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Irrigation and Hydraulics Department Environmental Hydrology

**Lecture 7: Hydrograph and Base flow separation
**

By: Prof. Ahmed Ali A. Hassan Dr. Peter Hany S. Riad

Syllabus

Introduction and review Hydrology and Environment Precipitation Statistical analysis of rainfall data Statistical analysis of rainfall data Watershed characteristics, morphology, and time of concentration equations. Hydrograph component and base flow separation Runoff Estimation (SCS method and indexes) Unit Hydrograph and Synthetic UH (Snyder UH, Dimensionless UH) Changing UH duration Hydrologic Routing Storm Water Drainage Network and Protection Works

Precipitation

Groundwater flow

.Catchment One Catchment The Other Catchment Area Watershed divides the flow of water along different slopes.

Picture Shows Two Catchments .

Hydrograph •What •a) can we get from hydrograph the peak runoff flows(Qp) •b) To estimate runoff volume. Qp Volume of runoff Time .

The influence of catchment characteristics on hydrographs .

hydrographs Steeper catchment Less rough catchment Lesser storage capacity More connections between impervious areas .Exercise: catchment characteristics .

The influence of partial rain coverage .

The influence of storm direction on hydrograph .

.

.

Hydrograph Components Duration of excess precip. Duration Lag Time Time of Concentration Rising Limb Recession Limb (falling limb) Peak Flow Time to Peak (rise time) Recession Curve Separation Base flow Lag time Time of concentration Base flow Time Base .

– Time to Peak. – Time of Concentration. • The drainage characteristics of length and slope. • The time to peak is largely determined by drainage characteristics such as drainage density. channel roughness. Tc: Time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically remote point in the basin to the basin outlet. Rainfall distribution in space also affects the time to peak. together with the hydraulic characteristics of the flow paths. and soil infiltration characteristics. determine the time of concentration. slope. . Tp: Time from the beginning of the rising limb to the occurrence of the peak discharge.

Tl: Time between the center of mass of the effective rainfall hyetograph and the center of mass of the direct runoff hydrograph.– Lag Time. Tb: Duration of the direct runoff hydrograph. . it is sometimes difficult to measure in real world situations. The lag time is a parameter that appears often in theoretical and conceptual models of basin behavior. • The basin lag is an important concept in linear modeling of basin response. – Time Base. However. Many empirical equations have been proposed in the literature. The simplest of these equations computes the basin lag as a power function of the basin area.

Description of hydrograph shape .

.

Runoff hydrograph .

Description of hydrograph .

•It is the time taken for the most remote area of the catchment to contribute water to the outlet.Time of Concentration Contd. .

67 TL . •S is the watershed gradient (m/m). slope etc. •Also.77 S – 0.Time of Concentration Contd.015 L 0. using the Kirpich equation: • Tc = 0. •Tc Tc = 1. • L is the maximum length of flow (m).385 •Tc is the time of concentration (min). can be related to catchment area.

Et L Eo S = (Et .1 of Hudson's Field Engineering.Eo)/L where Et is the elevation at top of the watershed and Eo is the elevation at the outlet.Time of Concentration Contd. Tc can also be obtained from Table 3. .

next figure. the highest runoff of a catchment (worst case) is obtained when rainfall duration (D) is equal to Tc. will give lower intensity of rainfall so lower runoff while T' will give higher intensity but not all parts of the watershed are contributing to runoff since Tc has not been reached.Time of Concentration Contd. •T •From .

Rainfall Intensity Duration Curve Rainfall Intensity 2 T’ Tc T 5 10 Return periods Rainfall Duration (D) .

Runoff Prediction Methods The Rational Formula: It states that: •Qp = (CIA)/360 •where Qp is the peak flow(m3 /s). •A is the area of catchment(ha). • C is dimensionless runoff coefficient. I is the intensity (mm/hr) of a storm of rainfall depth (mm) for a given return period Tc (hr). This is the worst case of runoff. •Note: ha = 104 m2 • .

C .Runoff Coefficient.

.

.

St = k ⋅ Q 0 e t −k = k ⋅ Qt .STEP 1 Hydrograph separation: base flow recession Linear Reservoir S = k* Q Reversed proof The amount of water in storage is: Qt = Qt0 ⋅ e ∞ t t −k St = ∫ Q 0 e dt t -k St = ∫ Q t dt t ∞ St = Q 0 ⋅ − ke St = Q 0 [ ] ⋅ [ 0 − (− ke ) ] t ∞ −k t t −k All groundwater in storage at a certain time t is equal to all discharge between time t and infinite. That is also equal to the groundwater volume in the graph.

Hydrograph separation: base flow recession Linear Reservoir Q t = Q t -1 ⋅ e t −∆ k 1 lnQ t = ln Q t -1 − k ⋅ ∆t STEP 2: Determine direct flow Qdir .

So…. The hydrograph gives information of hydrological processes in catchment But how do we separate a hydrograph? .

Hydrograph separation Engineering approach continued a = constant slope method = straight line method (sometimes horizontal line) b = fixed base method = concave method c = variable slope method .

Method 1: constant slope (straight line) method .

Method 2: Fixed base (concave method) .

Method 3: Variable slope .

Thank you for the Attention .

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