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**FUNDAMENTALS OF THERMAL ENGINEERING
**

ASSIGNMENT NO 2 1. A heat pump has a coefficient of performance that is of the theoretical maximum. It maintains a hall at , which leaks energy per degree temperature difference to the ambient. For a maximum of power input, determine the minimum outside temperature for which the heat pump is sufficient. 2. A heat pump heats a house in the winter and then reverses to cool it in the summer. The room temperature should be in the winter and in the summer. Heat transfer through the walls and ceilings is estimated to be per degree temperature difference between the inside and outside. (a) Determine the power required to run it in the winter when the outside temperature decrease to . (b) If the unit is run by the same power as calculated in (a), throughout the year, determine the maximum outside summer temperature for which the house can be maintained at . 3. An isolated system of total mass m is formed by mixing two equal masses of the same liquid initially at the temperatures T1 and T2. Eventually, the system attains an equilibrium state. Each mass is incompressible with constant specific heat c. Show that the amount of entropy produced is ] √ Also discuss about the sign of the amount of entropy production. 4. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure A2.4 contains of water at saturated vapor state . It is cooled so that its volume reduces to half of the initial volume because of heat transfer to the surroundings at . Determine the total entropy generated during the process. 5. A piston cylinder device loaded with a linear spring as shown in Figure A2.5 contains of water at and . Heat is transferred from a source at until water reaches to a final state of at and . Determine the total entropy generated during the process. 6. A piston cylinder device shown in Figure A2.6 contains of water initially at with of quality. The mass of the piston is such that a pressure of is required to lift the piston. Heat is added to the system from a source at until its temperature reaches . Determine the total entropy generation during the process. 7. Steam enters into a turbine at and and exits at . If the power output of the turbine is , determine the mass flow rate of steam. Assume reversible adiabatic process. 8. Steam enters a nozzle at and reversible adiabatic process and exits at and with a velocity of , undergoes a . Determine the exit velocity. [

MSREE: Thermal Engineering

Assignment 2

Steam enters an adiabatic nozzle at .5 Figure A2. Assuming the process to be reversible and adiabatic. what is the power output of the turbine? (b) If the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is . The solar collector receives solar radiation at the rate of 0. The power output of the turbine is when the mass flow rate of steam is . 12. Steam enters into a turbine at . and with a velocity of at and with a velocity of . If the nozzle has an inlet area of (a) the exit temperature of steam from the nozzle. The exhaust gases enter the turbine at 450°C at a rate of 0. If the .02 kg/s and leave at 400°C. Consider the turbocharger of an internal combustion engine as shown in Figure A2. Steam enters into a turbine at a rate of with . A compressor receives air at mass flow rate of the air is compressor.15 shows a system for collecting solar radiation and utilizing it for the production of electricity by a power cycle. and exits . 11.018 kg/s and leaves at 135 kPa. what is the power output? (c) What is the outlet enthalpy of the steam from the real turbine? 14.4 9. 15. Air enters the compressor at 70°C and 95 kPa at a rate of 0.14. Determine the rate at which the entropy is generated within the turbine. The mechanical efficiency between the turbine and the compressor is 95 percent (5 percent of turbine work is lost during its transmission to the compressor). Air at and enters into a diffuser at a velocity of and exits with a velocity . determine: (a) the air temperature at the compressor exit and (b) the isentropic efficiency of the compressor. determine the exit pressure and temperature of the air. and exits at . (a) If the turbine is isentropic. determine 13.315 MSREE: Thermal Engineering Assignment 2 .8|Page Figure A2. Turbine rejects heat to the surroundings at . Figure A2. and (b) the rate of entropy generation for the process. and with a velocity of and saturated vapor exits from the turbine at with a velocity of . Figure A2. determine the maximum exit pressure of the 10.6 and and requires a power input of . Using air properties for the exhaust gases.

(a) determine the minimum theoretical collector area required. as a function of the thermal efficiency and the collector efficiency. defined as the fraction of the incident energy that is stored. generates electricity at the rate 0. in m2. and 0. Investigate the effect of the heat pump COP on the yearly operation costs and the number of years required to break even.0. Let the source temperature vary from 300 to 1000°C. Determine how many years it will take for the heat pump water heater to pay for its cost differential from the energy it saves. 25°C. 0.9|Page kW per m2 of area and provides energy to a storage unit whose temperature remains constant at 2200C. Plot the power produced and the cycle efficiency against the source temperature for sink temperatures of 0°C.5. 18. 19.08/kWh.5 MW. and the total entropy change for the process. in m2. and the sink temperature to vary from 0 to 50°C.15 16.75. and (c) 1 K until the pond temperature drops to 300 K. The power cycle receives energy by heat transfer from the storage unit. and discuss the results. 17. Study the effects of the varying heat added to the working fluid and the source temperature on the entropy change of the working fluid. Let the source temperature vary from 100 to 1000°C. For operation at steady state. and 50°C. Notice that the temperature of water in the pond will be gradually decreasing as energy is extracted from it. (b) determine the collector area required. Figure A2. Use temperature intervals of (a) 5 K. Plot the MSREE: Thermal Engineering Assignment 2 . Also solve this problem exactly by integration and compare the results. Plot the payback period against the COP and discuss the results. A typical heat pump–powered water heater has a COP of 2. the efficiency of the engine will be decreasing. therefore. A typical electric water heater has an efficiency of 90 percent and costs $390 a year to operate at a unit cost of electricity of $0. Determine the maximum work that can be extracted from a pond containing 105 kg of water at 350 K when the temperature of the surroundings is 300 K. the entropy change of the source. Let the COP vary from 2 to 5.14 Figure A2.2 but costs about $800 more to install. and discharges energy by heat transfer to the surroundings at 200C. (b) 2 K. Plot the collector area versus for collector efficiencies equal to 1. Study the effects of the temperatures of the heat source and the heat sink on the power produced and the cycle thermal efficiency.

The heat losses from the nozzle to the surrounding medium at 20°C are estimated to be 3. and 1300 kJ.90. A heat engine receives heat from a source at 1500 K at a rate of 700 kJ/s. and plot your results. Submission Dead Line: 15th Jan 2013 MSREE: Thermal Engineering Assignment 2 . Steam enters an adiabatic turbine at 8 MPa and 500°C with a mass flow rate of 3 kg/s and leaves at 30 kPa.0 on both the work done and the exit temperature of the steam. and discuss the results. The isentropic efficiency of the turbine is 0. Air enters a nozzle steadily at 280 kPa and 77°C with a velocity of 50 m/s and exits at 85 kPa and 320 m/s. and the environment temperature is 25°C. Study the effect of reducing the temperature at which the waste heat is rejected on the reversible power. and plot the results.10 | P a g e entropy changes of the source and of the working fluid against the source temperature for heat transfer amounts of 500 kJ. 20. as the rejection temperature is varied from 500 to 298 K. Determine (a) the exit temperature and (b) the total entropy change for this process. determine (a) the temperature at the turbine exit and (b) the power output of the turbine. 900 kJ. and it rejects the waste heat to a medium at 320 K. Study the effect of varying the surrounding medium temperature from 10 to 40°C on the exit temperature and the total entropy change for this process. Determine (a) the reversible power. and plot the results. 22. Study the effect of varying the turbine isentropic efficiency from 0. 21. The measured power output of the heat engine is 320 kW.2 kJ/kg. Neglecting the kinetic energy change of the steam. and (b) the rate of irreversibility. and the rate of irreversibility.75 to 1.

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