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XV. 1037) PART BY I TRANSLATED FROM THE ARABIC KATE CHAMBERS SEELYE submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of philosophy in the Faculty of Philosophy Columbia University ^Tttu ijork COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 1919 .COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY ORIENTAL STUDIES VOL. I MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS (Al-Fark Bain al-Firak) BEING THE HISTORY OF THE VARIOUS PHILOSOPHIC SYSTEMS DEVELOPED IN ISLAM abu-Mansur 'abd-al-Kahir ibn-Tabir al-Baghdadl (d.

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XV.COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY OKIENTAL STUDIES VOL. 1037^ PART BY I TRANSLATED FROM THE ARABIC KATE CHAMBERS SEELYE Sl"BMnTED Dv PARTIAL FOJTLMEXT OF THE REQUREMtSTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY rs the Faculty of Philosophy COLCMBIA UNIVERSITY Xrro Pork COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY PRESS 1919 . MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS |A!-Fark Bain al-Firak) HISTORY OF THE VARIOUS PHILOSOPHIC SYSTEMS DEVELOPED IN ISLAM BY aV>Manr"/t' abl-al-Kabir ibn-Tahir al-Bagnd.ldi ^d.

f\^ S42\ .

NOTE The other translation of a is work from one language into analways a job more or less thankless. Seelye has yet I vehture to say steered clear of the rocks in her path that her translation gives a very fair picture of the original. as the theories of the Greek metaphysicians are embroidered on to the dogmas of Islam to warrant the attempt to — is terest to the general student of the world's intellectual effort do for al-Baghdadi what has already been done for the two other scholars of his age. It is difficult end of the is to satisfy the masters at each line. But has its especial interest. in it ought to be remembered that the text as published 1910 by Muhammad Badr is not in prime condition. far Mrs. In putting out this first part of al-Baghdadi's CompenIt dium. words with Between these two he may fail to adjust himself with that nicety that reveals the master hand. his author's The translator desires to reach lucidity of statement. . at the same time he wishes to reproduce as felicitous precision as ideals is possible. This is the case particularly logically when the languages are as distant philo- one from the other as English and Arabic. The subject which was the theme of al-Baghdadi — the Con- formity or the non-Conformity of and philosophic it sectaries — Mohammedan religious - is an abstruse one history of at best. Ibn Hazm and al-Sharastani and to render his work accessible to the student who cannot read him in his Arabic original. It is not for me to judge in how . The Mohammedan of sufficient in- thought.

Mrs. In her Introduction. and though his point of view is strictly conservative. We not care to believe that our author has achieved a wonderful performance but he has. even with the does not always inspire in the reader a robust con- corrections suggested by the master-hand of Ignaz Goldziher. if we wish to understand the various influences that have moulded the great Mohammedan world. and. . teresting material.NOTE is based upon one single manuscript. Philip Hitti and Professor Talcott Williams in helping her over many a difficult problem. Seelye in acknowledging the assistance she has received from both Dr. it fidence. it is one that has to be taken into account. 1919. May 31. given us some in- may He was learned and a much-read man. Hazm and al-Sharastani. Seelye has endeavored to point out the difference in the form of presentation that distinguishes al-Baghdadl from Ibn . Columbia University. Richard Gottheil. I wish to join Mrs. at least.

.: 21 21 Chapter . Sects of the Kharijlyah III.. The Doctrines Mu'tazilite of the Erring Sects among the 116 Kadariyah Bibliography 211 Index vii 215 .'.-> 27 31 II.'. Chapter Sects of the Rawafid 43 74 Chapter Chapter II..".-. The Divisions of the Moslem Community ..CONTENTS Note Introduction v i Translation ~'Part I ... 25 Chapter Chapter Explanation of the Idea :.'. 19 ••••>•• '. Part II I... I.. The The The Division into Sects Part III : 41 I.

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would imply a remarkable unity in this He might at first be tempted to compare it. the Shiites and the Sunnites. all We must not. Islamic Sects in General the student who first looks into the tenets of the religion. and therefore work that to make a more or less arbitrary division of the re- ligious system. the one which divides the Shiites and the Sunnites. with favorable results for Islam." his marveling would cease. after a little further study. he found that there was one great schism in Islam. In other words. when. and his first impulse would naturally be to condemn a religion which justified its schisms by a tradition said to come down from the prophets. sects exist Many which represent important philosophical schools . to Christianity with sects its many and denominations. that instead of the tradition being invented to justify the sect. But once face to face with the tradition. owe their origins to the imaginings of the theologians. he could still marvel at a religion of but two sects.INTRODUCTION Of To who Moslem religion. " The Jews are divided into yi sects. and the Christians are divided into 72 sects. The fact of the matter is. conclude from this but the two sects. the simplicity of the creed accepted by all profess Islam. theologians of Islam incumbent upon them to bring set to about the fulfilment of this prophecy. the sects have been invented to justify the tradition. however. Even. claiming that Mohammed had many of the said that Islam would be divided felt it into 73 sects. and my people will be divided into 73 sects.

libri octo. In his article entitled Le denombrement des sectes hometanes. Bale. " Shu'ab. i. 163. ii. in the third version. vol. in opposition to the 73 sects of Islam. 1587. : only the Jews who. p. which appeared in the Revue de I'Histoire de la Religion. It is when these are subdivided. is. 26. century. to bring up their number to 73. Martinus Crucius in his Turco-Graeciae principales sectas divisa. p." division. a term applied very generally to the various ramifications of an ferent. 66." Some traditions Ibn Maja (d. in another. that the arbitrariness appears. are opposed to the future division of Islam into 72 sects. of which one shall go to heaven. and the Christians with 72 sects. and thus which has become thus misinterpreted sect. wrong tradition came to mean " Firkah. Arabische Litteratur. est. vol. this tive form. ibn-Khalli- kan. Brockelmann. 680. with their 71 sects. says: " Superstitio LXXII give the gives it is 1 Mohametana est in quarum una sola in Para- disum dux reliquae vero in inferos. 283) three versions of this saying of the prophet In one number as 72 instead of 73. the 71 Jewish sects alone are opposed to Islam. . the Jews are mentioned with 71. Palgrave suggested that the idea of the 72 sects came from the New Testament account of Our Lord's 72 disciples.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS and widely differing trends of thought. The accord- 1 Abu-Abdallah Muhammad ibn-Yazid ibn-Maja al-Kazwinl." branches. Goldziher's suggestion is that this tradition is an erroneous interpretation of a word which originally meant something quite difinterpretation having changed the primiIn other words. Goldziher offers an explanation for the origin of this rather extraordinary saying attributed to Mo He tells how allusions to this division by European authors are to be found as early as the sixteenth Mohammed. De Slane. idea. while the rest are condemned to hell . the Christians not even being mentioned. vol. Biographical Dictionary. p. Cf.

ed. H. vol. ibid. Sahth. p. 1 branches. 391. p.. Here the suggestion is made that it can be traced back to the Jewish tradition about Moses and the 70 elders that Moses chose six elders from each tribe." we have the tradition of the 72 or 73 sects. and modesty (194-256/810-870). i. iv. vol. 147. This number the Mohammedans must increase and they therefore claim 73 sects. the one quoted by the great traditionalist Bukhari trad. tion appears a as follows 2). 594. and was therefore asked for only four representatives. Disagreements over points of difference 1 this hadlth have not. Other rather interesting explanations of this arbitrary division are to be found in Steinschneider's article in Z. G. while a third derives it from the 70 languages of the Tower of Babel... 126). Mah. ii. Another view is that the origin is astronomical. "Faith has 60 and some is one branch of faith " (Le rec. however.. Cairo 1288 A. . 2 One of three great traditionalists of the ninth century. This same tradi" Faith has 70 and : more branches. except Levi. which being a model tribe would not take offense if slighted. and finally p. i. p. 2 firkah having been substituted for " Shu'ab. and of which the lowest is the taking out of the oath what is to be rejected. One of the greatest was the question of how many of these Ibid. This use of the word branch gradually came to have the meaning of branching off. iv. vol. vol. a tradition drawn from the Jewish legend of the 72 letters with which Yahweh will free . M. p. Lud. and modesty is a branch of faith" (Muslim. Moses himself constituting the seventy-first elder. des ed. been limited to the question of the number. vol. Krehl. dividing.INTRODUCTION ing to Goldziher. Cf. . and a fourth from the J2 letters in Allah's name. the children of Israel.. D. of which the highest is the belief that there is no God but Allah. little later.

'Ibid. there are more than twice as many. cutting.. one of the greatest . and to the people as a pious Sufi. denied sects . some are to be found giving quite the opposite of the text which is generally admitted : that all the sects will go to paradise. p. one only to hell. and among them leading men. nites cling to the hadlth. Baghdad!. Shahrasta. p. 93) he says: " The authenticity of this tradition has been attacked. there are not as many existing. Of this group.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS would be saved. 1 In was Fakhr al-Din al-Razi the great preacher (d. 3 Mystic who was executed in 921 (ibid. vol. 1 and ibn-Tahir. on the contrary. 4 . Some held (among them our author. Clement Huart.. for instance. as orthodox Sunand strive to whip the various sects inserting. As an example of he the cleverness of some of the who it is mentions abu-Mughith al-Husain al-Hallaj. v." MafQtlh al-ghaib [Keys Some others of the mysterious world]. In this connection interesting to note how often the leader of a new sect is a mania or freed slave. the orthodox Sunnite sect others held that all would be saved except one while still others. Litterature Arabe. 1209) his commentary on the Koran (Surah 21. vi. the tradition altogether. clever politicians and mystics. Besides. claims that the Rafidiyah are divided into 300 sects. 317. who disregard the tradition go to the other extreme. to the princes as a Shiite. Mak2 rlzi. 269). s appeared to his companions as God. leaders. 3SS. it is a question of secondary teachings (derived from these fundamental doctrines). till they reach p. Ibn-Hazm holds that many of these sects arose as followers of false prophets. Baghdad!) that all would be damned except one. p. and it has been observed that if by the J2 sects are meant as many divergencies of the fundamental dogmas of religion. . into line.nl. 193. but if. and combining.

Zaidiyah Imamlyah (1). little idea of the differences abounding over less arbitrary and the more or character of the whole proceeding. Baghdad!: Zaidiyah (4). The unorthodox they divide as follows Shahrastam groups them under the four main headings: Kadariyah. This gives a this subject. Some of the sects are of political origin. Ibn-Hazm. although differing in details. others have really to do with some of the fundamental beliefs of Islam.INTRODUCTION the number of 73. Sifatlyah. the Zaidiyah and the Imamlyah (or Rafidlyah). Imamlyah (15) total 20. Being orthodox Sunnites themselves. Ibn-Hazm: Mu'tazilah (much the same as the Kadariyah). they cannot disagree about that sect. 19. Murji'ah. which The Shiites claim that was due to the disagreement over 'All.the Sunnites. which is the next most important sect to. Baghdad! Kadariyah. Baghdad!. writers disre- gards the hadith altogether. and Shiite. Shiite. the three whom we are going to consider. Khawarij. Isma'lHyah (1). Murji'ah. Kaisanlyah (1). The various Arab sects within the '* Ummat who take up the matter of the al-Islam " (the communit}'. . (3). agree more or less in the main divisions. Kharijlyah and Shiite. Ghulat (10). total Ibn-Hazm gives only two subdivisions. naturally differ in their Of these writers. A carefully tabulated list of Baghdad!' divisions will be found at the end of this introduction. As we have already noted. In the subdivision of the Shiites. while still others are based merely on quibbling. 'AH was martyred by Mu'awiyah and S . (4). The Ghulat he excludes entirely from the Ummat al-Islam. Shahrastam and ibn-Hazm. Shahrastam : gives the following divisions: Kaisanlyah. the reasons given for the branching off of the numerous sects vary greatly.of manner of grouping the Islam) sects. An example of the greatest political division is to be found in the separation of the Shiites. on the other hand. Kharijlyah.

been questioned by Goldziher. These are the Hanifite. 6 a Mohammedan work . the Sunnite and the Shiite. clinging to the creed. is little short of blasphemy. and the Persian conception of cuted. the giving of alms. to imagine that infallible. but are divided into the four great schools. was put to death by the latter and his following perseTill lately the opinion has been held that the attitude taken by the Shiites with regard to 'AH was greatly influenced by Persian mysticism. the main Sunnites recognize no sects within the orthodox fold. : Allah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS that his descendants alone are to be regarded as legitimate Imams. Shafiite. We read of one sect whose leader having addressed 'AH as a God. The tendency to regard 'AH as a God naturally increased after his death. a ruler as more or less divine. the etc. and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah. developed from each other. " There is no God but Allah. we are led to for disagreement. By some 'AH was even regarded as divine. and include in the ramifications of numerous sects almost every conceivable view. With such an array of sects as the above statements in- dicate. If these men limited themselves to attacking or arguing over questions really vital to Islam. the and the Hanbalite. been attacked by some scholar or leader. each of which recognizes the other. all After a glance at some of the Islamic works on it is apparent that the only thing upon which Moslems agree is the creed " There is no God but however. To the orthodox Sunnite. and Mohammed is the prophet of Allah. Once divided on this apart their these two. pilgrimage. This opinion has." Every- thing aside from this has. the Malikite. however. at some time or other. wonder what were some of the causes The average student of Islam is likely every Moslem must accept the Koran as sects." such a view point.. such as the necessity for daily prayers. The divisions of the Shiites have already been given.

Ibn-KhallikSn. Goldziher. 65. or the consequences attending a mouse's eating the consecrated host. Friedlander. Geschichte der Arab. and at times appears not only dull but exceedingly childish. Ges. p. Brockelmann. vol. it is worth (Subki. 238. whether a man is a believer. al-Kahir ibn-Tahir ibn-Muhammad 329/1037). 160. Gottingen. however. regarding the number of angels able to stand on a pin-point at one time. who quotes ibn-al-Salah. (d. Al-Baghdadi Accounts of Baghdadl's lowing works life are to be found in the fol- De Slane. vol. vol. As a matthese subjects seem to occupy them far less quibbles over than their hair-splitting the question of whether Allah touches his throne or not. was. 28. but while still young went with his father to Nisapur where he studied 7 . Z. an unbeliever or a heretic. A. O. Die ShdMten. p. 'Abd al-Kahir was a native of Baghdad. 149.. Tabak&t al-Shafi'iyah. D. Subki. 228). according to ibn-al-Salah. Abu Mansur 'Abd al-Baghdadi Subki. p. vol. p. Vorlesungen iiber den Islam. der Wiss. G. the son of Tahir ibn-Muhammad al-Baghdadi (d. S. 37. p. ii. is not sure of this statement. i. vol.. 349. 345. 345 Abhandlung. iii. whether an interrupted prayer is acceptable. /. vol. M. Encyclopedia of Islam. . The result is rather dull reading. might prove most interesting reading. it ii. under Baghdad!. These discussions strongly re- semble in pettiness the scholastic debates of the mediaeval Christian Church. vol. no. der 385. 283). p. he merely gives for what p..INTRODUCTION on sects ter of fact. Wustenf eld. Tabakat al-Shafi'iyah. Lit. p. etc. 26.

25) into seven ranks. he devotes 1 an entire half-page to a ibid. was a pupil of abu-Ishak al-Isfaraini. 652. vol. Subki divided the followers of the great ii.. and a rather amusing poem of his. or continuation of the History of Nlsapur. (Tabakat al-ShsH'tyah. 238). whom he succeeded and leader. seventeen of which he taught publicly.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Subki. and says He came to Nisapur with his father. however. iii. p. His noted. after the latter's death in 1027) as teacher Ibn-Khallikan Faris. never made his information a source of profit. p. leader al-Ash'ari (vol. list of his writ- Ibn-Khallikan. mentions tells us that the hafiz. He in arithmetic. and possessed great riches. the town in 429 (1037) and take refuge in Isfara'in. 'Abd-al-Ghaffar " : al- him in the Siyak. But the joy of the natives of this town at having such an eminent scholar in their midst was short-lived. in his long account of him numerous sciences. ii. for he died there that same year and was buried by the grave of his former teacher abu-Ishak. . list of his is many virtues generosity especially where almost a page is devoted and accomplishments. placing Baghdad! in the third rank. vol." The longest account of him is to be found to a in Subki's Tabakat. on his poverty-stricken condition due to this generosity is quoted. although theology attracted him most. Fakhr al-Din al-Razi 1 also mentions him in his "Al-Riyad al-Miiallakah" {Hanging Gardens) According to Subki's account he was a voluminous writer. He He com- posed treatises on different sciences and surpassed his contemporaries in every branch of learning. 418 ( him to leave forced The revolt of the Turkomans. says he was versed He became especially famous for his skill in 17 sciences. which he spent on the learned (in the law) and on the Traditionalists. p. In fact.

The Ru'yat Allah. a dogmatic argument over Surah 75. vol. Some of the pages in the main part of the book are missing. now in the Con- stantinople library. To these may be added 'ala Kitab at harb ibn-Harb (against the Mu'tazilite Ja'far ibn-Harb). as this he omits his Fark. 555. he treats at the very end of his book. And even in as long a list some which BaghdadI himself mentions in The following are the most important Al-Fark bain al-Firak (the work under consideration). 'Abd al-Kahir al-Baghdadi's work. al-Takmilah H'l hisSb (on mathematics). and a little worm-eaten. as well as the end of the fifth chapter of the fifth part. He reports the manuscript as untidy. based on the tradition we have already mentioned " There shall be 73 sects in Islam. number 2800 of the Berlin Verseichniss der ara681. Kitab Itnad H MawWritli al-'Ibad (the laws regarding inheritance of the worshippers). In his work entitled Milal wa'l-Nihal. he begins by stressis ing this last point. Al-Fark bain al-Firak. is work. Kitab al-Milal wa'l-Nihal (book on religions and religious sects)." Being thoroughly orthodox.INTRODUCTION ings. v. with loose quires and leaves. 'Asir Effendi no. he treats in much more detail of some of the this sects on which he therefore merely touches in his Fark. that one sect alone shall be saved. 23. This the orthodox Sunnites. which number nineteen. The manuscript of library. of which one only shall be saved. described in Ahlwardt's ii. sect. 9 . bischen Handschriften. p.

The beginning of amount of which gives a clear summary of the various sects.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS He divides his work into five parts Part one deals with the tradition already mentioned. in two chapters. fullest accounts of the 73 men who Mohammedan do not include Shuhfur ibn-Tahir. however. Part four deals in seventeen short chapters with the sects originating in Islam. . in which the community came to be divided into and a very brief statement of the views of the most sects. orthodox sect. two quibblings arose with the trying to give us. however. Part two. When. Allah and I. answered " When those verses were written. for doubtless the apparent senselessness of these men whose views he is vainly Whatever the cause. short historical sketches. and a certain traditional instances. he comes to treat of the philosophical quibblings of many of the sects. it may be rather interesting to' compare the different attitudes and methods of the three have given us the sects. he becomes rather hopelessly involved. when asked to explain the meaning of some of his poetry. there are undoubtedly times when we are tempted to quote the Arab poet. important Part three takes up in eight chapters the opinions of the unorthodox sects. now only one per- son understands them. is quite acceptable reading. give Baghdad! all the blame. We cannot. Part five takes up in five chapters the one his book." In conclusion. gives a brief treatment of the manner 72 sects. and gives an explanation of the heresy of each. who. Allah. : persons understood them. but not now found in it. because his work so closely resembles that of BaghdadI that it is thought We by some to be a resume of the 10 latter's.

and succeeds far better than though he attempts to be BaghdadI. who ." but. Kitab al-Milal wa'l-Nihal." 1 Shahrastani was born in 467 or 479. the orthodox. there are times when the views of the heretics are too much for even him. a mere product of the imagination. fair. "be he an unbeliever. discussing and opposing their views. and died in 548/ His work entitled Kitab al-Milal wa'l-Nihal "has 153. a the 73 sects. 28. he was exceedingly fair and started out by stating that he would never charge an opponent with heresy unless he could justify his charge by a verbal quotation from the opponent's own writing. 29. Havlife ing been forced out of political by a change in govern- ment. a part of which Friedscholarly ones. three points of view : our author Bagh- by saying that all but the one sect. vols. al- systematic roundness and scientific classification. power of ob- and fairness of judgment. " may safely assume that each name We recorded in the Milal wa'l-Nihal represents an historical fact. he heretic. and he is forced to give vent to his feelings. Although an orthodox Moslem himself. and not as is in the case of all other writers. his " breadth of outlook. since lying is not permissible against any. are condemned to hell fire. lander has translated in his article in the Journal of the American Oriental Society." What this author is especially remarkable for servation. and goes on to enumerate all those condemned sects." is : Unfettered by the tradition of Friedlander says able to make logical division of the sects. and periodically breaking forth in an exclamation of gratitude that " we are not as they " Shahrasstarts out .INTRODUCTION 'All Abu-Muhhammad was born ibn-Ahmad ibn-Sa'Id ibn-Hazm ibn-Ghalib ibn-Salih in Cordova in 384/994. or a mere sinner. he was compelled to turn from political matters to And as one of the results we have his great work. We thus have the dad!.

