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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It would be insufficient just to say a”word of thanks” for all those people who have been so instrumental in the success of this project. However, as a small token of our appreciation we have named here of all those wonderful people, without whom all this would not have been possible. At the very outset, we would like to express our deep sense of gratitude to our mentors at the college, Principle Mr. S.P.Gupta who have been so kind to give us the necessary infrastructure. They have also been a constant source of inspiration. I am deeply indebted to my guide at STPI, Mr. Shekhar Saklani for allowing us to gain the benefits of STPI way of life. It is due to his efforts that my training has gained its present stature and I can never thank him enough for all he has done.

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Ankit Vyas

PREFACE
A very important in curriculum of an engineering student is practical training. I under went practical training training at STPI Dehradun. This is a part of total 45 days training program incorporated in the curriculum of G.I.T. for B.E. course. During my practical training I learned about the networking. Why networking is essential in our life. What are the advantages of networking? How we can share our data. How a data transfer from one source to another source. The main devices for networking are Hub, Switch, and Router. How these devices work. How we give ip address to computer. I also learned how we configure the router how we can set the password such as enable, secret, vty password. How we can telnet the router. How we can access another Router while sitting on our router. So by this training report I have tried to give an overview of the networking.

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CONTENT TABLE

1. COMPANY PROFILE 2. INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING 3. HANDS ON EXPERIENCE 4. PRODUCT AND DEVICES 5. SUMMARY 6. BIBLIOGRAPHY 7. GLOSSARY

4-5 6 7 8 9-10 11-37 38-40

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etc. STPI . Government of India in 1991. The scheme tailor made for Software Exports has benefits.. Duty free imports of hardware and software Exemption from Corporate Income Tax till 2010 100% Foreign equity participation Exemption of excise duty for domestic purchase of capital goods Reimbursement of CST Domestic Tariff Area (DTA) shall be permissible up to 50% of export value terms CG Goods eligible for Depreciation subject maximum of 90% Issue of Green Card Certification of Software Export made through Data communication 4 .A Profile Software Technology Parks of India (STPI). Software Export Certification. bonding. like project approval. is a society set up by the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology. viz. promoting and boosting the Software Exports from India.COMPANY PROFILE STPI . STPI acts as the front end on behalf of the Government of India to take care of all the statutory needs.A Boon to the Software Industry STPI scheme is a 100% Export Oriented Unit scheme for the development and export of software using Data Communication links or by physical media or by On site Consultancy. with the objective of encouraging. import approval.

in a time bound manner Achieving customer satisfaction through the combined efforts of planning the infrastructure and executing the projects through dedicated workforce 5 . quality cost and quality delivery schedule. whichever is higher and Net Foreign Exchange Earning 10% (NFEP). The service delivery is bound with definitive timelines and toned with understanding of the best practices in the industry.25 million or 3 times of CIF value of imported capital goods. STPI supports new companies by providing Incubation infrastructure with all facilities. Back-up power. Internet.To avail STPI scheme benefits. import attestation. viz. software export certification etc.. Quality Policy The policy of STPI is to continuously strive and delight customer through total quality performance of all its services in terms of quality culture. Quality Objectives To strive for the upgradation of the technology to meet customer requirements in ever changing market To upgrade the technology knowledge of all STPI personnel through continuous improvement training To provide state-of-art data communication services as per acceptable international standards To provide comprehensive service including project approvals. the simplified minimum export obligation is USD 0. etc. Fax. The Statutory services are supported on robust Intranet Platforms to ensure instantaneous responses to customer requirements. The share of the software exports from STP units is more than 73% of the total software exports from the country. there are more than 6000 software exporting companies operating under the umbrella of the STPI. Today. Telephone..

complete duty free import of software and hardware. simplified export performance norms. reimbursement of CST.” Former Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee Among the statutory services being offered by STPI are. etc. 6 . STPI is a proud for having introduced commercial Internet in India during 1993 and first videoconference from the country.. STPI committed to take the nation forward to make it an IT superpower.National Goal ”Make India a global Information Technology Power and one of the largest generators and exporters of software in the world within the next 10 years. single window clearances of approval. 90% exemption from corporate income tax.

Extranets. Types of Networks • • • • • Local Area Network (LAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Intranets. thus increasing productivity for users.INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING What Is a Network? A network is basically all of the components (hardware and software) involved in connecting computers across small and large distances. and the Internet Peer-to-Peer Networks Client-Server Networks Media • Twisted-Pair Copper Wire (POTS) • Coaxial Cable (CoAx) • Fiber Optics (Fiber) Network Topologies • • • • Linear Bus Network Star Network Ring Network Token-Ring Network 7 . Networks are used to provide easy access to information.

