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Voltage and Current References

Biswajit Behera 141biswajit@gmail.com 9853420601

Voltage & Current References
• An Ideal reference should be independent of power supply, process and temperature variations.

• The term Reference is used when the current or voltage values have more precision and stability than ordinarily found in a source. • A high performance voltage reference can be used to implement a high performance current reference and vice versa.
• Voltage and current references used to bias the current sources and sinks, differential amplifiers, operational amplifiers etc…..

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• To reduce power dissipation, the resistors must be made very large, which requires large area on die.

• Not practicable.

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• Used in simple current mirror to bias the M2 transistor

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com 5 .Calculate Vref ? 141biswajit@gmail.

Calculate Sensitivity of Vref to VDD ? 141biswajit@gmail.com 6 .

com 7 .Calculate Temperature Coefficient of Vref ? How to make Vref as more than VGS ? 141biswajit@gmail.

How to achieve Vref as more than VGS ? 141biswajit@gmail.com 8 .

com 9 .Small layout because both are transistors 141biswajit@gmail.

Calculate Vref ? 141biswajit@gmail.com 10 .

Calculate Sensitivity of Vref to VDD ? 141biswajit@gmail.com 11 .

Calculate TC (Vref) ? How to achieve zero TC (Vref) ? 141biswajit@gmail.com 12 .

com 13 .Condition for zero TC(Vref) 141biswajit@gmail.

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com 15 .Solution : 141biswajit@gmail.

com 16 .Solution (Contd.): 141biswajit@gmail.

This is also called Dual Reference voltage divider 141biswajit@gmail.com 17 .

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com 19 .Solution : 141biswajit@gmail.

com 20 .Application of Dual reference voltage divider 141biswajit@gmail.

Current Source Self Biasing Main drawback of References based on voltage divider are very sensitive to supply voltage. Three important types of current source self biasing are : 1.com 21 . Thermal voltage referenced self biasing 141biswajit@gmail. Diode referenced self biasing 3. Threshold voltage referenced self biasing 2. process and temperature.

com 22 . Threshold voltage referenced self biasing 141biswajit@gmail.1.

Ideally the Reference current is independent of power supply.com 23 . 141biswajit@gmail.

This circuit requires a start up circuit.com 24 . Why ? 141biswajit@gmail. for flawless functionality.

com 25 .Requirement of Start-Up circuit 141biswajit@gmail.

M5 turns off as VGS5 < Vt5. The start up circuit will be idle until I1 (=I2) Becomes again zero.com 26 . 141biswajit@gmail. Now M5 transistor provides current to flow through drain of M1. so I1 increases and so I2.Threshold Referenced Self biasing with start-up circuit When I1 = I2 = 0 then VGS1 = I2R = 0 and VDS1=VGS2 = 0. VG2 increases VGS5 decreases When I1 reaches point A.

com 27 .2. Diode Referenced Self Biasing VBE referenced self biasing in CMOS 141biswajit@gmail.

In an n-well process. with their collectors connected to the positive power supply 141biswajit@gmail. that use wells as their bases and the substrates as their collectors. • In a p-well process.com 28 . the vertical bipolar transistors are PNP type with their collector’s connected to ground.• • CMOS circuits rely on using well transistors. which are vertical bipolar transistors. the vertical bipolar transistors are NPN transistors.

which reduces the effective resistance in series with the diode and the leakage to substrate. Assuming matched devices.com 29 . I.• The parasitic transistor is connected as a diode ( base and collector are tied together). The cascode mirrors made with M1 through M8 force the same current. VGS1 = VGS2 then • • 141biswajit@gmail. to flow through D1 and R.

of the diode voltage(VBE) over threshold voltage.• Advantage : compared to threshold referenced self biasing circuit. • 141biswajit@gmail.com 30 . from wafer to wafer and on the same die. This circuit also depends on temperature. this has better matching.

3.com 31 . Thermal Voltage Referenced Self Biasing 141biswajit@gmail.

Susceptibility to externally coupled noise across R. Mismatches in the gate source voltages of M1 and M2 are made large variations in reference current I. 2. 141biswajit@gmail.com 32 .Disadvantage : 1. Since the voltage drop across resistor R is very small.

141biswajit@gmail.Advantage : The reference current of this circuit has less dependence on temperature.com 33 .

Disadvantage of above three circuits 141biswajit@gmail.com 34 .

Bandgap Voltage References 141biswajit@gmail.com 35 .

com 36 .Negative Temperature Coefficient (TC) • The forward voltage of a PN junction ( VBE of a diode connected BJT) exhibits a negative TC. • We know 141biswajit@gmail. • For a diode connected BJT.

Positive Temperature Coefficient (TC) 141biswajit@gmail.com 37 .

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com 41 .Practical circuit to add 141biswajit@gmail.

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the vertical bipolar transistors are NPN transistors. the vertical bipolar transistors are PNP type with their collector’s connected to ground. In an n-well process.• • But CMOS circuits rely on using well transistors. • In a p-well process. that use wells as their bases and the substrates as their collectors. which are vertical bipolar transistors.com 43 . with their collectors connected to the positive power supply 141biswajit@gmail.

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Other Possible Implementation 141biswajit@gmail.com 45 .

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TC of Bandgap Reference Voltage 141biswajit@gmail.com 47 .

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