The In the important thing to note that Shahrastani devotes two-thirds of his book to sects outside of Islam. 011 the second part with 1 the other hand. the peripatetic. and naturally avoided repetition here. and Ibn- Hazm. more scholarly. on the contrary. and many discussions are recounted between Moslem and other teachers and leaders. the Greek. and although those outside of this pale may sects have some of the privileges of the faithful. so that at times his history of the becomes a polemical discussion. absolutely neutral and bound by no hampering tra- Since Shahrasta. fairer. It is likely that he treated these other religions in detail in his Milal wa'l- Nihal. As we have Shahrastani already seen. The religions treated in the second part are those which possess a Book. Under the former he takes up the Jews and Christians. shar- . the Hindu. those who accept two principles. cannot refrain from challenging and criticizing these heretical views. such as being buried in a Moslem graveyard. and those which have something resembling a revealed book. Baghdad!. Baghdad!. sects. devoting practically the the sects within the whole of this work to Ummat al-Islam. but at times failing. praying in the mosque. and some of the religions outside of Islam. Some space is given tO' Buddhism. ditions. first volume one part deals with the 73 sects of Islam. merely mentions these other religions in passing.nl and Baghdad! represent the ilar first treatment. trying to be neutral. and under the latter the Magians and the Thanawlyah. He opens the book with a statement of what he considers constitutes an orthodox Moslem. let us consider the is more simtwo for a moment. In the second volume he treats of the various philosophies.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS tan!. merely gives the account of the various and only once in a while expresses his own opinion. his work more carefully arranged. in the matter of treatment.

animals slaughtered by them are unclean. this " Thank God we are not as they. therefore. Having thus shown us clearly where he himself stands. some with rather biting sarcasm. has let many errors. and they may not marry an orthodox Moslem. 65. but in the section eight headings are given. As to the poem on page 40. Many of the Koran references are wrongly numbered. he does not hesitate to condemn the heretics -some with rather amusing humor. and in one cr two cases there are whole pages missing. 13 . and others by quick dismissal as not even worth discussing. Six only are then enumerated. where it is stated that the several places script work available to us." Muhammad Badr pass of Cairo. and some of the proper names and grateful to in such sects are incorrect. 191 1. vol.. It is more likely to be the latter. it is a long. man}' of which Gold- ziher has corrected in an article in the Z. who edited work. M. where the editor clear. we have given only the first and last verses. uninteresting one which has nothing to do with the subject in hand except at the beginning and the end in the translation. there are himself states that the manu- was not section will be divided into eight chapters. the note which runs through the whole part dealing is: with the orthodox Unfortunately. Others we have corrected. this Unfortunately. the manuscript being unavailable at moment. A rather amusing error is the one in the table of contents on page 21. however. we cannot say whether this was a slip of the author or of the editor. We should. . In — fact. G. D. they may not have prayers said over their bodies.INTRODUCTION ing in the booties of Jihad . nevertheless. be him for making this an incomplete form. even As will be seen.

Mu'ammariyah * 15. The first Muhakkamah 2. 5. 2. Kaisanlyah (2) 1. Zaidiyah (3) 1. Yunuslyah Shaitaniyah 9. II. Sulaimaniyah or Jaririyah Butriyah Followers of ibn-al-Hanafiyah B. Azarikah Najadah Sifriyah 14 4. The Ghulat Mubarrakiyah Kat'Iyah or Twelvers Hishamiyah Zarariyah 4. 3. . 8. Muhammadiyah Kamillyah Bakiriyah C. 1 1 Muhammadiyah Nawawiyah * Shumaitlyah Isma'iliyah * * 12. Musawiyah list Starred sects are mentioned in the by Baghdadi but apparently not considered important enough to treat.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Table of Sects I. Imamiyah (15) 1. 6. 2. 3. 10. Rahdlyah (20) A. 3. 7. 13. 14. Al-Khawarij (20) 1. Jarudiyah 2.

5. (mentions ten in heading. Amrlyah Hudhaillyah 4. e. The People Saltiyah of Obedience d. Bishriyah IS . Kadariyah (20) Wasiliyah 2. 9. 6. III. 7. Akhnasiyah Shaibamyah Ma'badiyah Rashidiyah Mukarramiyah * a. Mu'tazilites or 1. Khazimiyah Ma'lumiyah Majhuliyah Shu'aibiyah b. e. g. Hamziyah b. * Ibrahimiyah * d. f. c. 6. Shamrakiyah c. Wakiflyah* Ibadiyah Hafsiyah HarithTyah Khalafiyah and Tha'alibah are not given in the are treated in the chapter. Ajaridah * treats eight) a. 7.INTRODUCTION 5. 3. Nazzamiyah Aswariyah Mu'ammariyah Iskafiyah Ja'fariyah 8. list but The starred sects are not treated in the chapter.

. Bahshamiyah Starred sects not treated in chapter. 5. 14 and 15. Musaisiyah * Shahhamiyah Ka'biyah 20. 21. Murji'ah (5) 1. Jubba'iyah 22. list. Najjarlyah (2) 1. that those sects which started in Islam but are too heretical to be included in the 73. Hakakiyah Tara'ikiyah 16 2. Jahmiyah Bakriyah Dararlyah VII. Yunuslyah Ghassaniyah 2. are treated under the Ghulat. Tumaniyah Marisiyah V. 3. 13. IV. 1 7. Mustadrikah VI. 18.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS 10. Barghuthiyah Za'faranlyah 2. 19. 14. 12. 15. although in is. Karramlyah (3) 1. ii. Murdariyah Hishamiyah Thamamryah Jahizlyah Hayitiyah Himarlyah Khaiyatiyah Followers of Salih Kubbah * 16. Thaubaniyah 4. although mentioned in list.

Vshab al-Ibahah Mughiriyah Bayaniyah Harbiyah Mansurlyah Janahiyah Ghurablyah Ashab al-Tanasukh Hayitiyah (of the Kadariyah) Himariyah Yazidiyah Batiniyah ( of the Khawarij Maimuniyah Mufauwadah Dhimmiyah Shari'Iyah 1 Numairiyah nf the Rafidlyah) Kate Chambers Seelye. Ishakiyah Total seventy-three. LIST OF SECTS OUTSIDE OF THE PALE OF ISLAM Sababiyah Ghulat Haluliyah . 17 .INTRODUCTION 3.

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of is which one has saving grace and Pit destined for Paradise on High. the step of which does not stumble and from which grace does not depart. Prayer and Praise be to the Purest of the Pure. Muhammad. the maker and originator of ! all Creation. and the misguided sects which regard the darkness of idolatry as light and the belief in truth as leading to perdition which sects are condemned to everlasting fire and shall find no aid in Allah. the choicest among mortals. whilst the rest are in the wrong. and the Model Guide. asked as well as to his kin. Therefore. You have sion of the me for an explanation of the well-known tradition attributed to the Prophet with regard to the divi- Moslim Community into seventy-three sects.AL-FARK BAIN AL-FIRAK In the name of Allah. the Compassionate. and a source of life to him who relieth upon it. it the manifestator and sustainer of truth He is who maketh of truth an armor for him who believeth in it. He maketh wrong a stumbling-block to the one who seeketh after it. You requested me to draw the distinction between the sect that saves. the lighthouse of guidance. leading to the Deep and the Ever-flaming fire. so that he who does perish shall know that he is perishing and he that is saved that he is so saved through clear evidence. and a cause of humiliation to him who pursueth it. the Merciful! Praise be to Allah. — 19 . I feel it incumbent upon me to help you along the line of your request with regard to the orthodox faith and the path that is straight how to distinguish it from the perverted heresies and the distorted views.

Moslem community into A chapter dealing with the shame that attaches to each sects one of the belonging to the erring heresies. chapter on the saving sect. belong to A faith. conclusions that are necessary.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS The answer to your request I have included in this book. So . A chapter on the sects that are akin to Islam. but do not it. the confirmation of its its sacredness and a statement concerning the beauty of These are the chapters of the book . in each one of which we shall mention the may it please Allah. the contents of which I have divided into five parts. to wit A 7^ chapter in explanation of the tradition transmitted to us concerning the division of the sects.

Isma'Il ibn-' Abbas." 'Abdallah ibn-'AH ibninto' Ziyad al-Sumaidhi. and my are be divided we by abu-Muhammad And 73 sects. abu- Salmah. Haitham ibn-Kharijah. that the prophet of Allah said: "Verily there happen to my people what happened to the Banu Isra'il. and into' my people will be divided ing them by one. and the words first time we will not repeat these mighty and powerful the name of Allah. exceedfire exis They O. the prophet of are divided — peace be unto him people told 1 — is said " The Jews into 71 sects. prophet of Allah. 'Abdallah ibn-Yazid.Ahmad ibn- Bashshar al-Isfara'mi. Bakiyyah. authorities who considered of interest and al- authoritative. ' After the 21 . The Banu Isra'il are divided into 72 religious bodies." All of them are destined to hell said " : 73 religious bodies.PART An I Explanation of the Well-Known Traditions in Regard to the Divisions of the (Moslem) Community The tradition has come down : to us through the follow- ing chain of authorities abu-Sahl Bishr ibn. 'Abd-al-Rahman will ibn-Ziyad ibn-An'am. 'Abdallah ibn- 'Amr. Khalid ibn-' Abdallah. 'Abdallah ibn-Najiyah. Wahb ibn- Muhammad last : ibn-'Amr. which will the one religious 1 body that escape the fire ?" He said The expression of ' blessing and peace always follows the name of the Prophet. as well as that of the leading Companions and sheikhs. cept one. devout expressions. abu-Hurairah that the Allah said. that he heard through the following chain of : Ahmad ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Abd al-Jabbar. and the Christians are divided will into 72 sects.

that one sect only would save itself. It is also reported that he condemned the Murjiites together with the Kadarites. A number of the following Companions have handed it down as coming from the Prophet Anas ibn-Malik. 1 Every man of . While it is handed down from the leading Companions that he condemned the Kadarites and the Murjiites and the heret'AH. 'Abdallah ibn'Amr ibn-al-'As. says from my father. intelligence . and these are the have it ' : We true believers. Moreover. the Kharijites. that Walid ibn-Maslamah said that al-Auza'I said that we are told by Katadah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS " That to which I belong. Allah have mercy on him. it is reported of the Prophet that he them the Magians of this people. abu-Imamah. Ubai ibn-Ka'b. abu-Sa'Id al-Khidrl. and that the rest of them would be given to error in this world. all of them destined to hell fire except one. calling Zahra' . . and my companions. abu-Hurairah. who had it from his father." The Kadi abu-Muhammad " 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar. among the authors of the treatises ascribed to (text not clear) has 1 known that the Prophet in speaking of the divisions that this We have been unable to find any explanation for 22 word. the Malikite. Jabir. who had it from Anas. and lo my people will be divided into 72 sects. in it he declared himself not responsible for the people of Adlmawat. the Banu Isra'il are divided into 71 sects. e.' " 'Abd al-Kahir says that there are many Isnads (chains of traditions) for the tradition dealing with the division of the community. mentions ical Kharijites. these sects in his Khutbah (sermon) which is known as the condemned the Kadarites. abu-1-Darda. To this is added the report that he condemned the heretics. Wathilah ibn-al-Aska' and others. and to destruction in : the next. who had it from the Prophet Lo. . It is also handed down that the pious caliphs mentioned that the community would be divided after them. i.

though they disagreed as to the derivative Institutes of law. [signs for] prophecy and its condiand similar questions in which the Sunnites and the (Moslem) community from among the followers of analogical deduction and tradition agree upon the fundamentals. the unity (of God). in such matters as ethics and the unity (of God). his names and qualities.EXPLANATION OF TRADITIONS were to be condemned and the members of which were destined for hell-fire. the attributes of Allah. had in mind only those holders of erring opinions who differ from the one sect which will be saved. agreed concerning the fundamentals of religion. the Mujassimah. verily. the will and wish of God. all all those it. For the legal schools are right. did not mean the various legal schools. promises and threats (regarding future life). The first looks with approval upon who promoted the Science of derivative Institutes. the determination of good and evil. the Jahmiyah. predestination and freewill. any question concerning what is ordered and permitted. and in which they are opposed by the holders of erring opinions. what is tions. the Rawafid. the worship of graves and of ancestors. attributing error to the one who goes astray And verily the Prophet. the Najjariyah. the Mus1 among the erring habbihah. prophetic vision and understanding. and those who follow them differ in regard to ethics and And. 23 . all in con- nection with each derivative Institute. namely the Kadariyah. 1 Not clear in the original. in the matter. the Khawarij. Now the Mohammedans held two opinions as regards the deductions drawn from the fundamental principles of right and wrong. in mentioning the condemned. who. one of the parties contending about out. right guidance and error. sects it and disapproves the others —with- however. The second approves. those who sects. are agreed in regard to such matters as celestial vision.

24 . — tutes.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS what is ordained and what is permitted. So that the tradition handed down in regard to the breaking-up of the community into 73 sects must be understood to refer to differences such as these not to those on which the leading jurists differed in the matter of Institutes drawn from the fundamental principles of right and wrong. some of them accuse each other of unbelief. But in regard to the conditions of true prophecy and the Imamship. it is not at all a question of unbelief or of error ? I mention in the following chapter the various sects to which the tradition refers concerning the subdividing of the shall Islamic world. so it please Allah. Is it not that in those things in which they differ as regards Instidivine attributes.

the second concerns the explanation of how the community has become 73 is divided. I shall mention in and the enumeration of its each one of these chapters what 25 necessary.PART This part treats of the Ii manner in which this community has been divided into 73. so it please Allah. There are two chapters in this part one deals with the explanation of the idea underlying the different sects included under the general name of Millat al-Islam. It also contains an explanation of the sects which are collected under the general name of the Millat al-Islam. . sects.

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and belongs to sincere or in- no matter whether he and heresy under this assertion. Cf. ii. hiding unbelief prophets and the angels. and that their faith was like the faith of Gabriel and Michael and the sincere." Others claim that Ummat al-Islam comprises the all who acknowledge the necessity of turning in the direction of the Ka'bah in prayer. 27 . 1 2 Haarbrucker's Translation of Shahrastaiii. and the no matter what he asserted after this declaration. Before going into details it is necessary to say that those who belong to Islam are divided in opinion in regard to those to whom the general x Abu-1-Kasim al-Ka'bi uses the expression name of Millat al-Islam is given. in spite of their joining treachery This to their profession of the two parts of the creed. Thus they claimed that those who were insincere in the time of the prophet Allah were really believers. Muhammad. Surah 49. Haarbrikker. claims in his treatises. Shahrastani. They say everyone who and says. it Ummat refers to everyone who affirms truth of all the prophetic character of that he preached.CHAPTER I Explanation of the Idea This chapter explains the idea underlying the expression Millat al-Islam as a general designation of the various sects. 400. p. 14. v. say that the expression ciate the Ummat is al-Islam comprises those who enunthe two parts of the creed." the Millat al-Islam. pp. verily a true believer. vol. " There no God but is Allah. The Karramlyah. i. all Mujassimah (corporealists) of Khurasan. 37-38. " When one al-Islam. Muhammad is is prophet of Allah. vol.

they are not numbered of the Sharikaniyah their 2 among the sects of among the Jews that Islam. in they are not of the Ummat al-Islam. because of their profession that the law of Islam has force no binding upon them. But they claim that he was sent to the Arabs. but they are prescribed for the Moslems." is religion true. Yet. theoretical reasoners must be remembered that some al-ra'i) of the legalists of al-Hijaz have favored this view. even is in doubt as to 1 location. is in the right. And as regards the saying of one who uses the expression to all Ummat it ul-Islam as a term to be applied who see the necessity of turning in prayer to the Ka'bah situated in Mecca. with the exception of the Jews. is the prophet of Allah. not for the Jews. the performance of 10 the five prayers. to the effect that he if who he be- lieves in turning to the Ka'bah in prayer." Often some of the Sharikaniyah have kept some of these observances. and Muhammad They have also asserted that his spite of this.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS opinion. but the (ashab rejected it. together with the opinion of al-Ka'bi in his expla- nations of the the name of Islam. the fast of Ramadan. also that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah. LX 311. And some " : relate concerning leader known as Sharikan he said Indeed Muhammad was also that he said : a prophet of Allah to the Arabs. and the pilgrimage The Koran is true of the Ka'bah. the Ikamah. They have professed the two parts of the creed : " There is no God but Allah." " And and the Adhan [the announcement of prayer]. not to the Banu Israel. all these are truths. 28 . is refuted by the saying of 'Isawiah among the Jews of Ispahan. But the : traditional- Poznanski in Revue des Etudes Juives. They say and the truth of all his teachings. according to what Abu Hanifah its reports. For verily they accept the prophetic character of our prophet Muhammad. Nevertheless. and to the rest of mankind.

and Ka'bah is the direction in which all prayers should be turned. But if his heresy is like the heresy of the Mu'tazilites. or the Rafidah of the 29 . or the Khattablyah. that the that the Koran is the source of all legal regulations. the unity of butes. according to us. nor should he be esteemed. or of some of them at least. or the 1 Mughlrah. his who profess the view that the world its maker. the denial of his anthropo- morphic character. who believe in the divine character of all the Imams. or the Bayaniyah. such an one does not belong to the Ummat al-Islam. and his universal Apostolate. or the Khawarij. or follow the school of the Yazidiyah from among the Ibadlyah with their teaching that the law of Islam will be abrogated at the end of time. to the accepted beliefs which we have mentioned he adds a hateful heresy. his attriwisdom. or the school of the Maimunlyah of the Khawarij who allow marriage with one's daughter's daughter or one's son's daughter. is The is true view. And if he incline to the heresy of the Batinlyah. that all that he enjoined was truth. the acknowledgment of the constant validity of his law. or if he permits as lawful what the text of the Koran for- bids. the prophetic character of Muhammad. his preexistence. his case must be considered. If. believing in the unity of Allah. or forbids that which the text of the Koran allows as lawful. and which does net admit of differing interpretation. he is an orthodox Sunnite. his equity. or one of the schools of the people believing in the transmigration of souls.EXPLANATION OF THE IDEA ists (ashab al-Hadith) do not hold the belief that he is orthodox to the who doubts the location of the Ka'bah. just as they do not accept one who doubts the necessity of turning Ka'bah in prayer. that the Ummat al- Islam comprises those created. or if he follows the schools which believe in the incarnation of God. Everyone who professes all this and does not follow a heresy that might lead him to unbelief.

Moreover. Allah . It is also not lawful for an orthodox man to marry one of their women if she partake of their belief. nor may he marry an orthodox Moslem woman. or the jassimah. But he is not of the Ummat in other respects. or the Jahmiyah. namely that no prayer should be allowed over his dead body. that we should not start fighting with you.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Imamiyah. then he would be of the respects. Nor should he be prevented from praying in the mosques. or the Zaidiyah heresies. or of the heresy of the Najjarlyah. Musome Ummat al-Islam in namely: he would be entitled to be buried in the is graveyard of the Moslems. and that we should not hinder you from sharing the booty as long as your allegiance is with us. nor behind him (to the grave) moreover any animal slaughtered by him is not lawful food. : knows best. or the Darariyah. and to have a share in the tribute and booty which procured by the true believers in war with the idolators provided he fights with the true believers." 30 . that we should not forbid you the mosques of Allah so that you may mention the name of Allah in them. 'AH ibn abl-Talib said to the Khawarij " There are three things binding upon us.

and they shall die. This difference. lo verily he is living and dieth not. verily Muhammad is dead whoever worshipped the Lord of Muhammad." He said to them " Whoever worshipped Muhammad. and all were agreed upon his death. of al-Madlnah wished him to be buried in that that was the home of his flight and the home of Others desired the body to be taken to the Holy Land and be buried in Jerusalem by the grave of his ancestor. Some among them asserted that he had not died. however. and 13 while the people city because his Helpers. the Moslems followed one its path in the fundamental principles of religion and corollaries." Then they public but in private were hypocrites. At duced the death of the prophet. together with an enumeration of the num- its 73 sects. the place to which he turned in prayer. when abu-Bakr al-Siddik brought to them the words of Allah to his Prophet " Verily thou shalt die. the there is to be taken to Mecca because his family. that place of his calling. the people of Mecca wishing the body was his birthplace. : : . the place of the grave of his ancestor Ishmael . differed over the Prophet's place of burial. and that Allah had only wished to raise him to himself as he had raised 'Isa ibn-Maryam to himself.CHAPTER The Ummat ber of II Division into Sects 12 Contains an explanation of the manner in which the differed. Abraham the beloved. except in the case of those de- who agreed in The first disagreement came when the people disagreed over the death of the prophet. ceased when abu-Bakr al-Siddik related to 31 them on the authority . This difference ceased.