Protocols • • • • • Simplex Transmission Full-Duplex / Half-Duplex Transmission Synchronous / Asynchronous Transmission Ethernet Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) Networking Hardware • Hubs • Bridges and Switches • Gateways 8 .

HANDS ON EXPERIENCE OSI Reference Model 9 .

Data Transfer 10 .  Each layer is responsible for one particular aspect of communication. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) develops product standards for the computer industry. or sections in the OSI model.The OSI Model and Protocols The OSI model is used to specify how computer devices communicate with each other. THE OSI Model  There are seven layers.  The main objective is to allow computers and networks to work together efficiently. What is OSI?  The Open Systems Interchange (OSI) model is a set of guidelines that describes all the aspects of the communication process.

Information is added at each layer  When the data reaches the destination. the data must again pass through each layer. When data is transferred over a network it must pass through each layer of the OSI model. Physical Layer 11 .  The presentation layer formats the information so that a software application can read the information Session and Transport Layer  The session layer determines how two devices communicate as well as establishes and monitors connections between computers. Network and Data Link Layer  The network Layer identifies computers on a network and determines how to direct information transferring over a network. The additional information is then removed. Application and Presentation Layer  The application layer is responsible for the exchanging information between the programs running on a computer and other services on a network.  The Data Link layer groups data into sets to prepare the data for transport over a network.  The transport layer corrects transmission errors and ensures that information is delivered reliably.

These seven layers can be summarized as follow: Seven layers are defined: 7) Application : Provides different services to the applications 6) Presentation : Converts the information 5) Session : Handles problems which are not communication issues 4) Transport : Provides end to end communication control 3) Network : Routes the information in the network 2) Data Link : Provides error control between adjacent nodes 1) Physical : Connects the entity to the transmission media 12 . connects to a computer.The Physical layer defines how a transmission medium such as cable. This layer also specifies how electrical information transfers on the transmission medium The OSI model has seven layers.

or stack of protocols used to allow communication between networks with different types of computer systems. What is TCP? 13 . It is part of the larger OSI model upon which most data communications is based. One component of TCP/IP is the Internet Protocol (IP) which is responsible for ensuring that data is transferred between two addresses without being corrupted.TCP/IP Model What Is TCP/IP? TCP/IP is a universal standard suite of protocols used to provide connectivity between networked devices. TCP/IP Protocol  TCP/IP Protocol is a collection. It is also the protocol used on the internet.

four numbers with dots in between.65.TCP uses Virtual ports to make connections and also monitors the transmission of information. The numbers between the dots are frequently referred to as "octets" Some groups of IP addresses are reserved for use only in private networks and are not routed over the Internet. For ease of use.25. IP address Ip address is a logical address or a software which is used to identify a node in a network ip(internet protocol) What Do IP Addresses Look Like? • All devices connected to the Internet have an Internet Protocol (IP) address. it helps to uniquely identify a user of the system. None of the numbers between the dots may be greater than 255. What is IP?  Internet Protocol (IP) is responsible for addressing information and is used to direct information to its proper destination on a TCP/IP network.12. Just like a telephone number. These are: • • • • Private IP Addresses 14 . An example of an IP address would be 97. IP addresses have 32 bits in total.Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is used to transfer information between two devices on a TCP/IP Network. IP addresses are written in what is called a "dotted decimal" format. IP addresses are in reality a string of binary digits or "bits". Each bit is either a 1 or a 0.

1) Bus topology 2) Star topology 3) Ring topology Bus Topology 15 .168.255.192.255.0 .0.172.31.255 10. What Is Local host? Whether or not your computer has a network interface card it will have a “built in” IP address with which network aware applications can communicate with one another.1.1.0 172.16.255.1 and is frequently referred to as “local host” Network Topology There are three types of Topology.0.168.255 • Home networking equipment / devices usually are configured in the factory with an IP address in the range 192. This IP address is defined as 127.168.255 192.0 .0.255.168.1 to 192.0.0.10.0.255.

means new comp. For 10base2 cable it is 50W and for 10Base5 it is 75W. The central device may be hub or switch. • One pc sends data. • It needs termination at either end. Thus. star topology needs more cable requirement than any other topologies.All the host receive it and accepts only whose network address matches. • Break cable or loose connector can make whole network failed. • It is very difficult to troubleshoot in Bus Topology. Can be easily connected.Features: • The cable runs from one pc to another. 16 . Star Topology Features: • The cable runs from each pc to the central device. • Only one pc can send data at a time. • Easy to extend the network. • It generally uses co-axial cable and T-connector. • The network does not fail if one pc fails. • The network speed decrease as the no of computers increases so this topology is suitable for very small network.

