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# MAR 2115 Differential Equations & Series - WorkSheet 6 Partial Differential Equations

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Wave Equation - Deflection of the String Find u x, t for the string of length L  1 and c 2  1 when the initial velocity, u t x, 0  0 and the initial deflection, u x, 0  f x with small k (say, 0. 01) is as follows: f x  k sin 2x f x  kx 1 ࢤ x

a. b. c.

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Heat Equation - Laterally Insulated Bar A laterally insulated bar of length 10 cm and constant cross- sectional area 1 cm 2 , of density 10. 6 gm/cm 3 , thermal conductivity 1. 04 cal/(cm sec °C), and specific heat 0. 056 cal/(gm °C) has initial temperature f x and is kept at 0°C at the ends x  0 and x  10. Find the temperature u x, t at later times if f x is given as: f x  sin 0. 4x f x  0. 2x if 0  x  5 and 0 otherwise.

a. b.

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 6

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Answers 1. a. k cos 2t sin 2x b. 8k cos t sin x  1 cos 3t sin 3x  1 cos 5t sin 5x . . . . 27 125 3 4 cos t sin x ࢤ 1 cos 3t sin 3x  1 cos 5t sin 5x ࢤ. . . . c. 9 25 5 2 2. a. u  sin 0. 4x e ࢤ1.752ࢩ16 t/100 2 2 sin 0. 1x e ࢤ0.01752 2 t  1 sin 0. 2x e ࢤ0.01752 2 2 t ࢤ. . . b. u    2
2

Suggested solutions: 1 a. Since L  1, c 2  1 and  n  cn so  n  n L Given u t x, 0  g x  0 and the initial deflection, u x, 0  f x  k sin 2x Solution takes the form: u x, t  ࢣ u n x, t  ࢣ B n cos  n t  B ࢩ n sin  n t sin  n x ࢩ Í B n  0, and since  n  n Í n  2 Hence we need to find B 2 . L As B n  2 Þ f x sin  n x dx L 0 Í B 2  2 Þ k sin 2x sin 2x dx
1 0 

2k Þ sin 2 2x dx
1 0 

k Þ 1 ࢤ cos 4x dx
1 0 1  k x ࢤ sin 4x  k 1ࢤ0  k 4 0 Hence solution: u x, t  k cos 2t sin 2x  0. 01 cos 2t sin 2x

1b. Similarly, solution takes the form: u x, t  ࢣ u n x, t  ࢣ B n cos  n t  B ࢩ n sin  n t sin  n x ࢩ Note: B n  0, and  n  n L B n  2 Þ f x sin  n x dx L 0  2 Þ f x sin  n x dx
L 0 

2k Þ x 1 ࢤ x sin nx dx
1 0

ࢩ  2k

ࢩࢩ ࢤ

Þ 0 x sin nx dx
1

Þ 0 x 2 sin nx dx
1

1 cos n  1 cos n ࢤ 2 cos n ࢤ 1  2k ࢤ n  n n33 4 k  ࢤ 3 3 cos n ࢤ 1 n  k ࢤ 4 ࢤ1 n ࢤ 1 n33

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 6

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8k ( n odd) n33 Hence, solution: u x, t  B n cos nt sin nx  cos t sin x  1 cos 3t sin 3x  1 cos 5t sin 5x . . .  8k 27 125 3 Note:

Þ 0 x sin nx dx  ࢤ nx cos nx
1

1 0

1 cos n  ࢤn  1  ࢤ n cos n 1 x 2 cos nx ࢩ ࢩ Þ x 2 sin nx dx  ࢤ n  0

1 Þ 1 cos nx dx  n  0 1  sin nx 1  n  n 0  0 2  n 

1 0

Þ 0 x cos nx dx
1

1 cos n  2 x sin nx 1 ࢤ 1 Þ 1 sin nx dx  ࢤn  n n n 0 0 cos nx 1 1 cos n  2 1 1  ࢤn  n n sin n  n  n 0 1 2 1  ࢤ n cos n  n 0  2 2 cos n ࢤ 1 n  1 2  ࢤ n cos n  3 3 cos n ࢤ 1 n  1c. Define f x :