The Helpers (Ansar) agreed to acknowledge Sa'd ibn'Ubadah al-Khazraji. the false prophet. and over the inheritance of property left by prophets. But the Kuraish said: "The Imamate must not be. and after that at the battle of Nahawand. After this they differed over the Imamate. until he was driven to Syria. who knew Mohammed. And Allah granted victory.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS of the Prophet " : Verily the prophets are buried where chamber in al-Madinah. During all this time they were agreed upon Jewish village conquered by Muhammad. until Allah ended that affair. The decision of AbuBakr settled this matter by the tradition coming from the prophet. 2 Ibn-Hajar. for the Darar or the Khawarij held that the Imam could come from others than the Kuraish." Then the Ansars agreed with the Kuraish because of the saying of " The Imams are of the the Prophet relating to them Kuraish.'' But this point of difference has lasted till this day. After 2 this they busied themselves making war upon Tulaihah when he declared himself a prophet and rebelled. save among the Kuraish. After this they made war on them 1 the Greeks and Persians. until Allah 14 put an end to his affair and to the affair of Sajah the false prophetess. This over. " Verity the prophets do not bequeath anything. they turned to the killing of the rest of the apostates. After this they made war on Musailamah. p. The next differ1 ence arose over the affair of Fadak." They then differed over the view as to what cancels the obligation of alms. In the days of 'Umar he returned to Islam and was present with Sa'd ibn Abi-Wakkas at the battle of al-Kadisiyah. vol." They therefore buried him in his : 'Anasi. and also to the affair of al-Aswad ibn-Zaid althey die. 596. where he was killed as a martyr. 32 . But they finally agreed to the judgment of Abu-Bakr concerning the duty of their warfare. Biographical Dictionary of Persons ii.

Jabir ibn-' Abdallah and abii-Hurairah. Among the later Companions who differed from them was 'Abdallah ibn-'Umar. After this they differed over 'Uthman for certain things which he did. promises and threats. or the daughter of a son. over the affair of Mu'awiyah and the people of Siffin. nor to pray over their bodies. and such similar questions. a divergence of opinion that has lasted until this day. or the father with his daughter. this blame culminating in his punishment by death. and the father alone . and other fundamental principles of religion. differ- ences which do not lead to doctrinal error or immoral They were in this concord in the days of Abu Bakr and 'Umar and during six years of the caliphate of 'Uthman. Their next point of difference was over the affair of 'All and the Followers of the Camel. and ibn-' Abbas. They differed only over the application of the Fikh [religious canon] .15 Dimashkl and of Ja'd ibn-Dirham. the unity of God. with fathers and mothers or with over questions concerning justice. and 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi. and whether sisters can be residuary legatees of the father and the mother. from the views of Ma'bad al-Juhani and of Ghailan al. for which some blamed him. of what is forbidden. these differences also have endured down to our time. They also differed as to the line of relationship and the question acts. consansisters guinity and partnership returns. joined their successors not to greet the Kadariyah. In the time of the later Companions there arose the divergent views of the Kadariyah as to predestination and free will. After . abu-Musa al-'Ash'ari. and Anas ibn-Malik and 'Abdallah ibn-abl-Aufi and 'Ukbah These enibn-' Amir al-Juhani and their contemporaries. over the judgment of the two judges. And after his murder they differed over his assassins and those who abandoned him.THE DIVISION INTO SECTS such questions as ethics. in the cases such as inheritance of the grandfather with brothers. and not to 33 visit their sick.

Sabaiyah became Sabbabiyah (denouncers) because of their attitude toward 'All. taking their place beyond the columns of the mosque of alBasrah. 34 2 — . Kitdb al-Milal wa'l-Nihal. Haarbrikker. tr. i. They and their followers were called Mu'tazilah because of their turning from the words of the Ummah in tion. All of the subdivisions of the Ghulat are outside of the pale But the subdivisions of the Zaidiyah and of the Imamlyah are still considered among the sects of the Ummah. because and 'AH destroyed and banished ibn-Saba to Sabat al- This sect it not one of the divisions of the Ummat calls 'All a god. al-Islam." Ibn-IJazm.SCHISMS AND SECTS Khawarij differed over some things among themand they separated into as many as twenty divisions. Now as to the Rawafid (or Shia) : among them of them said to started their heresy in the 'All. the Zaid6 lyah. The Najjariyah in the neighborhood of al-Rai sepof Islam. 37.. and their assertions that a transgressor can be of the Ummat al- Islam and yet neither a believer nor an unbeliever. Then it came to pass in the days of al-Hasan al-Basrl that Wasil 1 ibn-'Ata al-Ghazzal seceded over the matter of predestina- and also in regard to a middle position between two 'Amr ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Bab went over to him with his heresy. J after the time of 'AH separated into four classes. Ibn-Saba was said to be a Jew. One some of them by Mada'in. extremes. Then the Rawafid. A. " outwardly confessing Islam in order to beguile its adherents. arated after the time of al-Za'farani into sects which con1 Shahrastam incorrectly has Wafzil. in part by I. These in turn further subdivided. vol. O. vol.MOSLEM this the selves. J. xxviii. S. each of them condemning the rest as unbelievers. 200. Al-Hasan drove them both from his immediate community. is The Sabbabiyah 2 time of 'AH. " Thou art a God. Treated more fully by ShahrastanI. Friedlander. the Imamlyah. and they separated from the rest. . each sect condemning the rest. p. p. the Kaisanlyah and the Ghulat." fire.

the second of these sects agreed with them as to his While Imamate After while he was this. Text : " Kisaiyah but see Shahrastanl. the Kaisamyah sects. death they transferred the Imamate to someone they differed over the one to transferred. al-Nawisiyah. The Zaidiyah from among the Rawafid were divided into some add the Hurairiyah and the Butriyah. but they all can be included in two sects. one of which claimed that Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah 17 was still alive. 1 al-Muhammadiyah. as later. in contrast tb the Karramiyah. alive. further. that they awaited his coming. the secession of the Darariyah to Darar ibn-'Amr and that of the Jahmiyah to Jahm ibn-Safwan. represent nuthree sects. after his else. the corporealists. of Hamdan Karmat and 'Abdallah ibn-Maimun al-Kadah. al-Bakiriyah. that he had not died. Malik.. viz. the Kaisamyah. .THE DIVISION INTO SECTS demned each other. 165. and the propaganda of the Batiniyah appeared in the days of the (Caliph) al-Ma'mun at the hands . and at the time of his death. Jahm and Bakr and Darar declared their views when Wasil ibn-'Ata brought forth his errors. the Jarudiyah and the Sulaimaniyah. but rather to the sects of the Magians. however. " . claiming that he was the expected Mahdi. do not belong to the sects of Islam. these three sects being held together by their doctrine of the Imamship of Zaid ibn-'AH ibn-al-Husain ibn-'AH ibn-abi-Talib when he This was at the time of Hisham ibn-'Abd alrevolted. The secession of the Bakiriyah was due to Bakr. One part of them. The Batiniyah. later formed fifteen iyah. the nephew of 'Abd al-Wahid ibn-Ziyad. 35 p. we shall show They appeared in the days of Muhammad ibn-Tahir ibn-'Abdallah ibn-Tahir in Khurasan. and merous divisions. whom the Imam- ate is The Imamiyah who [at first] had separated into the Zaid1 and the Ghulat.

al-Hishamiyah. with fifteen sects of the Imamiyah. the Rashidiyah. the Mughiriyah. which was not of the 36 . of whom there is a sect called the Maimumyah. the Yazidiyah. of these the Yazidiyah are the followers of ibn-Yazid ibn-Unais. the Wakifah. the Mukarram- Hamziyah. the Harithlyah. the huliyah. followers of Zararah ibn-A'yun. and the Abadiyah who in turn split into the Hafslyah. the KhazimTyah. the Haluliyah. Hisham ibn-Salim al-Jawaliki. the Najadat. al-Karailiyah followers of abu-Kamil. the Khattabiyah. These we shall mention in a separate part following this one. and are not of the sects of Islam because they say that the law o<f Islam will be- come annulled at the end of time by a prophet sent from Persia. al-'Ammariyah. al-Zarariyah. and those who hold similar views. al-Musawiyah. are not of the sects of Islam although they claim adherence to> it. the followers of Hisham ibn-al- Hakam. who hold to the divine Imams and sanction those things forbidden of the Canon law and reject its obligatory character. three are Zaidiyah and two Kaisaniyah. Now when split differences arose among sects : the Khawarij they up into the twenty following The first Muhaknamely Maj- 18 kimah. the Ma'badiyah. the Ithna 'Asahrlyah (the or of Twelvers). the Sifriyah. the Mansuriyah. as for example the Bayaniyah. the Janahiyah. the Shu'aibiyah. the 'Ajaridah. however. al-Shaitaniyah followers of Shaitan al- who was the most severe in condemning 'All and the rest of the Companions. al-Isma'iliyah. the Ma'lumlyah. of these. character of the The Ghulat among them.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS al-Shumaitiyah. These are the twenty sects springing from the Rawafid. Tak. al-Yunusiyah followers of Yunus al-Kumml. al-Kita'iyah. is and the Followers of Obedience which not intended for Allah. the lyah. The same is the case of the 'Ajaridah. the Azarikah. the Ibrahimiyah. al-Mubaraklyah. the latter splitting up into numerous sects.

ibn-Shablb al-Basri and al-Khalidl. The Kadariyah. sec- Muhammad ond of these and works.19 ters of faith one of these classes believes in disobedience in matand in predestination. two of them do Jubba'i. vol. the Muwaisiyah. but are inclined lyah. Three ji'ah : classes are to be distinguished among the Mur. and the Marislyah. the Jubba'Iyah. the Hayitiyah and the Himariyah. the Hayitiyah. 79. We will mention the Yazidlyah and the Maimuniyah among those who are derived from Islam. classes believes in disobedience in matters of toward the view of Jahm as to deeds These are all Jahmlyah and Murji'ah. split up into twenty sects. according to the belief of the Kadariyah. the followers of Salih Kubbah. the departers from truth. but It formed did not accept the doctrine of predestination. the Khaiyatlyah. but are not of it. i. the Taumanlyah. the Amwarlyah. the Hudhailiyah. five sects: the Yunuslyah. each one condemning the rest. who were founded by abu-Hashim ibn-alThese are the twenty-two sects. e. to-day in the city of al-Rai lyah comprise sects. the Thaubanfaith. nor of its sects. the Ka'blyah. 1 Haarbriicker's Shahrastani. the Nizamiyah. 37 . They are therefore counted like among The the Kadariyah and the Murji'ah abu-Shimr al-MurjI'. the 'Umariyah. the Himariyah. the Bahshamiyah. the Ghassanlyah. The third class accepted the view in regard to disobedience. The Najjarmore than ten : although they are originally no more than three sects i. the 'Amriyah. p. 1 the Sahamlyah.THE DIVISION INTO SECTS sects of Islam because it sanctioned the marriage with daughters of daughters and with daughters of sons just as the Magians sanction it. the Jahizlyah. not belong to the sects of Islam. These are their names the Wasiliyah. the Thumamlyah. We shall mention them among the sects which : are derived from Islam but do not belong to it.

the eternity of his unending attributes. the Za'faraniyah. All these that we have mentioned make up the seventy-two sects of them twenty are Rawafid. including the Bakriyah and the Dirarlyah. The legalists of these two groups 20 and the Koran readers. The Bakriyah and the Dirarlyah each form one sect. and in acknowledg- ing the books of Allah and his prophets. his and his wisdom. . lightly with tradition. the Jahmiyah and the Karramiyah and these are the 72 sects. all and the philosophers are united in the one among justice the followers of tradition. traditionalists. These three sects. also in retri- regard to prophecy and Imamate. and the doctrines of bution. except those who deal sects. the possi- of having visions of Him. They form the They are united and in his by the firm bility belief in the unity of the creator eternity. Khurasan form three form one sect. the permitting of that which the Koran permits and the forbidding of that which the 38 Koran forbids. without falling into the error of anthropomorphism or atheism. is composed of the two classes of the theorists and the traditionalists. and the Mustadrikah. the Taraikiyah. his names and his rest of the qualities. opinion as to the unity of the creator and his attributes. and the Ishakiyah. The 73d sect. or lead them astray. do not condemn each other. fundamentals of religion. twenty Kadariyah and ten Murji'ah. the authority of the law of Islam. however. [great] body of those who will be saved. They differ only over that which is permitted and that which is is and the forbidden in the deductions from the fundamental doctrines. In the things in which they differ there nothing that can cause them to err. The Karamlyah in the Hakakiyah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS the Burghumyah. . three of them are Najjariyah. We therefore regard them all as a single sect. twenty Khawarij. as well as the holding of those traditions of the prophets of . the orthodox. They The Jahmiyah also do not have numerous followings.

the questioning of the grave. 1 He who holds the above-mentioned doctrines. the greater number of whom are of the followers of Malik and Shafi'I. 1-3. The majority of the and the belief in the pool (al-haud) . In the part which follows we shall mention the divisions of the opinion of each sect of the heretical sects which we have mentioned. ' Surah 108. so 1 it please Allah. not mixing with his beliefs any of the heresies of the Khawarij. the belief in the the resurrection. : ijij 39 . and the Rafidiyah and the Kadariyah and the rest of the unorthodox such a one belongs to those who are to be saved may Allah preserve him in his belief. 47. 21. Mohammedans are of this character. Surah 42. and abu- Hanifah and al-Auza'I and al-Thauri and the Ahl al-Zahir. This then explains what we desired to explain in this part.THE DIVISION INTO SECTS Allah which are trustworthy. last day and in the two angels and the balance. 6.

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. Two left out .uulyah. An phists. An An explanation of the opinions of the sects of the explanation of the opinions of the sect of the explanation of the opinions of the anthropomor- Diranvah. 41 . so 1 it plea. 1 In each of these chapters we shall mention what it is necessary to note. IV. explanation of the opinions of the sects of the Mu'ta--ilah and the Kadariyah. Eakriyah and Jahmtyah. II. III.se Allah. . VI. titles An An An explanation of the opinions of the sects of the Randall. found among. explanation of the opinions of the sects of the Khawarij. Kar. Murii'ah and V. of which the following are the I. V.PART An soots III explanation of the various opinions of the heretical a detailed JI and explanation of the heresies of each sect.the numerous sects which we have mentioned. Xjuariyah. IV. This chapter contains eight sections.

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p. J. 1 For term Rafidiyah His full cf. 43 . unsheathing his sword and summoning to his faith. xxix. 137. 8 vol. 1 I 22 Sects of the Rawafid This chapter explains the opinions of the sects of the As we have Imamryah already noted. The other sect asserted They claim that the Prophet designated 'All as his characteristics. he was to be the Imam. the Imamate became a matter of conference among the children of al-Hasan and al-Husain " the one of them who went forth from them (by their decision). v. O. vol. xxix. they say that al-Hasan ibn-'Ali was Imam after All. We it Zaidiyah. : A. so i. p. and the into fifteen. Moreover. p. One " Verily 'AH designated as Imam his son alsect said Hasan. Mas'udi. the sect of the Zaidiyah was divided into three sects. vol. Concerning the Jarudiyah from among the Zaidiyah. Friedlander.CHAPTER The Rawafid. After al-Hasan and al-Husain. 2 Imam by by name. the Companions became unbelievers. J. and was followed by his brother al-Husain. then al-Hasan designated as Imam after him his brother al-Husain. These are the followers of a man known as abu'l-Jarud. please Allah. and at the same time was wise and godly. 474. then take up the by treating of the Imamlyah and then the Kaisanshall begin iyah in regular order. S. 22. Over this matter the Jarudiyah split into two sects. Les Prairies d'Or. the Kaisanlyah into two. O.. Shahrastani gives description Ibn-I-Iazm omits question of Imam- ship. 2 name is abu-'l-Jarud Ziyad ibn-al-Mundhir al-'Abdi. A. 3 but not : . They also claim that by ceasing to recognize 'All. S..

vol. ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Ali ibn-abislain. 2. but claimed that he was the expected This group joined with the Muhammadiyah from the Imamiyah to reign over the world. Still others looked for Muhammad is the one who appeared in al-Kufah. however. i. 1 and did not believe in his death. in looking for Mahdl who would come Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn- 'AH as the expected Imam. who said that the Imamate was a matter of conference and could be confirmed by an agreement between two of the best men in Islam. holding that everyone among the children of alHasan and al-Husain who " unsheathes his sword and summons to his faith. They would not had believe that he had been or that he died. the Jarudiyah split over the question of the expected Imam. vol. of their sects refrained from specifying any definite Imam. This is the doctrine of the Their own heresy proven by the fact that they declared the Companions of the Prophet of Allah to Concerning the Sulaimaniyah them. refusing to believe that he was slain or had died. 2 or the Jarlrlyah from among These followed Sulaiman ibn-Jarir al-Zaidi. and al-Husain after al-Hasan. 180. After this. Haarbriicker's translation. sanctioned the Imamate of abu-Bakr and 'Umar.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS that the Prophet was the one who designated al-Hasan as 23 Imam One after 'AH. Others awaited Muhammad ibn-'Umar. he is the Imam. ibn-al-Kasim. 2 Longer account in ibid. He. the master of Talakan. although he claimed that Islam forsook the right path when it invested 1 them [with the caliphate].. because 'All was p. Shahrastani. be heretics. Jarudiyah. He went so far as to claim as lawful the Imamate of a person even when possibly excelled by the other. i. 44 . p. 179." Others awaited Muhammad Talib.

vol. Ibn-Khallikan. because they affirmed the heresy of abu-Bakr and 'Umar. 34B. ii. 2 De Slane. did not. of the Zaidiyah. who They agreed with Sulaiman ibn-Jarir of is called al-Abtar. Of the followers of Sulaiman ibn-Jarir. Concerning the Butriyah. 594. p. ii. i Ibid.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID more eligible to the Imamate than they. 45 . differing from him only in that they did not commit themselves about 'Uthman. dox. while the orthodox in turn called Sulaiman ibn-Jarir unorthodox because he consid24 ered 'Uthman unorthodox. 4 abu-1-Hasan al-Ash'ari.. constitute heresy or apostacy. unorthodox. neither attacking his faults nor praising his virtues. Muhammad although not citing entitled al-Ta'rlkh in his al-Sahlh. Sulaiman ibn-Jarir declared unortho- dox those who reproved him. These followed two men. vol. 3 ibn-Isma'il al-Bukharl. in one of his treatises tells of a section of the Zaidiyah called the Ya'kublyah. p. The Jarudiyah affirmed the demned Sulaimaniyah and Butriyah heretics because they left unconOur sheikh. The sin of their recognition. 3 Ibid. however. He was from was abu-'Abdallah. from among the border-line of Hamadhan and his surname 'Abd-al-Kahir says: These Butriyah and Sulaimaniyah the Zaidiyah. this group. this sect is the best thought of by the ortho3. Muslim ibn-al-Hajjaj 2 has cited the tradition of al- Hasan him ibn-Salih ibn-Hai in his collection called al-Sahlh. according to him. and the other Kathir al-Munauwa. all of them called the Jarudiyah. 1 one of whom was al-Hasan ibn-Salih ibn-Hai.. Allah have mercy on him. vol. 227. does say in his work al-Kdblr that al-Hasan ibn-Salih ibn-Hai al-Kufi was the pupil of Sammak ibn-Harb and died in the year 167. followers of 1 Shahrastani makes these two sects. p. iii. the heresy of abu-Bakr and 'Umar.

him. they said unto him " We will help thee against thine enemies after thou hast told us thy views regarding abu-Bakr and 'Umar who were unjust to thine ancestor 'All ibn-abi-Talib." They then Where- upon they deserted him [Zaid]. who give no' hope of Allah's grace to prisoners of sin even though they be believers. who said to them: "Do you desert me also?" And from this day on they were called the Randah [Deserters]. Yusuf ibn-'Umar alThakafi. And when the war between him and Yusuf ibn-'Umar al-Thakafi had lasted some time. and states that they had accepted abuBakr and 'Umar. but they did not reject those who rejected 25 the caliphate of the two latter. 'Abd-al-Kahir says that three a we have mentioned agreed on the view that those who commit major sins within Islam would be forever in hell fire.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS man called Ya'ktib. denotes wind which brings relief. time and the Imamate of his son. 46 . whereas none of the sects of the Zaidiyah that but the unbelievers need really despair of the spirit Allah. in his Yahya ibn-Zaid. demolished the Beit Allah with ballista and fire. governor over the two 'Iraks under Hisham ibn'Abd-al-Malik. and I have set out against the Banu Umaiyah only : : because they fought against attacked my ancestor al-Husain and al-Madmah on the day of al-Harrah. There then remained with him Nasr ibn-Harlmah al-'Ansi and Mu'awlyah ibn1 The Arabic word used. after Zaid ibn-'AH was recognized as thousand men of the people of al-Kiifah Imam by fifteen who went with him against the governor of al-Trak. 1 of These three sects and their followers are called Zaidiyah because of their acceptance of the Imamate of Zaid ibn-'AH ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'AH ibn-abi-Talib. In regard to this they resemble the Khawarij. and I have never heard my father say anything except good of them." Zaid said " I say naught against them except good.

one of their number. they seized in him by treachery from his Sabat al-Mada'in and Sanan this al-Ju'fi. together with many of Their third perfidy was against Yazid ibn-'Ali his family. His shrine in Juzajan is famous. but when he went to fight against Mu'awiyah. First. they seized him by treachery and made common cause with 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad so that al-Husain was killed in Karblla'.Yazid ibn-Harithah with about two hundred men. and they fought the army of Yusuf ibn-'Umar al-Thakafi 2 g until they were all killed. and there befell 4. but when he reached Karbela'. so that a proverb has become current in regard to these qualities among them and the saying has grown up: " More stingy than a Kufite and more perfidious. Abd-al-Kahir says that the Rawafid of al-Kufah are remarkable for perfidy and stinginess. and burned. the governor of Khurasan. who sent against him Muslim ibn-Ahwaz al-Mazini with three thousand men. He was afterwards exhumed." Three instances of their perfidy have become widely known. for after going out with him against Yusuf ibn-'Umar they broke their word to him [Yazid]. what befell. pierced his side horse. their perfidy was one of the reasons for The second instance of they wrote to al-Husain ibn-' All and ibn-al-Husain ibn-'AH ibn-abi-Talib. and rebelled in the district of Juzajan against Nasr ibn-Bashshar. and they killed Yahya ibn-Zaid. He allowed himself to be deceived by them. 2 _ These are the followers of al-Mukhtar ibn-abl-'Ubaid 47 . His son Yahya ibnZaid fled to Khurasan. Concerning the Kaisaniyah from among the Rawafid.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID Ishak ibn. and accepted their invitation. they recognized al-Hasan his son. and threw him and the peace made with Mu'awiyah. which resulted in his being killed. was that invited him to come to al-Kufa so that they should help him against Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. after the slaying of 'AH. crucified. including Zaid.

