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MAR 2115 Differential Equations & Series - WorkSheet 5 Taylor Series for Functions of Two Variables 1.

1 Calculate the Taylor series, up to and including the terms of second order, for i. f x, y  e x cos y at the point 0, 0 ii. f x, y  sin xy at the point 1,  3 iii. f x, y  e 2y sin x at the point  , 0 4 iv. f x, y  e xy at the point 2, 3 Stationary Points of Functions of Two Variables 2.1 Find the extrema and/or saddle points of the function f x, y where i. f x , y  x 2  y 2 ࢤ 2x  4y  6
ii. iii.

f x , y  x 2 ࢤ y 2 ࢤ 2x  4y  6 f x, y  3  2x  6y ࢤ 3x 2 ࢤ 2xy ࢤ 3y 2

2.2 Investigate the behaviour of f x, y  x 3 ࢤ 3xy 2  3y 2  1 at its stationary points.

2.3 Show that the function f x , y  x 3  y 3 ࢤ 3x 2 ࢤ 3y 2  2 has four stationary points and determine their nature.

2.4 Investigate the behaviour of f x , y  2x 4 ࢤ 3x 2 y 2  y 4  8x 2  3y 2 at its five stationary points.

2.5 Locate and identify the nature of the two extrema of the function f x, y  x  y exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2 .

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 5

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Answers 1. 1 i. e x cos y  1  x  1 x 2 ࢤ y 2 . . . 2 sin xy 
(use standard series or first principles)

ii.

3   xࢤ1  1 yࢤ  2 6 2 3  1 2 1ࢤ  3 xࢤ1 yࢤ  3

ࢤ 

2 x ࢤ 1 12 3 ࢤ 3 4

2

yࢤ  3
2

2 

. . .

iii. e 2y sin x 

1  1 2 2

xࢤ  4 

2yࢤ

1 2 2

xࢤ  4 

2 x ࢤ  y  2 y 2 . . . 4
Use first principles or product of standard series for

e 2y and sin x about x   4 7 xࢤ2 yࢤ3 2 yࢤ3
2

iv.

e xy  e 6 1  3 x ࢤ 2  2 y ࢤ 3  9 x ࢤ 2 2 Minimum at 1, ࢤ2 Saddle at 1, 2

2 

. . .

2. 1 i. ii.

iii. Maximum at 0, 1 2. 2 2. 3 2. 4 2. 5 Saddle points at 1, 1 , 1, ࢤ1 ; 0, 0 indeterminate . Maximum at 0, 0 ; minimum at 2, 2 ; saddle points at 0, 2 , 2, 0 . Minimum at 0, 0 and saddle points at 5, 6 , ࢤ5, 6 , 5, ࢤ6 , ࢤ5, ࢤ6 . Maximum at 1, 1 2 2 ; minimum at ࢤ 1 , ࢤ 1 . 2 2

Suggested solution: 2.2 Investigate the behaviour of f x, y  x 3 ࢤ 3xy 2  3y 2  1 at its stationary points. f x  3x 2 ࢤ 3y 2  0 Í x 2  y 2 ...eq(1) f y  ࢤ6xy  6y  0 Í 6y ࢤ x  1  0 Í y  0,x  1 Substitute y  0 into eq(1), obtain x  0. Substitute x  1 into eq(1), obtain y 2  1, hence y  1

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 5

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Hence 3 stationary points at 1, 1 , 1, ࢤ1 and 0, 0 . Saddle points at 1, 1 , 1, ࢤ1 and 0, 0 indeterminate. 2.3 Show that the function f x, y  x 3  y 3 ࢤ 3x 2 ࢤ 3y 2  2 has four stationary points and determine their nature. f x  3x 2 ࢤ 6x  0 Í x  0, x  2 f y  3y 2 ࢤ 6y  0 Í y  0, y  2 Hence 4 stationary points: 0, 0 , 2, 0 , 0, 2 and 2, 2 . Test: maximum at 0, 0 ; minimum at 2, 2 ; saddle points at 0, 2 , 2, 0

2.4 Investigate the behaviour of f x, y  2x 4 ࢤ 3x 2 y 2  y 4  8x 2  3y 2 at its five stationary points. f x  8x 3 ࢤ6xy 2  16x  0 Í x 8x 2 ࢤ 6y 2  16  0 Í x  0 or 8x 2 ࢤ 6y 2  16  0 ....eq(1) f y  ࢤ 6x 2 y  4y 3  6y  0...........eq(2) Substitute x  0 into eq(2), obtain 4y 3  6y  0 y 4y 2  6  0 Í y  0 or 4y 2  ࢤ6 (no real solutions) Get one stationary point at 0, 0 . Take eq(1) 2y : 2y 8x 2 ࢤ 6y 2  16  0 16x 2 y ࢤ 12y 3  32y  0 ...eq(3) Take eq(2) 3 : 3 ࢤ 6x 2 y  4y 3  6y  0 ࢤ18x 2 y  12y 3  18y  0....eq(4) Eq(3)  Eq(4): ࢤ 2x 2 y  50y  0 2y 25 ࢤ x 2  0 y  0 or x 2  25 Í x  5 Substitute x 2  25 into eq(1): 8x 2 ࢤ 6y 2  16  0 6y 2  216 Íy 6 Obtain another 4 stationary points:

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5, 6 , ࢤ5, 6 , 5, ࢤ6 , ࢤ5, ࢤ6 Test: 0, 0 min 5, 6 , ࢤ5, 6 , 5, ࢤ6 , ࢤ5, ࢤ6

saddle points

2.5 Locate and identify the nature of the two extrema of the function f x, y  x  y exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2 . f x, y  x  y exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2 f x  x  y  ࢤ2x exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  ࢤ2x x  y  1  0 Since exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2 ࣔ 0 Í ࢤ 2x x  y  1  0 or 2x x  y  1 ....eq(1) f y  x  y  ࢤ2y exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2  ࢤ2y x  y  1  0 Since exp ࢤx 2 ࢤ y 2 ࣔ 0 Í ࢤ 2y x  y  1  0 or 2y x  y  1 ....eq(2) eq(1)- eq(2): x2  y2 or x2 ࢤ y2  0 Í xy xࢤy  0 Hence x  y or x  ࢤy. Substitute x  y into eq(2): Í 2y y  y  1 4y 2  1 y  1 therefore x  1 . 2 2 Substitute x  ࢤy into eq(2): Í 2y ࢤ y  y  1 2y 0  1 Í no solution Hence 2 stationary points at 1 , 1 and ࢤ 1 , ࢤ 1 , 2 2 2 2 1 1 Test : maximum at , ; minimum at ࢤ 1 , ࢤ 1 . 2 2 2 2

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 5

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