fx 

1x 5 ࢤ1 xࢤ1 5

if if

0  x ࣘ 1, 2 1 xࣘ1 2

Solution takes the form: u x, t  ࢣ u n x, t  ࢣ B n cos  n t  B ࢩ n sin  n t sin  n x ࢩ Í B n  0, and  n  n ࢩ ࢩࢩ 1/2 1 B n  2 Þ 1 x sin nx dx  Þ ࢤ 1 x ࢤ 1 sin nx dx 5 5 0 1/2 2 sin n 2 (n odd) 2 5n 2  2 Hence u x, t  ࢣ B n cos nt sin nx  4 2 cos t sin x ࢤ 1 cos 3t sin 3x  1 cos 5t sin 5x ࢤ . . . 9 25 5 Note:

Þ0

1/2

1 x sin nx dx  1 ࢤ x cos nx n 5 5

1/2 0

1  n 

Þ0

1/2

cos nx dx

MAR2115 Differential Eqs & Series - Worksheet 6

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1 ࢤ 1 cos n  0  21 2  sin nx | 1/2 0 5 2n 2 n  1  1 0   sin n ࢤ 0 5 2 n22 n  1  sin (n odd) 2 5n 2  2 ࢩ ࢩÞ ࢤ 1 x ࢤ 1 sin nx dx  ࢤ 1 ࢤ 5 5 1/2  ࢤ1 ࢤ 5  ࢤ1 0 5 1  5n 2  2
1

xࢤ1 n cos nx

1 1/2

1  n 

Þ 1/2 cos nx dx
1

0  1 cos n  21 2 sin nx | 1 1/2 2n 2 n   21 2 sin n ࢤ sin n 2 n  n  sin (n odd) 2

2a. The initial condition gives Ý u x, 0  ࢣ B n sin nx  f x  sin 4x . n 1 10 10 Hence, by inspection or from (9) obtain B 4  1, B 1  B 2  B 3 . . .  0. In (9) 2 2 2 2  , where c 2  K  1. 04 need  4  c 4 2  1. 752 cm 2 / sec.  0. 056 10. 6 10 1. 752 16 2 2 sec ࢤ1 . Hence, obtaining  4  100 2 The solution (9) is u x, t  sin 4x e ࢤ1.752ࢩ16 t/100 . 10 2b. Solution: u x, t 

ࢣ n 1 u n x, t

Ý  

x e ࢤ ࢣ n 1 B n sin nL
Ý

2 n

t 

n  cn . L

From this and (3) u x, 0  x ࢣ n 1 B n sin nL
Ý 

fx.

Hence for (9) to satisfy (3), the B n ´s must be coefficients of the Fourier sine series, thus L B n  2 Þ f x sin nx dx (n  1,2, ...) L 0 L 5 10  2 Þ 2 x sin nx dx  Þ 0 dx 10 10 0 10 5 5 5 n  x 4 10 x 10  ࢤ n cos  n Þ cos nx dx 100 10 0 10 0 2 50 cos 5n  0  10  sin nx 5  4 ࢤn  100 10 10 0 n22 2 5 n  5 n  4 50 10  ࢤ n cos  2 2  sin 100 10 10 n  n  2, 4, . . n  1, 3, . . Hence, u x, t 

c 2 n 2  2 where c 2  1. 04 2 n  0. 056 10. 6 10 2

ࢣ n 1 u n x, t

Ý  

x e ࢤ ࢣ n 1 B n sin nL
Ý

2 n

t

where 

1. 752

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4  10 2 sin 5  4 ,  2  1. 752 2  0. 01752 2 1 100 10 2 10 2 2 2 52 1 ,  2  1. 752 2  0. 01752 2 B 2  4 ࢤ 50 cos   2 100 10 2 10 2 B1 
2 1 sin 2x e ࢤ0.01752 2 2 t ࢤ. . . Hence u x, t  42 sin x e ࢤ0.01752 t   10 10  OR 2 2 sin 0. 1x e ࢤ0.01752 2 t  1 sin 0. 2x e ࢤ0.01752 2 2 t ࢤ. . . u x, t    2

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