Because of this heresy everyone who does not them of being unorthodox. 'Ubaid was accustomed to champion. at the battle of the Camels. p.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS lg€ Husain ibn-'AlI ibn-abi-Talib. Ibn-Hazm's division. when his allegiance sought for Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. De Slane. then to al-Husain. after al-Hasan. p." Others held that the Imamate after 'AH went to his son al-Hasan. Cf. xxix. accuses split ing this by the fact that 'AH. vol. 33. 2 ° that he in Mt. of his brother al-Husain. 2 Ibn-Khallikan. Some of them claimed that he became Imam after his father 'AH ibn-abi-Talib. It is reported that he took his opinions from a freedman who belonged to 'All. 577. at the time last will when was he fled from al-Madmah to Mecca. He was al-Mukhtar. Radwa. who hold Some to the Imamate of Muham- of those who are called al- Kariblyah are followers of abu-Karib al-Darlr and claim Muhammad is ibn-al-Hanafiyah is living is and did not die. but he was called Kaisan. Kaisaniyah and Mukhtariyah. The second [upon which they agreed] was that Allah might have had a beginning. 48 . These Kaisaniyah over the Imamate of Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah. would attack. He killed most of those who had killed al-Husain at Karbila. to which two opinions are common one of them is the Imamate of Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah.. 2 The Kaisaniyah split up into sects. gave over the banner to him. whose name was Kaisan. O. vol. then thou wilt be praised. provaccept this doctrine about Allah. no good in war which does not rage. J. ii. Shahrastani gives two sects. S. and then passed over to attack] as thy father There is Muhammad by the ibn-al-Hanafiyah after his brother al-Husain. whom al-Mukhtar ibn-abi. and near him a fount of water 1 A. 1 and said: "[Carrying this. splitting off of those This resulted in the mad that ibn-al-Hanafiyah. This sect is sometimes even classed under the Imamlyah.

vol. 3 Mas'udi. v. J. 329.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID and a fount of honey. 3 1 On the part of animals in Messianic ideals see Friedlander. ibn-'Ali Some ibn- the Imamate to abu-Muhammad ibn-'Abd-al-Muttalib. This latter is the view of the Rawandiyah. 182. p. and of the Kuraish. it 'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas because abu- Hashim willed to him. a lion. This sect claims the divine character of the latter. xxix. was of the school of the Kaisanlyah who hold that Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah is alive. The rest of the Kaisaniyah be- lieve in the death of Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah but dissucceed him. and the other sire Karbeli reft from sight. agree about the Imam who should There were after some of them who claimed that the Imamate him re- verted to the son of his brother. and they hold that the spirit of Allah was in abu-Hashim. we shall them belonging to the mention them in the section in which Kuthaiyir. S. De Goeje. from which he derives his sustenance. the masters of truth. p. both of Ghulat sects. A. are four alike. and passed over from him to Bayan. so these split over the transfer Imam to succeed abu-Hashim. p. While some claimed that this spirit passed from abu-Hashim to 'Abdallah ibn-'Amr ibn-Harb. the 'All Imams hid. 2 Kitab al-Aghdni 8. Les Prairies d'Or. 1 He is the expected Mahdi. Mas'udi gives it " Hidden from all sight." 49 . and at his left a panther guard him from his enemies until the time of his appearance. they are the sires about whom there is faith 29 naught One sire is the sire of and piety. 'All ibn-al-Husain Zain al-'Abidin. the poet. while others hold that after to him it should revert abu-Hashim 'Abdallah ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah. 32. three sons. As to the Bayaniyah and the Harbiyah. He his says in his poem 2 " Indeed. 37 ff. we mention the sects of the Ghulat. O. while at his right. Ibn-Kutaibah ed. Others claimed the Imamate after abuHashim went to Bayan ibn-Sim'an. vol.. and do not believe in his death.

but as to the second of the two. thou hast stayed in mount a long time. the Faruk of the world. is people. and hateful are they whom we mention To as accursed. at the time when he was declared emir of the faithful.. 2 3 Ibn-Kutaibah. through whom And hatred of thine harms not ibn-Arwa. the hatred of piety religion of the unbelievers." free to am These verses we have answered with the following " Thou art indeed free. appeared as Imam. his And 'All fame has preceded him. but from Allah. following him Dhu'l Nunain who met his death. And free from 'Umar and Abu-Bakr. the banner preceding. and free from connection with ibn Arwa. Ibn Arwa = Uthman. 316. He disappeared and was not seen in among them for a season. v. The decree came from above. Mas'udi. near him are honey and water. faithful. through the hatred of the Allah has kept alive the faithful. Les Prairies d'Or. II. 30 'Umar. vol. the fire of hell have they been relegated." 2 : And " I Kuthaiyir also said about sectaries go to Allah. 182. I the Abu-Bakr. p. is despite all the anger of the Rawafid.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS And a third does not taste death until he leads the horsemen. p. of the world. in the order in which I have given them. Faruk. ibid. for their confusion there is no healing. 577. rejoice in him as Imam. Say to al Wasy I this 1 De Slane. and who proclaim thee caliph and Imam. Ibn-Khallikan. and free from the religion of the Khawarij. 50 . Confused ones. appeared after them as Imam. vol. and the sectaries are a people like unto the Christians." rightly called the emir of the [Saiyid says " 3 ] ' : would give my life for thee. p. hidden Radwa." 1 : 'Abd-al-Kahir answers these verses with the words " The masters of truth are four. They persecute in the community those of us who follow thee.

and al-Husain ibn-' AH. Radwa is until he called to appear. "Die Messias Idee im Islam" (in Festschrift zum 70ten Geburtstage A. And there is no Imam in the valley of Radwa. and drink is provided all and with it food. M. p. especially pp. for the one whose bones the ground holds. and the earth does not hold his bones. For Messianic ideals in Islam cf. 1 16-130. vol. Frankfurt A. 1903. just as his father tasted of decease. Berliner's. Chiitisme. p. * Si ." The poet known by the name of Saiyid al-Himyarl was also of the school of the Kaisaniyah who is : looked for the coming of he is Muhammad ibn-al-Hanaflyah. and claimed that imprisoned at Mt. p." The iyah first who arose to preach the doctrine of the Kaisanof in regard to the Imamate Muhammad ibn-al- Hanafiyah was al-Mukhtar ibn-abl-'Ubaid al-Thakafi.) . And about this he says in a " poem of his But everyone who This is the decree of him who on the earth disappears created the Imam. 54 ff-5 Friedlander.. pp. 127.' This " poem we answered with the words life has passed in waiting. ed. 121 3 ff. and p. 1 And verily he has the sustenance of an Imam. vol. [Muhammad] would have lived for ever.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID And the people of the earth were inimical to thee during thy stay with them for sixty years. around whom the angels bandy words. Chronique Ibid. Tabarl. Van Vloten. The 3* 4 when he reason for this was that 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad had killed Muslim ibn-'Akll. The son of Khawla [name of the Haniflte mother of Muhammad] has not tasted of death. Lo thy And If ibn Khawla has tasted of death. any man verily the chosen one could have lived for ever on account of his greatness. 18 et seq. Zotenberg. nor is drink provided. And there are no streams of honey and water beside him. and with it food. 34. iv. iv. was 1 3 Not in Mas'udi.

2 Ibid. When he [al-Mukhtar] entered al-Kufah he sent his messengers to the sectaries of al- Kufah and allegiance to its districts up to al-Mada'in demanding their him and promising them that he was coming to claim their revenge for al-Husain ibn-'AH. 58. he came to ibn-Ziyad. Some of the people. so that he brought him out of prison and said to him " I give thee three days. 2 under 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair.Yazld al-Ansari. 1 Ibid. 66. however. vol. He had then disappeared. plead with him in favor of al-Mukhtar. which was under the command of al-Husain ibn-Numair al-Sukuti. where he swore allegiance to told that al-Mukhtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid : 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair. the latter threw a club which was in his hand and cut his eye. and when. Al-Mukhtar distinguished himself in these wars against the people of Syria. al-Trak and Persia remained with ibn-alZubair. and the Syrian army returned to Syria while the command of alHijaz. fled to al-Kufah. and that it was who had commanded them to obey him It was at this time that ibn-al-Zubair re32 [al-Mukhtar] moved 'Abdallah ibn-Yazid al-Ansari from the governorship of al-Kufah and put in his place 'Abdallah ibn-Muti' al-'Adawi.. al-Yaman. 69. He then imprisoned him. .. Al-Mukhtar having suffered evil treatment from ibn-al-Zubair. else I will behead thee. 81. iii. Then Yazld ibn-Mu'awiyah died. having been ordered to return.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS was one of those who had rebelled with Muslim ibn-'Aldl. pp. iv. vol. p. 610 et seq. The number of those who recognized al-Mukhhe [al-Hanafiyah] . The governor of this city was at that time 'Abdallah ibn. 1 remaining with him until ibn-al- Zubair fought the army of Yazld ibn-Mu'awiyah. and lo during that time thou shalt go away from al-Kufah. claiming had chosen him as caliph. He invited them to recognize that al-Hanaf lyah Muhammad ibn-al-Hanafiyah." Al-Mukhtar then fled from al-Kufah to Mecca.

75 et seq. At the end of this time the Zaidiyah were defeated and fled.. I am the leader of those who mourn. a final dis- position of them and a decisive settlement. 5 to cut off his head. Tabari. p. vol. 81 et seq. and how many murderers do we recall?" Bring hither the servants of Allah to swear allegiance to the proper leader and to fight the enemy. and al-Mukhtar made himself governor over al-Kufah and its surroundings." the son of the daughter of the seal of the He then descended from his pulpit and sent a his message by the head of body-guard to the house of 'Umar 1 ibn-Sa'd. ii. pp. iv. iv. Ibid. 81 ct seq. He also killed all those in al-Kufah who had fought sand. pp. nor one who had more followers. 2 28 et seq. we we have how many tyrants. Zotenberg. Retigios-Politischen O ppositionsparteien iv. Ibrahim ibn-Malik al-Ashtar also joined 2 al-Mukhtar. pp. ' 1 against al-Husain ibn-'Ali at Karbila'. 632. Then he : delivered the khutbah before the people and said " Praise be to his Allah who promised his friend victory and enemy harm. 'Abdallah ibn-Muti'. O have heard the invitation of the preacher and received the view of the preacher men. vol. vol. and lo. 8 * 5 p. Ibid. He then cut off the im Alten Islam. and definitely put both of them in this condition. Wellhausen. 3 The strife between them lasted for several days. who on that day was at the head of twenty thousand. male * and female. Al-Mukhtar set out with these men against the governor of al-Kufah. who entered into allegiance with him.. Ibid. vol. Chronique ed.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID tar and gathered around him amounted to seventeen thouAmong them was 'Ubaidallah ibn-al-Hirr. 53 . and the investigator of the murder of prophets. Among the secretaries of al-Kufah there was not a finer one than he. There was no braver than al-Hirr in his day..

over whom 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- Marwan 1 had placed him as governor. the Merciful. of the kShins. including 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad and al- Husain ibn-Numair al-Sukuti. and of Madhhij and Hamadhan. Al-Mukhtar. Ibrahim ibn-al-Ashtar sent who. verily completely the leaders of the Bani crush Tahim [Tamlm?]. hearing this.MOSLEM head of sister . 1 Goldziher." After this he sent Ibrahim ibn-Malik al-Ashtar with six thousand men for the battle against 'Ubaidallah al-Husain ." one. ibn-Ziyad. and of Kais and of 'Ailan." news of al-Mukhtar reached ibn-al-Hanaffyah and he was afraid of a religious strife. and desired to go against al-'Irak so that those who believed in his Imamate should gather around him. I will Wise. and of " Thu'al and of Nabhan.SCHISMS AND SECTS son Ja'far ibn-'Umar who was the son of the of al-Mukhtar. and of Nahd and Khaulan. I.. the Syrian army was put to flight and seventy thousand of them were killed on the field of battle. When two armies met at the gate of al-Mausil. I will kill al-Nu'at 2 of al-Azd and 'Uman. 75 et seq. p. the Compassionate. vol. and It is also said that to revealed the Book. . and he said " That is for the head of his : and this is for the head of the son of al-Husain 33 the great. the Powerful. iv. and given the laws for religion. and Then he said : By the All-hearing the Knowing. and of 'Abs and of Dhubyan. and a specimen of his rhymed prose " By him who has sent down the Koran. p. Abhandtungen zur Arabischen 54 Philologie. al-Jazirah and of al-Mahin [Persia] as far as the border of Armenia. who wrote rhymed prose like the rhymed prose their heads to al-Mukhtar. was Then the 1 Ibid. 65. when he had succeeded in becoming governor of al-Kufah. claimed that he was a kahin. who was at that time in al-Mausil with eighty the thousand of the Syrian army. the Mighty. and who disapproves of disobedience . the of Bakr and of Hazzan. tion is had come : as follows he claimed an inspirahim. the Lofty.

him : So he said to his army " I e. verily I will kill the hateful poet. and by the hon1 De Slane. verily I will open the graves there. Ibn-Khallikan. for fear he would rob of his leaders and governors. the rSjis [ra/as-metre] poet of the heretics. Again. the powerful conqueror. such a man is the Mahdl" 34 This speech of his was reported to ibn-al-Hanafiyah. the liar. g." After this he preached and who has made me a knowing one. and the friends of the heretics. the unbelieving sinner. that he shall be struck by a blow of a sword. 12. and forged Hail to those of praiseworthy character. And verily I will burn the dwelling places in this region.. asserting This he did. and by the Lord of the faithful land. and said to him " Thou art the ultimate authority of this age." 1 And they persuaded him to claim that he was a prophet. the betrayer. And Allah is sufficient as a leader and Then he swore and said " By the Lord of the helper. and the brothers of satans. and fortunate soul. Then the Sabbabiyah of the Ghulat of the Rafidah tricked al-Mukhtar. among his intimates that a revelation had come : whereupon he said in rhymed prose " By the hurrying of the clouds. and by the heavy punishment." : said in his khutbah: " Praise be unto Allah. By Allah. swear allegiance to the Mahdl. and by the sacred house. by the Lord of the two worlds. ii. p. objects. 55 . and by down to him. and of good deeds and of ready thought. sacred enclosure. verily I shall open the grave of ibn-Shihab. and has enlightened my heart. who tales gathered together for worthless against me. but the Mahdi has a sign. and he remained in Mecca fearing that al-Mukhtar might kill him if he went to al-Kufah. and by the rich giver. vol. and by the swift reckoning. and the sword shall not cut his skin. p. And verily I will save some of them. and the supporters of the unrighteous. 229.THE SECTS OF THE KAWAFID afraid of his arrival in al-Trak. i.

and fearing that the latter would order his death. and al-Mukhtar sent someone to burn his house during the night. conquering them and killing most of them. together with the slaves of the people of alKufah. because he had promised to give them the possessions of their masters. vii. al-Tiwdl. verily a standard will be raised for me from here to Adam. vol. and by the esteemed mosque. pretending to those around him that fire from heaven was sent down to burn it. the rest he took prisoner. 32. vol.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ored corner of the Ka'bah. 171. it is the angels who have defeated us." These words reached Asma' ibn-Kharijah and he said " Abu-Ishak has attacked me in rhymed prose and now he will burn my house. he was brought to al-Mukhtar. 'Wide 2 valley in al-Hijaz. 309. and among these was a man called Surakah ibn-Mirdas al-Bariki. Kitdb al- 3 Variants in Kitdb al-Aghdni. and by the possessor of the pen. the angels whom we saw on mottled horses above your soldiers. ed. Juynboll. : tar for posing as a kahin. Akhbdr Pub. and freed him.'. Muller. by Vladimir Giurgass. i. p. fire shall be sent down from heaven." Then he " Verily. Dinawari. p." Al-Mukhtar admired his words. It was after this that the people of al-Kufah went out against al-Mukhof Dhi Salam. 1 and then said : to the borders by the lord of heaven. nor are ye the ones that have defeated us with your force on the contrary. p. 198. 2 The Sabbablyah gathered around him. al-Hamadani : Geographie der Arabischen Halbinsel. p. he said to those who imprisoned him and brought him to al-Mukhtar " Ye are not the ones who have taken us prisoners. Cf. and verily it 35 will burn the house of Asma. Abu'l-Mahasin. Cf. whereupon he went to Mus'ab ibnal-Zubair in al-Basrah. and from there he wrote these verses to al-Mukhtar 3 : . And he fought with them against those who had gone out against him." So he fled from his house. 56 .

and what they both believe fight I to be an invention. telling them that the victory would be theirs.. As commander over the van of his army Kufah. 97. who were seized their possessions he set al-Muhallab ibn-abu-Sufrah ' with his following of the Azd.. to the reason for his words claiming that Allah plains tar may have had it. iii. When Mus'ab ibn-al-Zubair learned that Ibrahim ibn-al-Ashtar had deserted al-Mukhtar. * Ibid. pp.. he ceased his help and governed the territory of Meso- potamia for himself. he was joined by ibn-al- 'Ubaidallah ibn-al-Hirr al-Ju'afi and Muhammad Ash'ath al-Kindi. iii. 513. p. he longed to subdue al-Mukhtar. 4 al-Mukhtar. v. I tell show my abi-Ishak that I have seen silent the mottled black [horses] eyes what neither of them sees. he sent out his to fight Over the Tamlmite cavalry news of them reached commander Ahmad ibn-Shumait When Mus'ab with three thousand picked soldiers. al-Mukhtar for having and slaves the latter inciting Mus'ab to covet the seizure of al-Kufah by force. and claiming a revelation for himself. in addition to those leaders of al-Kufah who had made common cause with him. vol. and take a vow to you until death. denounce your revelation. 97.. *Ibid. 1 as well as most of the leaders of alirritated against . In this. iv." In what we have here recounted As is to be found the reason of al-Mukhtar' s posing as a kahin. vol. the following incident exibn-al-Ashtar heard that al-Mukh- When Ibrahim as a kahin was posing and claiming inspiration for him3° self. vol. The command of 3 the cavalry he gave to 'Ubai- dallah ibn-Ma'mar al-Taimi. he placed al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais. p. a beginning. He claimed that a The two revelation had come to him concerning this. ibid. . Mus'ab set forth from al-Basrah with seven thousand men of his own.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAF1D " Lo. 449 et seq. 1 Tabari. p. vol. 5% 57 *Ibid.

and al-Mukhtar was killed with them. pp." After and his allies were put to flight. together with most of al-Mukhtar' s leaders. and the prophets have gained renown. vol.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS armies met at al-Mada'in. ' Kitdb al-Aghdni. And I am naturally not pleased with the destruction of my people Even if it happened. this and now I am not afraid of death. v. and on the fourth day they made a sally. And engagement Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath al-Kindl was Al-Mukhtar said " His death pleases me because : he is the only one remaining of those who killed al-Husain. 468." will He went on 1 to : prove this regarding Allah with the words of the Koran God abrogate or confirm. but he suddenly changed his mind. Allah has promised this to me. 58 . And Mus'ab three days until their food gave out. and they dence of the it al-Mukhtar fled to the resi- Imam in al-Kufah. and were slaughtered. 13. 2 killing of Mus'ab in the region of al-Kufah." Kaisaniyah came to believe that ginning. ibn-Shumait. " What he pleaseth And this is how the Allah may have had a be- 37 Al-Mukhtar then took upon himself the ibn al-Zubair in al-Madhar in this killed. 146-161. iv. A'sha Hamdan s says about them " I have prophesied. v. and fortified themselves in besieged them with four hundred followers. seeking death. But I rejoice over that which abu-Ishak suffers. p. for they were in an evil strait. through mortification and shame. and their emir. vol. the evil things that happened in al-Madhar. ' Yakut. they were the sons of 'Abdallah ibn-Dajajah of the Banu Hanifah." Through 1 Surah. and the followers of al-Mukhtar were put to flight. And " : the remdidst nant returned to al-Mukhtar and said to him Why thou promise us victory over our enemies?" And he said: " Indeed. 39. Two brothers called Tarif and Tarif killed him. was killed.

the heretic. but stand by the Mahdl. this latter question. they differ. and joined ibn-Marwan in al-Ta'if." Moreover because he fled from ibn-alZubair in Mecca to 'Abd al-Malik ibn-Marwan. claiming that he was imprisoned Over the reason of his imprisonment there. because after the death of al-Husain ibn-'AH he went over to Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. the time of his summoning. 38 and because he demanded peace of him. and spoke to his followers about this departure of his in the following words " O my brothers. and accepted largesses from him. the right leader. From there the latter went to al-Dhar [in Khurasan. But as to what occurred when he reached the pass of Radwa. they disagreed. O Muhammad. But even before this he had been disobedient by seeking out Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. Imam. 130. : : ye may be led. And they claimed that his companion 'Amir ibn-Wathilah al-Kina. and not have fight By refusing to and further disobeyed him by seeking out 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan." While others said " Verily Allah punished him by this imprisonment. no one knows them except of his Mt. do not depart. fought ibn-al-Zubair. so that he. But some of the Kaisaniyah who at looked for Muhammad till ibn-al-Hanafiyah differed over alive. thou art the the pure.nl 1 came before him. iv. vol. hold that he died there 1 . near Bukhara]. Those believing in his death.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID This Allah is may have an explanation of the view of the Kaisaniyah that a beginning. and was buried there by ibn-al-Hanafiyah. O Muwhom hammad. ibid. him he disobeyed there. while those expecting his return say that Tabari. But it the generous one. Radwa. not is ibn-al-Zubair al-Samiri. And ibn-' Abbas died his master. some saying that " Allah is secret in his affairs. p. It was after this that he mended his ways. 59 . O my helpers.. and he gives no explanation for the reason imprisonment. nor he the one we set up as a goal." was said that he should have fled.

