࢤ Þ t sin nt dt ࢤ Þ ࢤ 1 n cos nt dt ࢤ 0 0 0 1 ࢤ cos nt| t cos nt| ࢤ 1 sin nt| 0 0 0 n n n2 1 ࢤ cos n ࢤ 1 cos n ࢤ 0 n n 1 1 n n Hence, Ý Ý f t a 0 ࢣ n odd a n cos nx ࢣ n1 b n sin nx 2 2 cos t 1 cos 3t 1 cos 5t . . . 4 9 25

n

cos n

sin t 1 sin 2t 1 sin 3t . . . 2 3

1.4 (i) f x

ࢤ1 1

Ý

ࢤ x 0 0x 2 bn

f x odd function Í a n 0 f x ࢣ n1 b n sin nx , 2 bn

Þ0

Þ0

f x sin nx dx

1 sin nx dx

2 cos nx ࢤn 0 2 ࢤ n cos n ࢤ 1 4 n 0

Ý

, ,

n odd n even

since cos n ࢤ1

n

Hence f x ࢣ n odd b n sin nx 4 sin x 1 sin 3x 1 sin 5x . . . 5 3

1.4 (ii) g t

t , ࢤ t ࣘ ࢤt t ࢤ t ࣘ 0 0tࣘ

g t even function Í b n 0

Ý g t 1 a 0 ࢣ n1 a n cos nt 2

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 4

3

2 Þ t dt a0 0 1 2 t2 0 2 2 Þ g t cos nt dt an 0 2 Þ t cos nt dt n sin n ࢤ Þ 0 0 2 t sin nt| 1 cos nt| n 0 0 n2 2 cos n ࢤ 1 n2 ࢤ4 n2 0 , , n odd n even

1 n

sin nt dt

since cos n ࢤ1

n

Hence, Ý g t 1 a 0 ࢣ n odd a n cos nt 2 4 cos t 1 cos 3t 1 cos 5t . . . ࢤ 9 25 2

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 4

4

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