Ain Shams University Faculty of Engineering

Irrigation and Hydraulics Department Environmental Hydrology

Lecture 7: Hydrograph and Base flow separation
By: Prof. Ahmed Ali A. Hassan Dr. Peter Hany S. Riad


Introduction and review Hydrology and Environment Precipitation Statistical analysis of rainfall data Statistical analysis of rainfall data Watershed characteristics, morphology, and time of concentration equations. Hydrograph component and base flow separation Runoff Estimation (SCS method and indexes) Unit Hydrograph and Synthetic UH (Snyder UH, Dimensionless UH) Changing UH duration Hydrologic Routing Storm Water Drainage Network and Protection Works


Groundwater flow

Catchment One Catchment The Other Catchment Area Watershed divides the flow of water along different slopes. .

Picture Shows Two Catchments .

Qp Volume of runoff Time .Hydrograph •What •a) can we get from hydrograph the peak runoff flows(Qp) •b) To estimate runoff volume.

The influence of catchment characteristics on hydrographs .

hydrographs Steeper catchment Less rough catchment Lesser storage capacity More connections between impervious areas .Exercise: catchment characteristics .

The influence of partial rain coverage .

The influence of storm direction on hydrograph .



Hydrograph Components Duration of excess precip.  Duration  Lag Time  Time of Concentration  Rising Limb  Recession Limb (falling limb)  Peak Flow  Time to Peak (rise time)  Recession Curve  Separation  Base flow Lag time Time of concentration Base flow Time Base .

slope. Rainfall distribution in space also affects the time to peak. • The time to peak is largely determined by drainage characteristics such as drainage density.– Time to Peak. channel roughness. – Time of Concentration. Tc: Time required for water to travel from the most hydraulically remote point in the basin to the basin outlet. together with the hydraulic characteristics of the flow paths. Tp: Time from the beginning of the rising limb to the occurrence of the peak discharge. and soil infiltration characteristics. determine the time of concentration. . • The drainage characteristics of length and slope.

Tb: Duration of the direct runoff hydrograph. Tl: Time between the center of mass of the effective rainfall hyetograph and the center of mass of the direct runoff hydrograph.– Lag Time. it is sometimes difficult to measure in real world situations. The lag time is a parameter that appears often in theoretical and conceptual models of basin behavior. . The simplest of these equations computes the basin lag as a power function of the basin area. • The basin lag is an important concept in linear modeling of basin response. However. Many empirical equations have been proposed in the literature. – Time Base.

Description of hydrograph shape .


Runoff hydrograph .

Description of hydrograph .

Time of Concentration Contd. . •It is the time taken for the most remote area of the catchment to contribute water to the outlet.

•Tc Tc = 1. can be related to catchment area.Time of Concentration Contd. using the Kirpich equation: • Tc = 0.385 •Tc is the time of concentration (min). slope etc.67 TL . •Also.77 S – 0. •S is the watershed gradient (m/m).015 L 0. • L is the maximum length of flow (m).

Tc can also be obtained from Table 3. Et L Eo S = (Et . .Eo)/L where Et is the elevation at top of the watershed and Eo is the elevation at the outlet.1 of Hudson's Field Engineering.Time of Concentration Contd.

Time of Concentration Contd. the highest runoff of a catchment (worst case) is obtained when rainfall duration (D) is equal to Tc. will give lower intensity of rainfall so lower runoff while T' will give higher intensity but not all parts of the watershed are contributing to runoff since Tc has not been reached. next figure. •T •From .

Rainfall Intensity Duration Curve Rainfall Intensity 2 T’ Tc T 5 10 Return periods Rainfall Duration (D) .

•Note: ha = 104 m2 • .Runoff Prediction Methods The Rational Formula: It states that: •Qp = (CIA)/360 •where Qp is the peak flow(m3 /s). I is the intensity (mm/hr) of a storm of rainfall depth (mm) for a given return period Tc (hr). •A is the area of catchment(ha). • C is dimensionless runoff coefficient. This is the worst case of runoff.

Runoff Coefficient. C .



That is also equal to the groundwater volume in the graph.STEP 1 Hydrograph separation: base flow recession Linear Reservoir S = k* Q Reversed proof The amount of water in storage is: Qt = Qt0 ⋅ e ∞ t t −k St = ∫ Q 0 e dt t -k St = ∫ Q t dt t ∞ St = Q 0 ⋅ − ke St = Q 0 [ ] ⋅ [ 0 − (− ke ) ] t ∞ −k t t −k All groundwater in storage at a certain time t is equal to all discharge between time t and infinite. St = k ⋅ Q 0 e t −k = k ⋅ Qt .

Hydrograph separation: base flow recession Linear Reservoir Q t = Q t -1 ⋅ e t −∆ k 1 lnQ t = ln Q t -1 − k ⋅ ∆t STEP 2: Determine direct flow Qdir .

The hydrograph gives information of hydrological processes in catchment But how do we separate a hydrograph? .So….

Hydrograph separation Engineering approach continued a = constant slope method = straight line method (sometimes horizontal line) b = fixed base method = concave method c = variable slope method .

Method 1: constant slope (straight line) method .

Method 2: Fixed base (concave method) .

Method 3: Variable slope .

Thank you for the Attention .

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