Miisawiyah. And he is the expected Mahdi. vol. and the Ghulat into fifteen sects 1 the Kamiliyah. the Bakiriyah. Aftahiyah. Muhammedanische Studien. iii. 19-72. the Zarariyah. the Kaisanlyah. 3 Brockelmann. Cairo. under the Bakiriyah. Concerning the Imamlyah of the Randah. Shamitlyah. vol p. the Twelvers (Ithna 'Ashariyah). p. i. the Kati'iyah. 2 He claimed that the Companions were unorthodox because they forsook their allegiance to 'AH. pp. ibid. Goldziher. the Yunusiyah. 3 Shahrastani. 47-52. Isma'iliyah and Twelvers. Ibn-Kutaibah. pp. i. pp. 162. He was then asked " And what is thy opinion And he quoted the words of the poet: * of 'All?" that : " What is the evil of the three caliphs O Umrn 'Umar " Against thy friend 1 who does not accompany us ? Ibn-Hazm is vague as to divisions. the Isma'iliyah. 73. Kultur- geschichtliche Streifsiige. as he was bound to fight the people of Siffin. he gives the Nawisiyah. the 'Amariyah. 1 Kitdb al-Aghdni. Concerning the Kamiliyah from among them : These are the followers of a man from the Rafidah who was known as abu-Kamil. These are the Imamlyah who divided off from the Zaid5. 60 . 188.. 3 the blind poet. the 39 Nawisiyah. vol. Bashshar ibnBurd. a. Kitdb al-Shi'r. ed. the Muhammadiyah. vol. and the Shaitaniyah. p. as a punishment for the sins which they attributed to him. and hid him from the eyes of men. is The report someone said to him: " What is thy opinion regarding the Companions?" And he replied that they were unorthodox. and Ja'fariyah. the Hishamiyah. Shahrastani gives the Imamlyah alone. the Shamitlyah. 201. belonged to this school.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECT'S Allah imprisoned him there. the Miisawiyah. Arabische Literatur. p. the Mubarakiyah. vi. until he is bidden to come forth. Von Kremer. lyah. and he condemned 'All for ceasing to fight them. 37 et seq.

" It is reported. even though you are deformed. thou who art viler than an ape.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID It is also reported that to this sin of condemning the Comother panions and 'AH sins : among them. can 4^ You blame the moons. in the very depths of the seas there are useful things. And wonderful things were formed in its innermost parts which And not be counted in line or in number. Bashshar added two one the belief that the dead would return to the world before the day of resurrection." I 'Abd al-Kahir says : " declare these Kamiliyah unortho- dox for two reasons. First because they condemn all of the Companions without specification." nearest 42 Hammad " - 'Ajrad satarized Bashshar and said : O. even when the ape is blind." To " this Safwan al-Ansari replied in the following poem : Thou didst think that fire was the finest thing as to its origin. and among the creations of Allah. Tandsukh = return as a different being. Only may I not see and describe him. however. it And has been worshipped since existed. and merely replied " Let him see me and describe me. Goeje. p. Raj'ah = return as ed. and secondly because they preferred sies fire to earth. And upon the earth it is lighted by means of stone and fire-stick. and we feel satir- that Allah has 1 done to him what he deserves. that Satan this they As a proof of gave the views of Bashshar in one of his poems right in preferring fire to earth. as the partisans of the Re* turn is hold among the Rafklah. that Bashshar was untroubled by : the satire in this verse. to the genus ape. of Bashshar ibn-Burd Some of the disgraceful herewe have mentioned. and the other. : " The earth fire is dark and fire is light. for he same person. 490. 2 Ibn-Kutaibah De 61 .

3 A. and to his followers." b. pp. with a large army J. Friedlander. 1 These expect Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn. Mt. p. and his father's like the name was 'Abdallah name of the father of the Prophet of And in a hadlth dating from the time of 3 the Prophet. which is a disgrace to him in this world." As the proof of this he claimed that his name was the same as that of Muhammad Allah. Concerning the Muhammadiyah. 43 et seq. a painful punishment in the next. 326.." And when Muhammad al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain ibn-'Ali began his preaching in Madinah. nor that he died they claim that he is in al-Husain ibn-'Ali ibn-abi-Talib . until he shall be com- 43 manded : to return. S. who therefore commanded him to be thrown into the Tigris. will he quotes these words about the Mahdl correspond to of " His name my name. 458. iv. 6 al-Mansur.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ized the Mahdl. vol. he made himself master of Mecca and al-Madinah. ibid. nor do they believe that he was murdered. xxix. i. vol. S. voL 62 .. Shahrastani. Hajir.. pp. iv. p. madiyah who believe 2 xxix. and his father's name to the name ibn-'Abdallah ibnal- my father. 'Tabari. the Prophet of Allah. Not to be confused with the Muhamin the divinity of Muhammad the Prophet.. l That was in the time of the caliph abu-Ja'far 'Isa who sent ibn-Musa. while his brother * Ibrahim ibn-'Abdallah made himself governor of al-Basrah and their third brother Idris ibn'Abdallah took possession of several of the districts of the Maghrib. p. vol. In the error of his anthropomorphistic ideas al-Mughlrah ibn-Sa'id al-'Ijli ~ said to his companions " Verily the expected Mahdl is Muhammad ibn-'Ab- dallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain ibn-'Ali. 203. 30. 5 ibid. in the district of Najd. 218. O. A. vol. ibid. 0. J..

They killed Ibrahim at the gate of Himrin. because they look for the coming 'Halting place for prayer. sixteen parasangs from al-Kufah. He will return and rule the earth. The father of these three brothers. for he has Husain was the Mahdi who should been killed and does not rule the earth. He then sent 'Isa ibn-Musa to make war on Ibrahim ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain ibn-'Ali. killed in al-Madinah was letters ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan. 'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain. and they These claim that the one the army of 'Isa ibn-Musa. Muhammad commanded to return. They say he was poisoned jail there. It was in this sedition that Idrls ibn- 'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain died in al-Maghrib. died in the of al-Mansur. This sect said " Indeed. 63 . This sect is al-Muhammadlyah. His tomb is in al-Kadisiyah and is well 44 known and frequented by pilgrims.THE SECTS OF THE KAWAFID against Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah killed ibn-al-Hasan in ibn-al- Husain." whom not Muhammad called from the name of the most Holy. They fought and Muhammad a battle at al-Madinah. seventeen of the Ka'bah and the Maktim. he lied when he : said that Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-alrule the earth. When Muhammad al- ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan ibn-al-Husain was killed in Madinah. Hajir in the region of Najd. and is on Mt. saying " Indeed. but has merely disappeared from the sight of men. he is right in saying that the Mahdi is : ibn-'Abdallah verily he was not killed. each one of whom will be given one of the will put the armies to flight. men will be brought to life. the Mughlriyah divided into two sects. and allegiance will be paid him in Mecca between the corner 1 At that time. one of which acknowledged his death and denounced al-Mughirah ibn-Sa'Id al-'Ijli. remaining there until he is ." The other sect persisted in its adherence to al-Mughirah ibn-Sa'Id al-'Ijli.

a poet of this sect has said in one of his poems " Up to the day in which men return To their world before their day of reckoning. or then Muhammad is among you look for him." This shows there look for 'AH as the Sabbabiyah They claim that he is no difference between this.Rahman ibn-Muljim killed was Satan transformed into a man in the person of 'AH. them and him. al-Husain designated his son 'Ali ibn-al-Husain Zain-al-'Abidin and Zain-al-'Abidln called to the Imamate Muhammad is ibn-'Ali known as al- Bakir. designated his son al-Hasan for the Imamate. Jabir ibn-YazId to speak of al-Ju'afl belonged to this sect. through his children to from 'All ibn-abi- Muhammad They say ibn-'Ali. then look for al-Husain as ye ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan. Concerning the Bakiriyah among them. they claim that he the expected Mahdi. concern64 . that they were only devils having put on the form of his men in the person of al- Husain and look for companions. the : one 'All who was known as al-Bakir. then believe also that those killed at Karbila' were other than al-Husain and his companions.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS of Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan. al-Hasan designated his brother al-Husain. May Allah be praised for c. and you assert that the one killed there was Satan transformed into man : that he in the person of Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan. He was wont the return of the dead to this world before the resurrection. This people transfer the Imamate Talib. " Verily. and that the one whom 'Abd-al. among the clouds. On this subject." Those who hold our views say to this sect " If you assert who was killed in al-Madinah was other than Mu45 hammad ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al-Hasan.

p. Ibn-Khallikan. O Bakir.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID ing whom it is 'Abdallah al-Ansari greet related that the prophet said to Jabir ibn1 " Verily.. meet thee?" original ms. and that he was the ibn. when Isma'il died during the life of his father.Ja'far. O Bakir. vol. sects of the Ghulat. It is to this view that the Isma'illyah of the Batiniyah inclined. all the more so since you his son Musa ibn. They said that he went into the house of al-Rashid and has not come forth from it [adding] we are sure of his Imamate. 432.. : know 1 that the burial-place of Musa ibn. 2 who transferred the that the Then they claimed Imam was and they claimed that Musa 3 was alive. vol.. at the happened that and was wont to go around It Companhe was blind in alshall I Madlnah exclaiming. 65 . d." And it was said to this sect which was called the Musawiyah " If you doubt his being alive and his death. when On a certain day he passed through one of the streets of al-Madinah . then doubt his Imamate. p. These are the ones Ja'far. p. We will mention them later Concerning the sect of the Musawiyah from among Imamate to after Ja'far them. 463. but we have doubts of his death and we would not decide on it without proof. 300..Ja'far i. and do not assert definitely that he is in existence and that he is the expected Mahdi. 3 Ibid. [page wanting in the his Ja'far designated son Isma'il to the 46 Imamate after him." end of his life. and not dead. we learned that he had designated his son merely to guide the people to choose as Imam his son Muhammad among the ibn-Isma'U. iii.].Ja'far expected Mahdi. thou wilt see him and him from me. . " Jabir was the last of the ions to die in al-Madinah. Biographical Dictionary. 2 De Slane. vol. is well known Ibn-Hajar. i.

he was theoretically Imam. desired the They Imamate * to go to the son of Muham- mad ibn-Isma'Il ibn-Ja'far as the Batimyah claim. and claim that the Imam who succeeded him was the grandson of Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan. and called the is visited. p. f. obedience to him being obligatory. while others claimed that although under age.." And this Musawlyah because it looks for Musa ibnJa'far. and believe in the death of Musa. xxviii.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS in the sect is western part of Baghdad. who was a grandson of 'All ibnMusa al-Rida. and some that he They also differed over his right to rule at that time.. for no other could be Imam. cf. J. 1 Friedlander. his son These transferred the Imamate from Ja'far al-Sadik to Musa. 66 Ibid. S. The Seveners be- lieved 2 him to be the last Imam. but the genealogists say in their books that ibn-Ja'far died and left no offspring. O. They were also called Twelvers. A. in a debate with a member of the sect he said the following " You are of less account in my eyes than the Mamturah dogs [dogs rained upon]." 47 e. 171. was was four years old. decisions meanwhile being in the hands of the learned men of the school until his coming of said that he Some eight years old. and it is also called the Mamturah because Yunus ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman al-Kumml was among the al-Katl'Iyah. 2 because of their assertion that this expected Mahdl would be the twelfth in line from 'AH ibn-abi-Talib. . Concerning the Mubarakiyah. knowing all that an Imam should know. Muhammad ibn-Isma'il Concerning the branch called the al-Katl'Iyah from among them. 58-69. Ithna'ashariyah. xxix. vol. pp. And they differed over the age of this twelfth Imam at the death of his father. vol. some claiming that even then he was really Imam.

vol. ShahrastanI.. vol.. color. p. and as a pearl perfectly rounded. pp. p.. Cf. xxviii. i..nl. This taste object also possessed. Philosophischen Systeme der spekulativen Theologen p. xxvii. Concerning those called the Hishamlyah among them. smell. held. 5 M. space thus appearing for the in this space that Allah Ibid. and it and this space is his throne. Ibid. and that he Imam to whom obedience is due. moreover. touch." its He also claims that its color is its taste. p. now 1 the absent. He went on it when is 1 space was not. ibid. Concerning the views of Hisham ibn-al-Hakam Hisham ibn-al-Hakam claimed that that which he worshipped was a body possessing dimensions. 212. To their true doctrines in regard to the these two' sects added the error of predicating a Imamate 48 body to Allah. height. iiu Islam. its smell its touch. 2 3 Not to be confused with the Hishamlyah of the Mu'tazilites. 232 et seq. 67 . p. 5 Hakam al-Rand one owes its origin to Hisham ibn-aland the other to Hisham ibn-Salim * al- Jawaliki. p. shining as a pure chain of silver. breadth and thickness. : its its height being equal to its breadth and to its depth.. seq. vii. that its extension its He upward is no greater than breadth. 4 443 et 17/. ibid. and essence. according to him. i. 65. Mas'udi. Shahrasta.. he claimed that the object that he worshipped was a diffusing light. but he claims that the itself is color and taste. although he is g. taste are its He does not say that color object to say that Allah was. p.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID age. vol. as well as their heresy as regards anthropomorphisms. its smell. v. while length and breadth are specified only as long and broad. 87. time. vol. his own motion first that he created space. Horten. 53. taste. vol. 170. In addition. vi. pp. vol. ibid. and was by is. 2 these Of two sects. Ai-Fihrist. at which time this Imamate was definitely recognized is and to whom obedience was due.. vol. 370 et seq.

." Al-Jahiz.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Some report of Hisham that he described the object which he worshipped as seven spans [measured] by his as if he own span. ment. of the rays that . the being he worshipped or this pointing to alted. Geographorum Arabicorum. 1 The highest in the range around Mecca. the ex- it : " The mountain towers above him. He answered. is also reported that Hisham. he would not have seen what Abii-'Isa is behind it. ibid. And they said. vol. claiming that having known them. through knowledge. nor is it a part of him. De He said. mountain is greater than he." 2 e. Bibliotheca Friedlander. erred concerning the attributes of Allah. He changed the opinion that Allah does not cease he knows things after not knowing things. not identical with him. in addition to his error con- cerning the Tauhid [unity]. xxix. 27. and that knowledge is one of his attributes. vii. i. p. 68 . if this were not so. 314. Abii-al-Hudhail in one of his books says that he met Hisham ibn-al-Hakam in Mecca near the mount of abiiKubais x and asked him which of the two was greater. they would verily the : not point to Him. al-Warrak said in his book that some of Hisham's companions answered him that Allah touches his throne. but is not It separate from it nor is the throne separate from him. mountain. in one of his books. since in the majority of cases his had measured him according to human measureman is seven spans by own span. unless his rays touched what was behind the moving bodies. '-' Goeje. p. Ibn-al-Rawandi relates in one of his books about Hisham 40 that he said " There is a likeness between Allah and bodies that can be felt in some way. vol. says about said that Allah Hisham : that he knows what is under the earth only by means come from him and penetrate to the depths of the earth. nor is it anything other than he. nor would he have known about it.

the free will of his servants would not be possible. Lord in taking connection with this he claimed that the prophet disobeyed ransom from the prisoners of Badr. it It could. In regard to the Koran. Regarding the prophHisham considered it lawful to say that they were disIn obedient. and his life. as if Hisham had impugned the possibility of knowing the non-existent. he was wont to say that it was neither creator nor created. the tradi- tions about them. although the Imams he considered sinless. 69 . since to the his Allah forgave him. another that they are ideas. are divergent.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID nor created. As to the deeds of Allah's servants. not be said that was not created. And he said in regard to them that they are he and no other. that his knowledge cannot be said to be eternal. and his will. nor could they impose duties upon themselves. One tradition says they were created of Allah. because one cannot be a knower without an object already existing to be known. the latter would be eternal. according to him. had he never ceased knowing things that are knowable. and neither things nor bodies. nevertheless. attribute cannot be predicated. according to him. v. : 1 Surah 48. Hisham said. but Applied to this are the words of Allah " May Allah forgive thee that which thou hast done early 1 Thus by thy fault and that in which thou didst delay. He also said that Allah. because an attribute cannot be predicated." he distinguished between prophet and Imam. for moreover. and he and his About the power of Allah. and according to him an his hearing. because such a statement attribute and. it is an attribute. said. 2. would be an an attribute cannot be predicated. verily they are not eternal nor created. moreover. that if Allah was the knower of 50 that which his servants did for him before their deeds actually occurred. seeing. for according to ets. Hisham a thing can only be a body.

the soul. body is dead. just as al-Nazzam held that two thin bodies could be in the same Zurkan reports further that he place [at the same time].MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS attention to his sins. 70 ol Mushtabih. Hisham belonged to the school of the Imamiyah. like the senses of 1 Friedlander. made up of different elements other. but and blood. 2 According to punctuation in Dhahabl. p. although he did say that miracles could not be performed by one who was not a prophet." Hisham said : " The earth is each closely attached to the As regards earthquake. there is if the element further increases in an eclipse. Furthermore. The said " Man consists of two things. p.. although the rest of the Imamiyah condemned him because he thought the Prophet capable of disobedience. object which he worshipped He claimed that the was not flesh was in the image of man. vol. and it was from him that al-Nazzam 1 took the what could be no further divided was nonZurkan 2 says of him in his treatise that he held 51 that it was possible for one body to pass into another. a body and a soul. xxix. It is a light like the bodies doctrine that existent. Thus when one of these elements becomes weak the other becomes stronger. 240. : in the universe that give light. He claimed also that he possesses five senses. he must therefore be free from disobedience. As regards the Imamate. while to the Prophet when he disobeyed there came a revelation calling Imam no such revelation came." it him that he considered possible for Zurkan also reported of someone who was not walk on water. he denied that any of the parts of a body were limited. Concerning Hisham ibn-Salim al-Jawaliki: This Jawaa prophet to liki while belonging in his heresies to the school of the to the extreme as regards the doctrine of Imamiyah went corporeality and anthropomorphism. however. is sentient and intelligent. and acts on the outside world. . 58. weakness. ibid. and an earthquake takes place. being a diffused white light.

and has hands and feet and eyes and ears and nose and mouth. A similar view is ported of Shaitan al-Tak. as well as is 'Ali i. Zararah ibn-A'yan. and power. and see- door see. nor wish. They maintain 52 is an act. who were of the sheikhs of the Rafidiyah. In this abu-Malik al-Hadraml agrees. nor hear. that the will of Allah a separate is act. ibn-Maitham. Thus if Allah wishes anything. nor 1 Mentioned in Fihrist. those Imamate of 'Abdallah ibn-Ja'far. but they hold further that the will of Allah outside of him. his who believed in the From this sect he went is The heresy which laid at is that Allah did not live. nor have power. and the rest of the senses being different in the same way.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID man. but the rest of the person white light. 2 Not included by Ibn-Hazm. over to that of the Musawiyah. He goes on to say that the upper half of this being is hollow and the lower 1 is solid. who These are the followers of 'All belonged to the sect al-Kahdlyah. and that which he wishes is. that his will he moves. and hearing.. it worship had black is being a black light. nothing in re- He thus granted that the servants of Allah could create substances. It is also said of al-Jawaliki that he said that the acts of is the servants of Allah are substances. Abu-'Isa al-Warrak ject of reports that he claims that his obhair. for there the world but substances. a mental image which is not Allah nor anyone besides him. until he created for himself life. and will. 338. Concerning the Zarariyah 2 from among them. and knowledge. p. h. nor know. 71 . and he hears by a different means from that by which he sees. e. Our Sheikh abu'l-Hasan al-'Ash'ari reports in his treatise that Hisham ibn-Salim held the same views as Hisham ibn-al-Hakam as regards the will of Allah.