It is considered improved version of Bus Topology. • Whole network does not fail if single pc or cable or connector fails. Ring Topology Features: • In Ring Topology each pc is connected to the next pc and finally last pc is connected to the first pc . • Each pc sends what it receives until the final destination arrives. • Very easy to troubleshoot as compared to any other topology. • The only major disadvantage is if the central device fails whole network goes down.so in Ring Topology doe snot required termination.• Easy to add new pc and thus easy to extend network. • No termination is required. 17 . • Mostly uses UTP CAT5 cables and RJ-45 connectors now a days. • Whole network fails if one pc fails. • It is the most efficient and speedy because it uses token passing media access scheme because of this each pc sends source address and destination address along with data and thus no need to match address.

or coax. Coaxial Cable Coaxial cable. The signal on the cable is not the same on the two conductors since the shield carries both ground and signal. It is an unbalanced line. same resistance. for short. Fiber-optic • Consists of a small core of glass or plastic surrounded by a cladding layer and jacket. Twisted pairs offer low noise pick-up and low noise emission from a cable because it is a balanced line and because a balanced line offers "common-mode noise rejection". coax is not a balanced line. is the other most popular cable configuration.Types of Cable Twisted Pair Twisted pairs consist of two insulated wires twisted together. Therefore. 18 . They are specifically intended for carrying signals and were invented in the 1880’s for wiring up the early telephone systems. The two conductors are not the same size.

As computer networks grow in size and complexity. long distance data transmission. so do the internetworking devices used to connect them. Cable can't be tapped and data stolen => high security Most expensive and difficult to work with. 19 . they localize traffic on the network. Good for very high speed. Kevlar fibers are placed between the two fibers for strength.• • • • • • • • • • Fibers are unidirectional (light only travels in one direction) so two fibers are used. • Second. they can merge existing networks. they extend the distance over which a network can extend. can transmit at 100 Mbps and way up to 2 Gbps Up to 2000 meters without a repeater. The purposes of having devices: • First. • Third. they allow a greater number of nodes to be connected to the network. Supports data. • Fourth. NOT subject to electrical interference. Products & Divisions What are internetworking devices? Internetworking devices are products used to connect networks. voice and video. Needs specialized knowledge to install => expensive all round. one for sending and one for receiving. Immune to tapping.

• Fifth. they isolate network problems so that they can be diagnosed more easily. Networking Hardware  Hubs  Bridges and Switches  Gateways  Routers Connectivity Hardware  Network Interface Card (NIC)  Modem  Fax Modem  Cable Modem 20 .

LOCAL AREA NETWORKS AND DEVICES LAN Devices 21 .

through a LAN  Considered layer 1 component  Includes – Cat 5 UTP – optical fiber – free space – coaxial cable 22 . in the form of bits and bytes.Host  Provides users with connection to network – computers (both clients and servers) – printers – scanners – other user devices  Connects directly to a network segment  Operates at all 7 layers of the OSI model NIC  Network interface card  Printed circuit board usually installed inside a computer case  Also called network adapter  Adapts host device to the network  Layer 2 device  Carries a unique code called a MAC address Media  Carries a flow of information.

switches and hubs usually only have servers connected to them that have been configured as being part of the same network.Repeater  Regenerates and retimes network signals  Allows signal to travel a longer distance on the media  Single-port “in” and single-port “out” device  Classified as layer 1 device Bridge  Connects two LAN segments to make one larger continuous LAN  Filters LAN traffic to keep local traffic local  Allows connectivity to other parts of the LAN  Simple to install and manage—costs less than router  Checks MAC address to make forwarding decisions  Considered layer 2 device ROUTER & ROUTING ALGO What is a Router? • As stated before. 23 .

• Routers can also be configured to deny communication between specific servers on different networks. it is possible to deny communication between two servers on different networks that intend to communicate on TCP port 80. For example. Routers therefore direct and regulate traffic between separate networks. They can also filter traffic based on the TCP port section of each packet. you must reserve an IP address for a router and make sure that the router is directly connected to the LAN associated with that network. and allow all other traffic between them. much like a traffic policeman. • If you intend to route between networks. • Routers Work at the Network Layer • Use the Protocols to carry Data over Network • Link Networks used for different purposes • Apply rules or filters to let certain data in • Route data Connections Over Specific Set of Network 24 .• Routers will connect into multiple switches to allow these networks to communicate with one another. then for each network.

