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Explanation of statistical notations when writing in apa style for the social sciences

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**APA format for statistical notation and other things:
**

Statistical abbreviations:

ANCOVA Analysis of Covariance

ANOVA Analysis of Variance

α alpha, the probability of making a Type 1 error in hypothesis testing d’ d-prime (a measure of sensitivity, used in Signal Detection Theory) H Kruskal-Wallis test value

β beta, the probability of making a Type 2 error in hypothesis testing df degrees of freedom

CI confidence interval

d Cohen’s measure of effect size

F F-ratio (used in ANOVA, ANCOVA and MANOVA)

Fmax Hartley’s Fmax test value (a test for homogeneity of variance) HSD Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference

Ha Alternative hypothesis

Ho Null hypothesis

LSD Fisher’s Least Significant Difference

MANOVA Multivariate Analysis of Variance

�) M (or 𝑋

Mdn Median

MS Mean Square

MSE Mean square error

Mean (usually, the sample mean)

µ mu, designating the population mean p Probability

n Number in subsample

N Total number in sample σ sigma, designating the population standard deviation (n version of the SD formula) s (or σn-1) sample standard deviation (n-1 version of the SD formula) SE (or SEM) Standard error

ns Not significant

% Percentage

r Pearson's correlation

r

2

R multiple correlation

s

2

coefficient of determination

sample variance (n-1 version)

rs Spearman’s rho

SD Standard deviation

SS Sum of Squares

ilstu. Please pay attention to issues of italics and spacing. Jeffrey Kahn. APA style is very precise about these." or "p < .html Reporting Statistics in APA Style Dr." "p < . Find the original here: http://my. You will note that significance levels in journal articles--especially in tables--are often reported as either "p > ." APA style dictates reporting the exact p value within the text of a manuscript (unless the p value is less than .001.edu/~jhkahn/apastats. Illinois State University The following examples illustrate how to report statistics in the text of a research report. .Graham Hole. Research Skills 2012: page 2 t t-test value T Wilcoxon test value U Mann-Whitney test value Σ Sum x Horizontal axis on a graph y Vertical axis on a graph z z-score 2 Χ Chi square test value Other commonly used abbreviations : °C Degrees Centigrade h Hour(s) kph Kilometres per hour mg Milligramme(s) ms Millisecond(s) cm Centimetre(s) IQ Intelligence Quotient L Litre(s) min Minute(s) °F Degrees Fahrenheit kg Kilogram(s) m Metre(s) ml Millilitre(s) RT Reaction Time g Gram(s) km Kilometre(s) m² Square metre(s) mm Millimetre(s) s Second(s) Jeffrey Kahn's guide to APA format is reproduced below. most statistics should be rounded to two decimal places.001). Also.05.05.01. with the exception of some p values." "p < .

43. F(2. with men receiving higher scores than women. N = 90) = 0. p = . Correlations are reported with the degrees of freedom (which is N-2) in parentheses and the significance level: The two variables were strongly correlated. χ2(1. Chi-Square statistics are reported with degrees of freedom and sample size in parentheses.22. t(54) = 5.45).89. There was a significant main effect for treatment. The average age of students was 19. ANOVAs (both one-way and two-way) are reported like the t test. p < . F(1. p < . you should at least present the unstandardized or standardized slope (beta).04.45).Graham Hole.35.02.001. report the t statistic (rounded to two decimal places) and the significance level.49.01. the chi-square value (rounded to two decimal places). After that report the F statistic (rounded off to two decimal places) and the significance level. and a significant interaction. p = . Research Skills 2012: page 3 Mean and Standard Deviation are most clearly presented in parentheses: The sample as a whole was relatively young (M = 19. Regression results are often best presented in a table. . but there are two degreesof-freedom numbers to report. Following that. Percentages are also most clearly displayed in parentheses with no decimal places: Nearly half (49%) of the sample was married.22 years (SD = 3. along with the t-test and the corresponding significance level.24. then report the within-groups degrees of freedom (separated by a comma). p = . APA doesn't say much about how to report regression results in the text. and the significance level: The percentage of participants that were married did not differ by gender. (Degrees of freedom for the t-test is N-k-1 where k equals the number of predictor variables. SD = 3.43. but if you would like to report the regression in the text of your Results section. 145) = 5. r(55) = . whichever is more interpretable given the data. T Tests are reported like chi-squares. There was a significant effect for gender. First report the between-groups degrees of freedom. 145) = 3.) It is also customary to report the percentage of variance explained along with the corresponding F test. but only the degrees of freedom are in parentheses.

If you do use a table.34. Washington. Social support also explained a significant proportion of variance in depression scores. DC: Author. F(1. Research Skills 2012: page 4 Social support significantly predicted depression scores. . β = -.001.Graham Hole.64.001. do not also report the same information in the text.). p < . R2 = . t(225) = 6. 225) = 42. (2010).12.53. Based on: American Psychological Association. Tables are useful if you find that a paragraph has almost as many numbers as words. p < . Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed. It's either one or the other.

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