S. J. 308. calls 4 Ibn-Hazm Shahrastani calls the sect him the son of Ja'far. xxix. S. A. 61. though he is stronger than they. and seeing. 3 Surah 69. They are the followers of Yunus ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman alKummi. vol. He claimed that to a decision Mamturah dogs. O. j. M. Ibn-Hazm.. These are the followers of sect maintains that 1 Muhammad 4 ibn-al-Nu'man al- Rafidi. This and they look for a successor Not a sect in 2 Not to be confused with the Yunusiyah of the Murji'ah. v. p. It self that i. It was from this principle that the Karamiyah inferred their doctrine that the word of Allah and his will and his apperceptions were finite. 2). who firmly maintained that Musa ibn-Ja'far had died. 72 vol. and not the lord.. 591 G. Z.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS was after he had created these attributes for himhe became living. 2 Although of the Imamlyah. p. xxix. borne. up to his son Miisa. 17. . he quoted : As a proof of the fact that Allah that " And on day eight 3 will bear the throne of your lord above them. just as the legs of the throne bear the throne. 75. SO. Nu'maniyah (cf. hearing. And it was he who gave to those who would not commit themselves Musa Allah the name of ceeded the limits is on the death of Yunus. Concerning the Shaitanlyah from among them. J. borne by the bearers of his throne. although the throne is is stronger than they. however. D. Mentioned in Fihrist. powerful. wishing. he belonged to the 53 school of the Katl'iyah. n. Fihrist. The Basrah Kadariyah inferred frcm this form of heresy the finiteness of Allah's will and of Allah's word. p. O. wise. A. ing. also as abu-Ja'far. Concerning the Yunusiyah 1 from among them.. p. 220. called Shaitan al-Tak Musa died. exof anthropomorphism." Whereas the people of our doctrine maintain that this verse proves that the throne is borne.

ye have dived down and brought up stones against us. But the true Imam. the Rafidah know the things 'Abd al-Kahir says that we have mentioned the sects of among the Zaidiyah and the Kaisaniyah and the Imamiyah. is revealed by the Sunn<Ji or — And in Koran them suffice verse. he is not worth unto us a mustard seed. Goldziher. Your Imam if he is hidden in darkness.THE SECTS OF THE RAWAFID for him and agree with Hisham ibn-Salim al-Jawaliki in the view that the deeds of the servants of Allah are substances and that a servant of Allah can really produce a substance. ye worthless Rafidah. ye vultures of the air." ca A " poet of the Zaidiyah answered him as follows is set : Our Imam up and stands upright. then bring forth by means of a sieve the one who is covered up. 1 go to Hell. and that he does not before determining them. Today the Kaisanlyah are undistinguishable. M. among When quarrels err. D. Ixv. according to us. your claims are worthless throughout. try to reach the hidden one by means of a light Or if he is covered up by your rancors. is a sufficiency for him who is rightly led.. having mingled with the Zaidiyah and the Imamlyah the Zaidiyah. n . and willed them. arose among the Imamiyah." 1 The bird is used for hurtful companions. not is like the one who has to be sought by sifting. G. some causing the others to one of the Imam- lyah poets satirized the Zaidiyah as follows " O ye useless Zaidiyah. and cast off. your Imam is an unfortunate one. Z. They also agree with Hisham ibn-al-Hakam in the claim that Allah knows all things only after having determined them. These two us as a revelation. 358." 'Abd al-Kahir says we have answered these two regards their verses as follows sects as " O. Any Imam who not seen publicly.

the 4 The Ibadiyah majority forming the two main sects of the Hafslyah and the Hadithiyah. 28. the Rashidiyah. the Shaibiyah. the Ma'lumiyah. Badr has in one place Sifriyah and in the other (J. vol. 74 . xxix) gives it as Sufrlyah. the Khawarij form twenty and the following are their names The First Muhakkimah. 1 : As we have mentioned 'Ajaridah (who are themselves divided into sects. 3 Makrumiyah. oftener. the Azarikah. among the orthodox sects. vol. O. p. i. There seems to be some doubt about the pointing of it this word. We : are inclined to think the latter correct. at all. the Ashab Ta'ah (those who do pious deeds with no intention to please God).. the Saltiyah. the Najadat. Cf. *Shahrastani includes the Yazldlyah Haarbriicker's translation. the Khawarij are divided into six i. 129. one of which is the Khazimiyah). since occurs 3 Wellhausen Religios-politischen Oppositionsparttien im Alten Islam. p. S. vol. the Shu'aibiyah. Abhandlungen der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften Gottingen. the Mu'badlyah. it Shahrastani does not point Sifriyah. According to Shahrastanl. the Sifriyah. and the are divided into various sects. vol. the Akhnaslyah. Ibadiyah. the Shamrakhiyah. Haarbriicker transcribes as Friedlander while Muhammad A. 55 the Majhuliyah. the the Wakifah. 153. it Sufriyah. 1 As regards the Yazldryah of the Ibadiyah sects.CHAPTER The II Sects of the Kharijiyah before. v. the Ibrahimiyah. Cf. 2 p. the Khamriyah. the Shaibaniyah. 2 the sects. Haarbriicker's translation.

Handbuch des Isldmischen Gesetzes. ing the decision of one or both as right. scholars disagree. namely: in condemning 'All and 'Uthman. p. 300. the Followers of the Camel. and in the neces- sity of rebelling against an oppressive Imam. unite. Al-Ka'bi says that in spite of their division into sects the Khawarij agreed on the following views. in declaring as apostates those who commit major sins. the two judges (Arabic al-hakamain). but he does not hold al-Ka'bi's view that they agreed in condemning those who commit major wrong in his sins. Some of the Khawarij hold that a man can be declared unorthodox only when committing sins in regard 56 to which there is no express threat (in the Koran) while as regards the sin for which there is either punishment for al-Ka'bi the Khawarij agreed in . in please God. ashab al2 hudiid). sheikh abu-1-Hasan 1 Included Juynboll : ' among the orthodox sects by Shahrastani. those who accepted their decision claimabti-1-Hasan. among the Khawarij. later chapter in connection They will be mentioned in a with the sects of the Ghulat. and all the Followers of the Camel. He also claimed that they agreed over the necessity of rebelling against an oppressive ruler. and all who accepted the decision of the two judges.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH and the Maimuniyah * of the 'Ajaridah. 75 . do not declare as heretics those of their followers who have made themselves liable to punishments (Arabic. The correct view is . and the two judges. As to the main beliefs on which the Khawarij spite of the divisions of their various sects. Our sheikh on the other hand. The Najadat especially. said that they agree in condemning 'AH and 'Uthman. these were two sects of the unorthodox Ghulat who are not included in the sects of the Moslem people. that given concerning is them by our views that committed condemning those who major sins.

and all those who now justified the decision of the tzuo judges. killing one of their men. M. 3 while others hold that a man of the Rabi'ah of the Banu Yashkur who was with 'AH at Siffin. Mentioned in ShahrastanI. and the like. namely the condemning of 'All and 'Uthman. Chronique ed. 683. hold that the one of their a major sin is excluded from Allah's not necessarily a heretic in faith. heretics. 21. D. the brother of Maradis al-Khariji and others that the first to secede was Yazld ibn-'Asim al-Muhadhi. The Najadat. see Lane. vol. p.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS or threat given in the Koran. 1 Scholars differ in regard to the first person who became a Shurah. all We will take up these divisions in detail. the Follow: ers of the Camel. and Z. but is contrary. ShahrastanI. please God. calls him Yazid ibn Asim al- Muharibi. or the decision of one of them. whether they belong to the Kharijite body or another. when he saw that the two parties had agreed upon the two judges.. mounted his horse and attacked the followers of Mu'awiyah. e. p. Zotenberg. or accepted their arbitration. i.. Tabarl. The only correct view in regard to the beliefs held in common by all the Khawarij is that which our sheikh abii-1-Hasan claims. such as adulterer. and 1 am therefore not bound i. 76 . Haarbriicker. p. lxi. the two judges. V. He then . the person committing such a sin cannot be designated only by an appellation mentioned in the Koran. thief. 432. on the number who commits grace. On 2 3 the term. G. i. i. killing one of their men. cried at the top of his voice : " Verily have I given up alle- giance to 'AH and Mu'awiyah. following this with an attack on the followers of 'AH. Concerning the first Muhakkimah: The Khawarij were either Muhakkimah or Shurah. S. ibid. vol. al-Ka'bi's error in saying that all of the declaring the authors of major sins This shows Khawarij agree in heretics. p. vol. Some say 2 it was 'Urwah ibn-Hudair. 130. iii.

better than he who runs.. called Masma' ibn-Kadali. p.' " Then a man of the Khawarij. This is why the Khawarij are called Haruriyah. and made two men commanders over them 'Abdallah ibnWahab al-Rasibi. fell upon him with his sword and killed him. Shahrastam." It was while fighting the followers of 'AH that he was killed by some men from Hamadhan.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJ1YAH by their decision. iii. 130. On their way through Nahrawan they discovered a man who was fleeing from 'Urani 2 them and having surrounded him." 3 " Tell us. p. ibid. Briinnow : . They then entered his house which was in the village. There walks. before the gate of which 1 Wellhausen. 17 et seq. p. 130. they broke 57 up camp and went to Harura. ibid. Their leaders at the time were 'Ab- ibn-Kauwa and Shibt ibn-Rab'i. after the return of 'All from Siffin to al-Kufah." He said. " Who art thou?" He answered. 8 Wellhausen Das Arabischc Reich und Die Charidschiten. 683. p. vol. " I ' have heard my father say that the prophet of Allah said." said they. who then numbered twelve thousand. p. p. and whoever is him not be a slayer. and he who walks able to be killed. As for the Khawarij. vol. 'All came against them and plead with them. " a tradition which thou didst hear from thy father and which he heard from the prophet of Allah. 1 and Hurkus ibn-Zuhair al-Bajali al: known as dhu-1-Thudaiah. will be a civil war during which he who sits will be better than he and he let who stands than he who who stands. 54.. 20. and his blood flowed in a streak over the water of the river to the other side. "I am 'Abdallah ibn-Hubab ibn-al'Aratt. For further account see Tabarl-Zotenberg. i. ''Ibid. they said. : sein Sturz. and his arguments prevailed so dallah that ibn-al-Kauwa put himself under 'Ali's protection with ten horsemen while the rest of them went to al-Nahrawan..

653 et seq. and are unrighteous." Wherethem with his army. " in Nahrawan. But before fighting he said to them. and put his child to death. all of whom reject his word. and verily if we had won we should have killed thee.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS they had killed him." The answer came " back. But as to the women and the children. Against the worst of Schismatics. who have gathered together to make war on the God of men. 658... Lo. the Lord of the East. all of us killed him. vol. and when the Followers of the Camel were put to flight thou didst permit us [to keep] what we had won [in the way] of booty from the victory over thee. as well as his slave (concubine). but thou didst forbid our taking possession of their women and : their children. 1 he started against them with forty thousand of his follow- accompanied by 'Adi ibn-Hatim people fall who said of truth When back and slink away. we come with banners fluttering like eagles. they were not fighting us. first of all. Dar al-Islam. the encamped 58 ers. 675. " Hand over the slayer of 'Abdallah ibn-Hubbab. mother of his child. because we fought for thee in the Battle of the Camel. iii. "What makes you seek revenge from me?" They answered. 2 ibid. Against the erring and the blind and the forsakers of true guidance. 'All attacked upon their soldiers. 78 . of excellent virtue. openly with shining swords. " We seek revenge from thee. And among us is 'All. Why didst thou permit 'AH answered " I allowed their possessions to be seized only in exchange for what they had robbed from the treasury in al-Basrah before I came to them. 2 made within the territory of Islam. 326. 171 et seq. 'Tabarl. 'AH sent word to them saying. p. And therefore the us their goods and exclude their children ?" women and regulations of Islam." who leads us against them On arriving. 245. They then When news of them reached 'AH al-Ta'I. 342. and they appeared before him en masse..

It is this upon ' ' which we.. I would not have disputed with thee. let us summon our sons and your sons. iii.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH should be applied to them. Choose me for caliph. said to The people being shamefully him. in the correspondence between thee and Mu'awiyah. tians of Najran to invoke the curse of God on the lying faction. 79 . which one of you would have taken 'A'ishah silenced are not unbelievers. Moreover. when regard to such power. for if I had said to the two judges. then confirm me in it ?' for if thou showest (than thou) doubt concerning thy caliphate. vol. " Why didst thou say to the two judges. so my experience with the sons is the same as that of the prophet of Allah with the fathers. Had I known that thou art the prophet of Allah. 89. " Come." He the latter disputed with thee in answered. p. as his share?" by this. saying. our wives and your wives. " Secondly. when Suhail ibn-'Amr said to^ him. we seek revenge from thee for not using the Commander of the Faithful in connection with thy name. in connection with them." They then went on to say to 'All. and it is not permitted to make if I slaves of those who had allowed you to take the women. but write down thy name and the name of thy 1 father!' Accordingly the Prophet wrote. have agreed. 1 Tabari. ibid.' Mu'awiyah would not have been Verily the prophet of Allah challenged the Chris- satisfied. If I am worthy ' of the caliphate. then others will have even more right to be in doubt concerning thee. and ourselves and yourThen we will invoke and lay the malison of Allah selves. " I followed the ex- 59 ample of the prophet of Allah on the day of al-Hudaibiyah." this To ' 'AH replied : " On that occasion I desired only jus- tice to Mu'awiyah.' The prophet of Allah told me that the same would happen to me. None of them had apostatized from Islam. Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah and Suhail ibn-'Amr.

1 although had he wished he need not have done it. These were Duwaibiyah ibn-Wabrah al-Bajali." And they said. " Withdraw from me for this one day. and Habib ibn1 Ibn-Hisham. p. "By Allah. It is for this reason that I. he speaketh the truth." And he fought the Khawarij with those who had come with him from alKufah.) In doing this he showed justice to them even at his own expense. So . I curse and ask the curse of Allah upon you. and not ten of them will escape. nine of the followers of 'AH were killed on that day. " We re- pent. " By him in whose hand is my soul not ten of us will be killed. that So on Rukanah ibn-Wa'il al-Arji. whereas my judge was cheated which led to evil results. iii. Sa'd ibnMujalid al-Saiba'i." said." day eight thousand put themselves under his control while four thousand withdrew to take part in the fight against him headed by 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb alRasibi and Hurkus ibn-Zuhair al-Bajali. Kaisum ibn-Salamah al-Juhani. " I found that the Prophet of Allah had once entrusted to Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh the arbitration of the case of the banuKuraizah.' (Surah 3. 674. Jami' ibn-Jusham al-Kindi. 70. but the judge of the 60 Prophet judged justly. 'Abdallah ibn-Hammad al-Juhairi. " They then Why judges when the right was on thy side?" didst thou entrust the arbitration to the two And he said. p. saying." As a matter of fact. Then 'Ali said to those who had put themselves under his control. Most of them said.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS on those who lie. ibid. in turn. He commanded his followers to fight them. was just with Mu'awiyah.' the Christians would not have been satisfied. 'Utbah ibn-'Ubaid alKhaulani. Tabari. for if he had said. Have you any complaints beside this?" The people were silent. 54. In like manner I chose a judge. Nor do I ' understand the treachery of 'Amr ibn-al-'Asi.. v. al-Faiyad ibn-Khalil al-Azdl. vol.

171. thing like the breast of a woman. The Ibadiyah of al-Yaman are their followers. near the armpit. and the Khawarij of al-Jazirah are their followers. Journ. La tin de I' empire des Carmathes du Bahrein. Most of the Khawarij were killed that day. ser. . This is the story of the First Muhakkimah. 3^ou are among those referred to in the text.) By the Lord of the Ka'bah. Two of these went to Sijistan where the present Khawarij are their followers." 'AH then attacked them with his followers.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH "Asim al-'Audi. These nine were killed under the flag of 'AH and no more. Then the First Muhakkimah declared as unorthodox 'AH and 'Uthman. v. and whoever agrees with their decision as well as all sinful and disobedient men. two judges. and who deem that what they do is right?' (Surah 18. And two went to al-Yaman. the ." They found him under a vinetree. pp. 103-104. vol. Two went to 'Uman and founded the sect of Khawarij there. and Dhu-1. someWhereupon 'AH said. As. the we tell Follozvers of the Camel. and 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb was killed in a duel. "O son of abu-Talib. Hurkus — ibn-Zuhair presented himself before 'AH and said. And one went to Tell Mauzan. and they saw under his arm. we do not wish to fight with thee except for the sake of Allah and the other world. 81 1895." and in accordance with 'Ali's desire he was put to death.61 Thudyah was thrown from his horse. " Seek Dhu-1-Thudyah. Shortly after 1 there rebelled against 'AH certain De Coeje. this. Mu'awiyah and his followers. " The word of Allah and his Prophet have come true . " Verily to you applies the word of Allah. only nine of them escaping. v." And 'Ali said to him. ix. Two went to the region of al-Jazirah (Mesopotamia). In the course of the conflict. 11. 1 On that day 'AH said to his followers. whose aim in the present life hath been mistaken. by Allah. ' Shall you who they are that have lost their labor most.

in that 'AH sent an leader against each one of these Khawarij killed. 25. 5. the thirty-eighth year of the Hijra. against . p. p. 6. He was among those who sought the protection of 'All at the Then Farbattle of al-Nahrawan. vol. vol. It were was same year. west of the Tigris. vii. Bibliotheca vol. who arose against Mu'awiyah in al-Nukhailah. in the month of 'Ali Ramadan. 3 Ibid. p. See also Yakut. vol. iv.. and killed these Khawarij. vol.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND kimah. 2 abu-Maryam army with a until all al-Sa'di in Sawad al-Kufah. in was killed. iii. Among these al-Tamimi rose against al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. of Taim 'Adi. 7. ''Ibid. p. in Sawad al-Kufah. p. p. iv. former a well-known place. As the we conclude that in the text it should be Masabadhan. 6. iii. wah ibn-Naufal al-Ashja'I. one of the provinces of the territory watered by the Euphrates and Dujail. vi. vi. in Harjaraya. Mu'awiyah sent men from al-Kufah against him.. Then Ziyad ibn-Kharrash al-Tjli arose against Ziyad ibn-Abihi. al-Ashhab ibn-Bishr al3 Sa'd ibn-Kufl in al-Mada'in.SECTS Khawarij who were of the same view as the First Muhak- Among them was him in al-Anbar. 20. Geographorum Arabicorum. p. that When the rule passed over to Mu'awiyah. in the forty-first year. Next there arose against him [Mu'awiyah] Hautharah ibn-Wada' al-'Asadi. and arose against him in Masidhan 'Uranl. ibid. 393.. 690 . 5 Ibid. vi. vol. 1 De Goeje is gives Masabadhan. 5 who was then the governor of al-Kufah under Mu'awiyah. 4 and al-Mustaurid ibn-'Alkamah held the same views as the First who kimah. all followers down to the time of the Muhakwas 'Abdallah ibn-Jausha al-Ta'i. 32 . Mu'adh ibn-Jarlr next rose against al-Mughirah and was killed in the battle. 1 who arose Ghalafah al-Taimi. * Tabari. vol. Both of these were killed in fighting him.. vol. p. 'Ashras ibn-'Auf. there rebelled his 62 against him and Azarikah.

ii. i. vol. the truth of his claim claiming that he one of the sect. The First Muhak- said that such opponents were unbelievers. 2 The Khawarij never had a sect which surpassed this in number. 1 Shahrastani. among which were the following: 2. this sect agreed was that is The third point on when a soldier appears. If he kills captive. Ibn-Ziyad sent 'Ubad ibnal-Husain al-Haiti against them with an army which defeated them. Tabarl— Zotenberg. p. were polytheists. 581. 1 the assertion that the opponents of this sect. vol. were kimah had lowers polytheists. without distinction. Tabarl — De Goeje. surnamed abu-Rashid. and Allah knows best. Concerning the Azarikah. nor one that exceeded it in power. but 63 not polytheists. p. p.. although agreeing in other respects. These two put to the sword everyone they met on their way. 1 Dinawarl. he refuses to this kill the captive. P. Kuraib ibn-Murrah with Zahaf ibn-Rahar al-Ta'I arose against 'Ubaid-Allah ibnZiyad. as well as the killing of their children. These are the followers of Nafi' ibn-al-Azrak al-Hanafi. within the Moslem community. sect permits the killing of their opponents' wives. they agreed with them in other respects. The if First Muhakkimah which did not condemn such abstainers. and should be put to death. should be proved by bringing to him a captive from the opposing side this he be commanded to kill. 83 . he should be con- sidered a hypocrite and a heretic. Fourthly. vol. his claim that he is one of the sect is conif whom firmed. These are the Khawarij who stood by the First Muhakkimah before the time of the strife of the Azarikah. 76. 133 et seq. this sect asserted that those fol- who abstained from fighting with them. 278. Secondly. In creed they agreed on many points. al-Akhbdr al-Tiwdl. ibid. iv.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH and was killed during the fight.