What is a Default Gateway? • A default gateway is really a gateway of last resort.0) and your credit card transaction payment the network (10.X.168.1.168.46.0.1.0 via router R2 • Go to everything else via router R1. R1 therefore would be considered your default gateway • For most home networks.0) and the internet • R2 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192. Say for example: • You have two routers R1 and R2 • R1 is connected to both your SOHO home network (192. your default gateway would be the router / firewall connected to the Internet.What is a Gateway? • Another name for a router.123.X.0. 25 .0) which is also connected to other corporate networks with addresses starting with 10.0.0.X • You could put a route on your SOHO servers that states: • Go to network 10.0 255.

ROUTING Routing is a protocol that is designed to defined path for packet delivery to the destination 26 .What is a NIC? Your network interface card is frequently called a NIC. Currently. the most common types of NIC used in the home are Ethernet and wireless Ethernet cards. What is a DTE? DTE stands for Digital Terminal Equipment. The terminals would have no computing power and only functioned as a screen / keyboard combination for data processing. a terminology originally intended for computer terminals located at remote offices or departments that were directly connected modems. Nowadays most PCs have their COM and Ethernet ports configured as if they were going to be connected to a modem or other type of purely networking oriented equipment. Modems and other purely networking oriented equipment. What is a DCE? DCE is the acronym for Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment.

LAB DESIGNING: 1) Set our hostname and get our interfaces up. 2) Ping our directly connected interfaces 3) Configure routing for our topology 4) View our routing table 5) Verify that we can ping all routers Hub & Switch What’s a Smart Hub? 27 .

 Our most common smart hub on campus is the Asanté NetStacker. Use hubs with care! Hubs Operate at layer 2 of the network Data link layer Ethernet 28 . ports can be shut off.  Networking no longer recommends hubs for wiring closets. A smart hub can be configured and remotely managed. It may be OK to use small unmanaged hubs to give selected offices additional ports. Traffic is always forwarded to all ports.  However. It has no switching capabilities. For example. this doesn’t mean that it does anything smart with network traffic.

Main purposes Repeat traffic out all ports Media conversion inside a LAN Advantages of Hubs • Easy to Understand • Easy to Implement • …so they’re cheap Disadvantages of Hubs • Wasteful of bandwidth • Poor security • HUB broadcasts packets on all other ports Switches 29 .

There are important differences between switches and hubs. 30 .• Also operate at layer 2 of the network – Data link layer – Ethernet • Main purposes – Repeat traffic out some ports – Media conversion within a LAN • Often called a bridge Difference between Hub and Switch • A bridge with more than two interfaces (ports) is also known as a switch. the way in which they forward frames. In particular.

even though the frame may be only destined for a system connected to one particular interface (C. on the other hand. • A switch. the switch reduces the number of packets on the other LAN segments . The switch learns the association between the systems MAC addresses and the interface ports in the same way as a bridge (see above). forwards the frame to only the required interface. in the above diagram). The switch also improves security. • By sending the packet only where it need to go. 31 . • A hub (or repeater) forwards a received frame out of all the interfaces (ports). resulting in the frame reaching all connected equipment. increasing the overall performance of the connected LANs.A Hub sending a packet form F to C.

A Switch sending a frame from F to a multicast / broadcast addres 32 .A Switch sending a packet from F to C • Switches (like bridges) normally forward all multicast and broadcast packets to all receivers (some switches have extra processing to help improve performance of multicast forwarding). More details about this and the operation of switches may be found in a related page (see below).

eigrp. star. 33 . pap. in companies. by this report we can know about the networking. igrp. rip. in colleges etc. hub bridge. type of topologies such as bus. Lastly I would like to thank all the Staff members of STPI for cooperating me during this training. Without networking human life is not possible. etc. by this report we can also know how a router work & what are the essential commands for routing. chap. Networking is used every where such as in offices. By the networking we can be connected in all over the world. Now a days networking is very essential to share our data & transfer our data from source to destination. How we make excess list. ring type of network LAN. how a data transfer from one source to another source.SUMMARY In this training report I have tried to give an overview of the networking . The best example of networking is internet. networking protocols such as Tcp/ip. networking devices such as router. switches. WAN etc. hdlc etc.