" He therefore condemned as unorthodox those who. Nafi' and his He was in the right. but he declared that person unorthodox who disagreed after he himself had seen the light. fire they claim that the children of those who hell- oppose them are polytheists and will therefore be in forever. Nafi' and his followers claimed that the home of their opponents. however. Nafi' ibn-al-Azrak to* differed from ibn-al-Wadin and asked him change his heretical view. opposed him in the matter of condemning the Abstainers as unorthodox. trial They also disagree as re- gards the originator of the of their army. but when ibn-al-Waclin died." had been unorthodox when he differed from ibn-al-Wadin. and that it is permissible in this home to kill children and women. What the they differ about is the question as is to who was first to put forward the doctrine which peculiar to the Azarikah. The Azarikah. as unorthodox. within the Moslem community. after this. ferior to He said. then 1 we do not need to give back a deposit Author of al-'Ikd al-Farld. namely. 84 . " In regard to this point. the are polytheists.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Moreover. " If our opponents trust. of a soldier claiming to be of them claim that the first to origwas 'Abd-Rabbihi al-Kabir [the elder]. was the home 64 of unbelief. the declaring the Abstainers from war. 1 while others say it was 'Abd-Rabbihi al-Saghir [the younger]. we are in- them [the Muhakkimah]. saying. while considering it permissible to deny a Allah . paying of which had been commanded by the explanation they gave being. and still others that the first was one of their inate these views Some men called 'Abdallah ibn-al-Wadin. " Nafi' did not consider that he orthodox. rejected the stoning of the adulterer. Nor did he separate himself from the First Muhakkimah in their refusing to condemn the Abstainers as unfollowers adopted his view.

not punishable. together with most After this there came against them from al-Basrah 'Uthman ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'mar al-Tamlmi with two thousand horsemen. vol. who was called the Commander of the Faithful. this governor and the successive battles. although they do in the case of a pious man who accuses women. 1 The community has condemned them for this innovation.. Dictionnaire de Perse. 57. collecting its land-tax. 52 et seq. Unbelievers are doomed to great torture. iv. In this way one heresy led to another. p. their number amounting to more than twenty thousand. After the Azarikah had agreed on the innovations which we have mentioned they paid allegiance to Nan' ibn-alAzrak.. whether the amount stolen be big or little." Nor do they apply the legal punishment to him who brings a false charge of adultery against a pious man. 2 Meynard. p. Then there al-Fadani at the head of three thousand from the 1 According to law. 8 For an account of ibid. this battle ibn-Habib ibn-'Abd-Shams to fight the The two parties met in Dulab al-Ahwaz. which they introduced in connection with an unbelief in which the First Muhakkimah shared.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH made by them.. flight. thus ignoring the law in regard to the minimum amount of the stolen goods. ibn- The governor of al-Basrah at that time 3 was 'Abdallah al-Harith al-Khuza'i under 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair. whom the Azarikah put to of his followers. 42 et seq. Brunnow. of anything under this it is minimum therefore p. They also cut off the hand of a thief. Northwestern province of Persia. They took possession of al-Ahwaz 2 and what is beyond it of the land of Persia and Kirman. They were joined by the Khawarij of 'Uman and al-Yaman. Tabarl. 76 et seq. the amount is not considered a came against them Harithah ibn-Badr army of seizing theft la . 85 ibid. In Muslim ibn-'Abs was killed. cf. . 'Abibn- dallah ibn-al-Harith despatched an army with Muslim 'Abs ibn-Kuraiz Azarikah. just as anger incites anger.

and the rest in the time of the caliph 'Abd-al-Malik ibn- Marwan. It was in this flight that Naii' ibn-al-Azrak died. Geographisches Worterbuch. This war between 1 'Idhaj is a town in al-Ahwaz. not ibid. in the land of Persia. One of the principal districts of Fars. 117 et seq. 86 . Those who remained were driven to 'Idhaj. com- manding him to mander of this fight the affair. s. his sons Part and his followers. The latter confirmed al-Muhallab in his position as leader of the army against the Azarikah. 293. gave the title of the Commander of the Faithful.. 'Tabarl. vol. far from Shiraz. them Ma'mun was killed. of this period was in the days of 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair. p. during the governorship of al-Hajjaj over al3 'Irak. p. phorum Ardbicorum. Azarikah. kept up the fight for nineteen years. and his people of the tribe of al-Azd joined him. but the Azarikah put them also to flight. v. This army proceeded to fight the Azarikah and drove them from Dulab al-Ahwaz to alAhwaz. 416 s. . Meynard. which the end of 2 won they made the land of their flight. and making him com- So al-Muhallab returned to alarmy ten thousand men. 2 i. 1 where they paid allegiance to Katari ibn-al-Fuja'ah. making a total of twenty thousand men. ibid. to in al-Ahwaz. See De Goeje. Al-Muhallab. whom they After party this. v.. p. Bibliothesa GeograYakut. 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair then wrote from Mecca to al-Muhallab ibn-abi-Sufrah. together with three hundred of the strongest of the Azarikah. al-Muhallab fought them in battles in which each alternate victories. vol.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS gc al-Basrah. who was at that time in Khurasan. Al-Muhallab then fought on which occasion 'Ubaidallah ibnas well as his brother 'Uthman ibnMa'mun. at which the Azarikah were driven to Sabur. iv. index. Basrah and chose from its After his death the Azarikah paid allegiance to 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'mun al-Tamimi.

p. where they killed him and sent his head to al-Hajjaj. There al-Muhallab fought with him. vol. where he pursued and fought him. p. 3 The cause of his leadership and authority was that when Nafi' ibn-al-Azrak declared unorthodox those who abstained from fighting.. 'For Najdah and the other ibid. while he sent his son Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab with his followers against Abd-Rabbihi the younger. until a difference arose among the Azarikah which resulted in AbdRabbihi the elder forsaking the Katari and going to a valley Kirmin x with seven thousand men. and sanctioned the killing of the children of his Abu-Kudail. 'Ubaidah ibn-Hilal al-Yashkurl had forsaken Katari and gone to Kumis. vol. vol. i. p. 136. vol.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH al-Muhallab and the Azarikah kept on raging for years in different forms between Persia and al-Ahwaz. ShahrastanI.. he called them polytheists. town in Kirman. So Sufyan ibn-al-Abrad followed and besieged him in the fortress of Kumis until he succeeded in killing him and his followers. and drove him to the land of Kirman. iv. ShahrastanI. schismatic in this sect.. De Goeje. ibid. ibid. At the same time al-Hajjaj sent Sufyan ibn-al-Abrad al-Kalbi with a great arm)' against Katari after he had departed from alRai to Tabaristan. p. of 1 2 Meynard. 87 . though they agreed with him in belief. town in Persia. Concerning the Najadat. Tabarl. Briinnow. He then attacked and killed Abd-Rabbihi the elder. Katari remaining with about in Jiraft ten thousand men in the land of Persia. Allah thus cleared the earth of the Azarikah praise Allah for that — These were the followers Najdah ibn-'Amir al-Hanafi.. pp. 185. 102. * Probably a mistake for abu-Fudaik. 46 et seq. leaders of this sect see ibid. Abd-Rabbihi 66 the younger left him and with four thousand men went to another district of Kirman. 20 and 22. ibid. 3. 4 Atlyah alopponents and their women. driving him from there 2 to al-Rai. he being the other great i.. 136. p. vi.

These men condemned as unbelievers those who had in turn condemned the Abstainers as unbelievers. 'Abd-al-Malik having written to him about her. vi.fi. where Najdah received them with an army of those Khawarij who desired to follow the army of Nafi'. 1 where the Khawarij of Sijistan joined them. They complained. they soon differed. 35. vol. Among the deeds of Najdah for which his followers blamed him was the fact that he sent an army to attack by mainland and one to attack by sea." s latest theories and sent them back to 67 al-Yamamah. p. and had given her back to 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. sect joined abu-Kudail [Fudaik] in battle against They are the ones who killed Naj- dah. About him. and it is because of this that the Khawarij of Sijistan are called 'Ata- wiyah. and to the one which he sent by land he assigned higher stipends than to the one which he sent by sea. ex- doned those who committed 1 De Goeje: ibid. . They therefore said to him. however. One of these sects went with 'Atiyah ibn-al-Aswad al-Hanafl to Sijistan. They told them of Na.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Hanafi. They condemned whoever admitted the Imamate of Nafi'. that he had sent an army to attack the city of the Prophet of Allah and had seized there a daughter of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. making Najdah the Imam. " Verily thou hast returned to our enemies a maiden who belongs to us. The second Najdah. Miklas and 'Aiyub al-Azrak for- sook Nafi' with all their followers. he had bought her back from the one in whose possession she was. complaining of various things. moreover.. Rashid al-Tawil. where they swore allegiance to Najdah ibn'Amir." They further complained because he parfaults in misdirected zeal. The third sect broke with Najdah in regard to his theories but accepted his Imamate. departing for al-Yamamah. These disagreealso ments led to their division into three sects.

and before the four-fifths had been divided among the soldiers. vi. whoever is in his (misdirected) zeal considers a thing which forbidden permissible. and the recognition of his prophthe interdiction of the shedding of the blood of a Mos- lem. " There are two things ets. assumes punishment for the zealot who commits a fault. which is our : desire. is permissible and that which for- Now. in religion. " Perhaps Allah will 1 De Goeje.. until there dawns upon him the distinction is between that which bidden. and the recognition of all that comes from Allah." of their ignorance." under his protection those of his followers who held to the punishments fixed by law. vol. ibid." swered. p. the interdiction of robbing the wealth of a Moslem. " We did not know that this They anwas not permitted us.had been taken out for the state. is an unbeAnother innovation of Najdah was that he took liever. And the second includes all other requirements of religion. Concerning this they said " The women fell to our share. is And he who. Man is forgiven for ignorance in regard to the latter. They then took possession of the women for themselves. . town 89 in Bahrain. " You should not have done this.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH cusing them on the ground of ignorance. they asked him about what they had done in seizing the women. we 68 from our own property. Whereupon he forgave them because Then he said. Najdah will make up for it said to them. This recognition is incumbent on everyone who has attained the age of puberty. One is the recognition of Allah." When they returned to Najdah. before the evidence established. of this The explanation sent with was that his son al-Muttarih was an army to al-Katif. he shall be forgiven. 1 which they attacked. taking the women and children prisoners. and he said. If their price surpasses our share of the booty. and married them before the fifth of the boot}. and in eating food from the booty before the fifth had been taken out. 152.

" that anyone disagreeing with his enter hell-fire. and it resulted in having some regret his repentance. " Thou art the Imam. he is a Moslem. He also said. and it would not be seemly for us to ask thee to renounce anything. saying. Moreover. if not we will desert thee. " Whoever commits a minor sin or tells a small lie. " Choose us an Imam. thee recant. And when abu-Fudaik became governor of al-Yamamah. looking for the return of his soldiers whom he had sent to the seacoast of Syria and the districts of al- Meanwhile a proclamation was given by abuFudaik: " Whoever shows us the way to Najdah. so he hid himself in the dwelling of one of his followers. Najdah's slave. and had forgiven his followers because they had acted in ignorance. would reinstate kill Najdah as head." So he chose abu-Fudaik. and join those who had sided with him and said to him." provided such a man agreed with him [Najdah] in the principles of his faith." This he did. therefore. and to thee belongs the right to explain the law. he is a polytheist. " Go into the mosque and 69 repent of your innovations. were divided concerning him. the majority deposing him and saying. Rashid al-Tawil was hand in glove with abu-Fudaik. and then have them enter paradise. When he had originated these innovations. and persists in it. on returning from fighting the infidels.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS punish them for their sins in some place other than hell-fire. however. sought to him. he shall be rewarded with ten thousand dirhems. and takes a drink without making a habit of it. ." And His followers. he claimed religious views would Another of his errors was that he annulled the punishment [hadd] for drinking wine. most of his followers asked him to renounce his innovations. Therefore repent for having repented and let them recant who made he did so. he learned that the followers of Najdah. while he who commits adultery and steals. And the slave 90 Yaman.

THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH
who
brings us to him, he shall be free."
of those with
to him,

whom Najdah was

Thereupon a maid hiding pointed out the way

and abu-Fudaik sent Rashid al-Tawil to him with an army. They surprised him, and brought his head to
abu-Fudaik.

After Najdah was

killed, the

divided into three sects.

One

sect

Najadat were condemned him and

went over to abu-Fudaik. This sect included Rashid alTawll, abu-Baihas, and abu-1-Shamrakh, and their followers. Another sect pardoned him for what he had done,
these being the present Najadat; while the third sect de-

parted from al-Yamamah, and settled near al-Basrah, where 70 they doubted the story of the innovations of Najdah, and were undecided concerning him, saying, " do not know

We

whether he made these innovations or not, and we will not desert him without sure knowledge." Abu-Fudaik lived
after the death of
sent

Najdah

until 'Abd-al-Malik

ibn-Marwan

Ya'mur

ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'mar al-Taimi against

him with an army.
the Najadat.
4.

abu-Fudaik and sent his head to 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. This ends the story of
killed

They

Concerning the Sufriyah.

These are the followers of
like those

Ziyad ibn-al-Asfar. 1

Their views are in the main

of the Azarikah, namely, that those
polytheists; except that the Sufriyah
killing of the in belief

who commit

sins are

do not sanction the

women and

the children of those

who
it.

differ

from them, while the Azarikah do sanction

One

division of the Sufriyah claims that

when

a deed for which

there

is definite

punishment

is

committed, the author of that

deed should be called only by the
nature of the deed,
tentional murderer.
theist.
1

name connected with
calumniator or

the
in-

e.

g. adulterer, thief,

He

is

not an unbeliever or a polyis

In

all sins,

however, for which there
i,

no

definite

Shahrastani,

ibid., vol.

p. 154.

mi

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
punishment, such as the omitting of the prayer or of the
fast,

such deeds being heretical, their authors are unbenot clear at this point.)

lievers

(Manuscript

is

The

third sect of the Sufriyah asserted the
i.

same thing

as

the Baihasiyah,

e.

that the sinner should not be judged as

an unbeliever until he has been brought before the governor and punished. Thus the Sufriyah were divided into three sects. One sect which claimed, as did the Azarikah, that the authors of any sin were all polytheists. The second claimed that the title of unbeliever should be given to the author of deeds which deserved no definite punishment, punishable sins being a 71 departing from belief, but not an entrance into unbelief.

The

third claimed that the title of unbeliever should be

all sins which were punished by the These three sects of the Sufriyah differ from the Azarikah as regards children and women, as has been

given to the authors of
governor.

explained above.
All the Sufriyah consider themselves to be under the

patronage of 'Abdallah ibn-Wahb al-Rasibi, and Hurkus
ibn-Zuhair and their followers from

among

the First

Mu-

hakkimah.
the

They

claim, moreover, that after the death of

men

already mentioned, they are under the Imamate of

abu-Bilal Mirdas al-Khariji, and after

him of Tmran

ibn-

Hittan al-Sadwisi.

As

to abu-Bilal Mirdas, 1 in the days of

YazTd ibn-Mu'awiyah, he rose in al-Basrah against 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad. 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad sent against him
Zur'ah ibn-Muslim al-'Amiri, with two thousand cavalry.

As

it happened, Zur'ah sympathized with the views of the Khawarij, and when both sides stood in battle array, Zur'ah

said to abu-Bilal, "

You
ii,

are on the side of truth, but
Briinnow,
ibid., p. 35.

we

'Tabarl-De Goeje,

vol.

pp. 186, 390.

92

THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH
fear ibn-Ziyad lest he cancel our stipends, so there
is

noth-

ing for us but to fight you."

Abu-Bilal answered, "I should

have liked to adopt toward you the view of

my

brother

'Urwah who advised me
Kuraib and Zahaf
the sword, but
I
1

to slay

you

indiscriminately, as

slew indiscriminately certain

men with
brother."

disagree with both

them and

my

Thereupon abu-Bilal and his followers attacked and deThen 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ziyad feated Zur'ah and his army. sent against him 'Ibad ibn-Akhdar al-Tamimi, who fought 2 abu-Bilal in Tauwaj and killed him, together with his followers. When the news of the death of abu-Bilal reached ibn-Ziyad, he killed those of the Sufriyah whom he found in al-Basrah, and having seized 'Urwah, the brother of 72
Mirdas, he said to him, "
vise thy brother

O

enemy

of Allah, thou didst ad-

Mirdas to slay men indiscriminately. Allah these men on thee and thy brother." By his has avenged orders 'Urwah's hands and feet were cut off, and he was When Mirdas was killed, the Sufriyah made crucified. 'Imran ibn-Hlttan, Imam. He is the man who wrote elegies
in verse
"

on Mirdas,
I

in

one of which he said

3

After thee, After thee,

know not what I thought I knew before, Mirdas, men are no longer men."

This Imran ibn-Hittan was a hermit poet, believing strongly in the school of the Sufriyah. An instance, however, of his

ignominy
'

an attack on 'AH is that he wrote an elegy on i Abd-al- Rahman ibn-Muljim who stabbed 'AH, and said
in
1

Tabarl,

ibid., vol.

i,

pp. 9°. 9 1

-

2

De

Goeje,

ibid., vol. vi, p. 242,

town

in Persia.

Tabarl, 3 Noeldeke, Delectus veterum carminum Arabicorum, p. 90. Annates, vol. i, p. 3064. ShahrastanI, vol. i, p. 134- Abu-1-Mahasin; Annates, p. 24. Kitdb al-Aghdni, vol. xvi, p. 152 et seq., this poem not quoted.
*

Tabari-Zotenberg, vol.

iii,

p. 706, 'All's

murderer.

Kitdb al-Aghdni
vol. xvi,

(reads
P- 153-

Karlm

instead of Munlb.

Karim means nobleman),
93

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
"

O
I

blow from a penitent, who, in giving it, only desired to bring down favor from the possessor of the Throne, will mention him now, and I will consider him the richest of creatures before Allah, when it comes to the final weighing of
deeds."

'Abd-al-Kahir says he answered that
ing verse
"

poem with

the follow-

from an unbeliever who did not profit by it, except by the fact it makes him burn in hell fire. Verily I curse him for his religion and I curse also anyone who hopes for him at any time, forgiveness and pardon.
that

O blow

This ibn-Muljim
of the

is

the worst of men, he

is

the lightest in the scales

Lord of men."

5.

Concerning the 'Ajaridah of the Khawarij.

All of

them are the followers of 'Abd-al-Karfm ibn-'Ajrad, 1 who 73 was a follower of 'Atiyah ibn-al-Aswad al-Hanafi. The 'Ajaridah were divided into ten sects which agreed on the view that a child is to be called to Islam when it has attained maturity, having been left in freedom before this until it is called to Islam, or speaks of it itself. Another matter in which they differed from the Azarikah is that the latter
considered
it

permissible to seize the possessions of their opall

ponents under

conditions.
it

The

'Ajaridah, on the other

hand, do not consider

lawful to seize the possessions of the

opponent as booty until after killing the owner. All the 'Ajaridah agreed on this at first, but later sects divided off

from them, of
6.

whom we

will speak below.

Concerning the Khasimlyah. 2

These include most of
will.

the 'Ajaridah of Sijistan.

This sect agrees with the Sun-

nites as regards predestination,

freedom of choice and
is

In other words, they hold that there
1

no creator but

Allah,

SliahrastanI, ibid., vol.

i,

p. 143.
i,

'Ibid.

Charimiyah

cf. footnote, vol.

p.

146.

94

THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH
and nothing is done unless Allah desires it. Moreover, they hold that freedom of choice comes with the deed. As a result, they condemn as unbelievers the Maimuniyah who, in regard to predestination and freedom of choice, agree with the view of the Kadariyah, who have strayed from the truth. Furthermore, the Khazirmyah differed from the rest of the Khawarij over the question of friendship and
hatred.

Allah."

They said, " Verily both of these are predicates of They hold that Allah loves a man for whatever

faith he exhibits, even if he has been an unbeliever for most of his life. But, on the other hand, if a man becomes an unbeliever at the end of his life, Allah keeps aloof

from him, even though he has been a believer
his life.

all

the rest of

They

also claim that Allah does not cease loving

his friends or hating his enemies; agreeing nites

with the Sun-

concerning the perfection of man, except that these

from the Khazirmyah in this, holding that 'All, Talhah, al-Zubair and 'Uthman were in Paradise, because they were of those who took the Oath of Allegiance, about 74 whom Allah said, "Allah has had mercy upon the faithful, lo they made an oath of allegiance to thee under the tree."
differed

(Surah 48, v. 18.) And they said unto them, "since the mercy of Allah is visited upon one who God knows will die in faith, it must follow that those who took the oath under the tree should be among those to whom mercy is shown. 'AH and Talhah and al-Zubair were among them, but 'Uthman was a prisoner on that day, and the prophet promised allegiance to them, putting his own hand in the place of 'Uthman's. By this means is proven the falsity of those

who
7.

consider these four to be unbelievers."

Concerning the Shu'aiblyah. In their views about predestination, freedom of choice, and will they agree with the

view of the Khazirmyah.

Any
95

possible account of the

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
Shu'aibiyah appears
fered with a
first

when

1 their leader, Shu'aib, dif-

man

of the Khawarij whose

name was Mai-

mun.

Their cause of difference was that Shu'aib owed Maimun money, over which they had a law suit, and Shu'aib

said to him, " I will pay thee, if Allah desires." Maimun answered, " Allah has already desired it this minute." So

Shu'aib replied, " If he has really desired

it,

I

can have
Allah has

done nothing but paid

it."

And Maimun

said, "

commanded

thee to

do

this,

and he commands only what

he desires, while that which he does not desire he does
not command."
divided,
It was after this that the Ajaridah were some of them following Shu'aib and the rest

Maimun.
Regarding this point they wrote to 'Abd-al-Karim ibnwho was then imprisoned by the Sultan, and in answer to them he wrote, " We say that what Allah desires happens, and what he does not desire does not happen, and we do not impute evil to Allah." This answer arrived after the death of ibn-'Ajrad. Maimun claimed that 'Ajrad had
'Ajrad

75 decided according to his [Maimun's] opinion because he Shu'aib, however, said, " We do not impute evil to Allah." " No, he agreed with me because he said, we hold the said, opinion that what Allah desires happens, and what he does not desire does not happen." The Khazimiyah, and most
of the 'Ajaridah, sympathized with Shu'aib, while the

Ham-

ziyah and the Kadarlyah sympathized with Maimun.

The Maimuniyah then added

to their unbeliefs in regard

to predestination a kind of Magianism.

They
;

permitted

marriage with granddaughters on both sides
lieved

and they be-

it was a divine command to fight a tyrannical ruler, and whoever was satisfied with his rule. As to anyone who

refused their view, they do not believe in killing him except
1

Ibid., vol.

i,

p. 146.

96

Allah pleases. Secondly. In the next chapter.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH when he is opposed to them. i. vol. 145' Ibid. sects of the we shall mention the Maimumyah among the Ghulat who deserted the true faith.. Shahrastani has " are created. therefore. Now there was a man among the Maimumyah called Khalaf who differed from the Maimumyah as to predestination as well as freedom of choice. 1 p. 151. 8. 76 Concerning the Ma'lumlyah and the Majhullyah." without the negative. The Ma'lumlyah differed from their predecessors the Khazi9. and will. miyah of in two' things. called Khalafiyah and are the ones who fought ibn-Akrak al-Khariji 1 in the land of Karman. with the Sunnites. and will. he was followed by the Khawarij of Karman and Mukran. In these three things he agreed with the view of the Sunnites. of Khalaf. they said that the acts of men are not * created by Allah. They were. they claimed that whoever did not recognize Allah by all his names. 97 . vol. p. p. i. and anyone ignorant of him was an unbe- liever. . i. attacks their religion. concerning free- dom of choice. Hamzah Concerning the Khalafiyah. These are the followers al-Khariji.. fiyah tended to agree with the Azarikah in one thing. they believed that the children of their opponents are in hell. " Shahrastani gives Adrak. and that carried out unless Allah wishes." These sects are branches of the main Khazimiyah. 2 who fought Hamzah fiyah do not believe in fighting except under an The KhalaImam.Ibid. namely. holding that it freedom of choice goes with the deed. however. They agreed. that man was ignorant him (Allah). namely. vol. This These Khala- forced them to withhold from fighting because of the lack of anyone among them suited to be an Imam. 1 cannot be This sect claimed the right 144. or acts if as guide to the undesirable ruler.

(see above) These are the followers 77 of Hamzah ibn-Akrak Mukran. who goes out with the sword against his enemies ever. he claimed that the children of polytheists are condemned to 1 Not given by Shahrastanl. vi. Horten. and in this matter they condemned the Ma'lumlyah as unbelievers. agreeing in these matters with the Kadariyah. He belonged to the 'Ajaridah. for they are not real Moslems when they are invited into Islam and accept it. These take their name from who is also* called ibn-abi-al-Salt. Moreover. sect. p. 62. 3 and Karman. Islam and received or refused 1 1 Concerning the Hamzlyah. 98 . Die Philosophischen Systeme der speculativen Theologen im Islam.. 2 3 De Goeje. Khurasan." Side by side with this sect was another of the 'Ajaridah. p. p. Kuhistan. but came to differ from them over predestination and freedom of choice. 49. As Ma'lumlyah except that they hold that he who recognizes Allah by some of his names (if not all) really knows him. 2 who laid waste Sijistan. and de- feated their big armies. therefore. vol. He at first belonged to the 'Aja- ridah of the Khazimlyah. that he said " : When accept a Moslem. 10. except a man agrees with us and becomes until they are of age. country next to Karman. how- excommunicate those among them who were Abto the Majhuliyah. when they were invited to it. 1 Salt ibn-'Uthman. group. but not his children. the ninth sect who claimed that neither the children of believers nor the children of polytheists until they were friends or foes had attained maturity. The Khazimlyah.. Concerning the Salt ly ah. 242. ibid. we him.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS of the Imamate for someone in its own . condemned him as unbelieving in this respect. they did not. Ibid. M. their views are like those of the stainers.

18. When he took possession of some provinces. 1 Then 'Amr ibn-Yazid al-Azdi. abu-1-Julandi and others. 2 province of Khurasan. His uprising lasted until the early part of the caliphate of al-Ma'mun. Ibid. in consonance with his views on the abjuration of whoever does not agree with him on the subject of fighting those within the sects of this religion who them polytheists. vol. vols. Wherever he fought and defeated some enemy he commanded their possessions to be burned and their animals slaughtered. and as 'Amr ibn-Sa'id. 1 killing great numbers of them. most of that it whom he killed. " The poet Talhah ibn-Fahd said about this the Faithful is The Commander of on the right way and under the best of guidance. Many of the poets joined him. but he fought those outside of the city and put them to the sword. iii-iv. surpassing the other commanders just moon surpasses the small star. vi. What as the shining a marvelous commander. as leader of his army a man by of the Khawarij the leader of his bodyguard name of Jiwaih ibn-Ma'bad. whose people prevented him from entering it. index. and at the same time killed the prisoners taken from those who disagreed with him..THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJ1YAH hell. so was after this that he was called the Commander of the Faithful. in the year 1 79." It was after this that Hamzah made a raid against the ?8 Khazimiyah among the Khawarij in a part of the country known as Faljard. such as Talhah ibn-Fahd. He started hostilities against the Baihasiyah of the Khawarij. He then made a covenant with the Abstainers among the Khawarij. His appearance was in the days of disagree with his view. 7) . for which view the Kadariyah condemned him as an unbeliever. calling Harun al-Rashld.. Then 2 he himself went to Hirat. who at Ibid. he installed as his Kadi over them abu-Yahya Yiisuf ibn-Bashshar. p.

MOSLEM
this

SCHISiMS

AND SECTS

time was governor of Hirat, came against him with an

army.

The

battle

between them lasted for months.

A great
The
mis-

many from
sionaries of

the land of Hirat were killed, including the

Schismatics, the followers of

Haisam

al-Shari.

1

Hamzah urged

the people to join in his error.

Hamzah
trees.

then attacked Karukh in the vicinity of Hirat, he fought

burning the possessions of the people and laying waste their

After

this

'Amr ibn-Yazid
2

al-Azdi in the

neighborhood of Bushanj (or kh?), in a battle in which 'Amr was killed. 'AH ibn-'Isa ibn-Hadiyan, who was then governor of Khurasan,
Sijistan after he

now

took part in the war against

Hamzah, who was forced
had
3

to flee

from him

into the land of

killed sixty

men

of his leaders, not

to mention his followers.

When

he reached Sijistan, the

people of Zaranj

prevented his entering their town, so he

slaughtered some of them with the sword in the wastes near
the town.

He
)

then disguised himself from them (the people

his followers into black, which gave them the appearance of being the followers of the Sultan. 4 They were warned of this, however, and succeeded in pre-

of Zaranj

by putting

venting his entrance into their

city.

He

therefore laid waste

the palms in their forests and killed those passing through
their wastes.

He

then went in the direction of the river

Sha'bah and there killed most of the Khalafiyah from

among
their

the Khawarij, cutting

possessions,

and driving
in

down away

their trees, burning

their

leader

called

Mas'ud ibn-Kais, who
crossing.

in his flight fell into the river he

was

His followers are

doubt about his death, and
thereupon returned

'"

still

look for his appearance.
ibid., vol.
i,

Hamzah

1

Shahrastanl,

p. 119.

s

De

Goeje,

ibid., vol. vi, p. 18,

province of Khurasan.

"Ibid., vol. vi, p. 50,
4

town

in Sijistan.

The 'Abbaside party wore
p. 72.

black.

Banning,

Muhammcd
v, p. 439-

ibn

al-

Hanaflja,

Melanges de

la

Faculte Orientate, vol.
100

THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH
from Karman, and on
his

way

fell

upon the

district of Bust,

one of the districts of Nisabur, where he killed some of the Tha'alibah Khawarij who were there. This uprising in Khurasan, Karman, Kahistan and Sijistan lasted till the

end of the days of al-Rashid, and the beginning of the caliphate of al-Ma'mun, because the greater part of the army of Khurasan was busy fighting Rafi' ibn-Laith ibn-

Nasr ibn-Saiyar 1 at the gate of Samarkand. When al-Ma'mun came into the caliphate he wrote Hamzah a letter in which he demanded his adherence, which merely increased Hamzah's pride. Al-Ma'mun, therefore, sent Tahir ibn-al-Husain 2 to fight Hamzah, and a war followed between Tahir and Hamzah. About thirty thousand were killed on both sides, most of them being followers of Hamzah. In this battle Hamzah was driven to Karman. Then Tahir attacked the Abstainers who agreed with Hamzah in theory, and captured three hundred of them. He then commanded that all the men be bound together with ropes between two trees whose tops had been made to touch one another the man between the two trees was then cut in half, and each one of the two trees bounded back with half cf the body bound to it. After this al-Ma'mun recalled Tahir ibn-al-Husain from Khurasan, and sent him to his headquarters. Hamzah now became very covetous of KhuHe rasan and proceeded from Karman with an army. was met by 'Abd-al-Rahman al-Nlsaburi, with twenty thousand strong from Nisabur and vicinity. With the help of Allah, Hamzah was put to flight and thousands of his followers killed. Hamzah ran away while wounded, and died
;

during the

flight.

By

his death Allah

gave the world
battle, after

relief

^

from him and from

Hamzah
1

which the Kharijite and Kadarite perished, was one of
his followers.
vol. iv, p. 471 et seq.

This

Tabari-Zotenberg,
Ibid., p.

1

484

et seq.

101

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
the events of which the people of Nlsabur boasted, praise

Allah for
12.

this.

Concerning the Tha'alibah.

These are the followers
claim his
It is

of

Tha'labah ibn-Mashkan. 1

The Tha'alibah

Imamate

as a successor to 'Abd-al-Karim ibn-'Ajrad.

claimed that 'Abd-al-Karim ibn-Ajrad was
dren.

Imam

until
chil-

Tha'labah differed from him over the judgment of

When

the

two

differed over this ibn-'Ajrad

was con-

demned and Tha'labah became Imam. The reason for their difference was that a man of the 'Ajaridah asked Tha'labah for his daughter's hand, whereupon Tha'labah said to him " Show her dowry." The suitor then sent a woman to the mother of the daughter to ask her if the daughter was of age, for if she was of age and had embraced Islam, according
to the stipulations which the 'Ajaridah require,
it

did not

matter what her dowry was.
one."

Her mother

said
is

she be of age or not, since her guardian
is

Whether a Moslem, she
:

"

'Abd-al-Karim ibn-'Ajrad was notified of this, as well as Tha'labah ibn-Mashkan. 'Abd-al-Karim preferred to maintain the independence of children before maturity,
while Tha'labah said
"
:

We

remain their guardians whether

they be young or mature until they

make

clear to us that

they are going to turn

away from

the truth."

When

they

differed over this, each one of

them threw off the responsibility of the sin of the other, and their respective followers were divided into two sects. The sects of the 'Ajaridah we

have already mentioned.

The Tha'alibah

subdivided into

six sects. One of them held to the Imamate of Tha'labah and accepted no other Imam after him, unmoved by the fact that there arose among them different opinions held by the

Akhnasiyah and the Ma'badlyah.
1

Shahrastani,

ibid.,

vol.

i,

p.

147 gives Tha'labah ibn-'Amir instead

of ibn-Mashkan.
102

THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH
13.

Concerning the Ma'badiyah.

The second

sect

was 81
1

the Ma'badiyah,

who

claimed that the

Imam

succeeding the
of Ma'bad.

Tha'alibah was one of their people by the

name

This

disagreed with all of the Tha'alibah over the question of taking alms from, and giving alms to slaves.

man

He condemned

as unbelievers those

who

did not accept this

view, while the rest of the Tha'alibah

condemned him as
third sect

unbelieving because he held this view.
14.

Concerning the Akhnaslyah.
as al-Akhnas.

The

Akhnaslyah, followers of one of their people

was the who was

known

At

the beginning of his career he

agreed with the views of the Tha'alibah concerning the
guardianship of children. But later he withdrew from them, saying: " must oppose all those living in a land where

We

dissembling

man
him.
to us

in question

Only when the faith of the known to us should we definitely accept And likewise only when his heresy is definitely known should we rid ourselves of him." He forbade murder
is

sanctioned.
is

2

and theft in secret, and also claimed that none of the people of the Kiblah should begin a fight without being specially called for it, unless the enemy is personally known. In this view he had many followers. Indeed he was rejected by the
rest of the Tha'alibah, but he in turn rejected them.
15.

Concerning the Shaibamyah.
is

The fourth

sect of the

Tha'alibah

the Shaibaniyah, followers of Shaiban ibn-

Salamah

al-Khariji,

who

separated from the rest in the

days of abu-Muslim, the founder of the dynasty of the
banu-al-' Abbas.
his enemies,

He helped abu-Muslim in his wars against and in addition held the doctrine of the likeness
The
rest of the Tha'alibah, to-

of Allah to his creatures.

gether with the Sunnites, condemned his view as anthropo1

Ibid., p.

148.
1, p.

2

See note

no.
103

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
morphia
In addition
all

of the Khawarij condemned

him

for upholding abu-Muslim.

Those of the Tha'alibah who

condemned him were

called the Ziyadiyah, the followers of

Ziyad ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman. 1

The Shaibaniyah

claim that

82 Shaiban repented of his

sins,

while the Ziyadiyah said that

among

his sins

was

that of doing violence to the worship-

pers of Allah, a crime for which repentance could not atone.

However, he went on aiding abu-Muslim in fighting the Tha'alibah, just as he had aided him in fighting the banu'Umaiyah.
16.

Concerning the Rashidlyah.
is

The

fifth sect

of the of

Tha'alibah
Rashid.

called Rashidlyah after a

man by

the

name

Its peculiar belief is that

land which

is

watered by

springs and flowing rivers should pay half the tithe, the

complete tithe being paid on land watered by rain only.

Ziyad ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman differed from them, saying that
land watered by springs and flowing rivers should also pay
full tithe.

17.

Concerning the Mukarramiyah.
is

The

sixth division

of the Tha'alibah

called the

Mukarramiyah, followers of

abu-Mukarram. 2 They claim that he who neglects prayer is an unbeliever, not because of the fact of his neglect of prayer,
but because of his ignorance of Allah.
over, that all sinners

They claimed, morewere ignorant of Allah, and that ignor-

ance constitutes unbelief.
that Allah's enmity

They

also held to the doctrine

ious attitude at

and friendship depend on a man's religdeath. Such are the sects of the Tha'alibah

and their views.
18.

Concerning the Ibddiyah and their

sects.

The

Iba-

dlyah, although divided over

many

things, agreed in ac-

knowledging the Imamate of 'Abdallah ibn-Ibad. 3
1

An-

Ibid., p.
I.M.,
p.

149. 150.

2

'Ibid., p. 151.

104

. thus being neither believers nor polytheists. same time wanting in faith. how- mention only the Hafsiyah. they considered it best to return it to its owners. In this chapter. In this they claimed that such In addition. 19. e. those of their community who and differed at the from them. ered some kinds of property owned by who disagree with them as permissible to seize. because they be- abrogation of the divine law of Islam at the end of time. This sect acknowledges Imamate of Hafs ibn-abi-1-Mikdam.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH other point in which they agreed was the view that the unbelievers of this community. although publicly claimed it was lawful. 153. The names of the groups adhering to the different views were the Haf siyah. and secretly forbade the shedding of their blood. the Yazidiyah. lieve in the Among these the Yazidiyah belong to the Ghulat. but unbelievers. for ex- ample horses and arms. when it is seized. 1 who was the one who held that there was but one thing that lay between polytheism and belief. i. As for their gold and silver. as well as inheritance from them. This will we will mention later in the chapter on the Ghulat sects connected with Islam. while other kinds. 83 They also countenanced intermarriage with them. and the " Ashab Ta'ah " (i. the Harithiyah. we Concerning the Hafsiyah. they considthose persons are fighting for Allah and his Prophet. the 1 Ibid. They accepted the testimony of such however. although they are not true confessors of Islam. e. ever. those who do pious : deeds without the intention of pleasing Allah). the knowledge of Allah alone. the Harithiyah. namely. p. There were four definite differences which split up the Ibadiyah. were both free from polytheism. 105 . and the Ashab Ta'ah (those who do pious deeds without the intention of pleasing Allah). are forbidden.

p. was they who agreed with the Mu'tazilah in regard to that ability precedes fate. is ignorant of Allah. i. e.. the man who knew Allah. and denies Their explanation of the case of 'Uthman ibn-'Affan was was the one to following: ness what similar to that of al-Rafidah in regard to abu-Bakr and 'Umar. that unbeliever. he the most zealous in while 'Abd-al-Rahman gA opposing thee " (Surah said. hell. because it was contrary to the views of the Sunnites to the effect that Allah creates the l Ibid. 1 These are the followers It of Harith ibn-Mazid al-Ibadi. is He . v.) In addition to they went on to say that belief in the books and the is prophets connected with belief in the unity of Allah. killing oneself. 20. taketh God to wit- in his heart. " 200) ibn-Muljim was the one to whom who Allah referred when he A man too there is sells his very self out of desire to please God. They claimed also any deed. 106 .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Accordingly. such as his Prophet. Concerning the Hdrithiyah. and that he who knew Allah is free from polytheism even if he rejects the rest of the beliefs. or the permission of adultery and the rest of the forbidden sins. yet 2. paradise. And any man last disagreeing with this was a polytheist. He. whom Allah referred is They also claim that 'All when he revealed the by his dis- "A man is there who surpriseth thee course concerning this present life. 203. but is nevertheless free man is an from polytheism. Their views thus became contradictory in this matter. v. who him. a view for which the rest of the Ibadiyah condemned them. forbidden deeds." all this (Surah 2. on the other hand. paradise and hell. but later came to disbelieve in other matters. 153. the Prophet. is a polytheist. This view is contradictory to their first view that the difference between polytheism and unbelief lies in the knowledge of Allah alone.

" v. When tues] that are not meant to please Allah. because it is impossible for him to draw near to Allah before he really knows him. without the intention of pleasing Allah. after this is knowledge. when he has once learned to know Allah. 142. he is obedient to Allah 85 even though he had not intended to draw near to Allah by performing it. 107 . except those whom 1 Read istadall and not istadhall. one sect saying that hypocrisy polytheism or in faith. of Allah on hypocrites : not included either in As their reason they gave the words "Wavering between the one and the (Surah 4. The Harithiyah claimed that the only Imams they had had since the first Muhakkimah were 'Abdallah ibn-Ibadi and that after him came Harith ibn- Mazld 21.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH deeds of his servants. that is.) Another it is sect said: "All hypocrisy because opposed to unity. belonging neither to these nor to those. other. and that ability comes only in conjunction with the deed. for his the abode of a tyrant. All the Ibadiyah. claim that the houses of their opponents among the people of is Meccah are places where the unity of Allah proclaimed. is with the exception of the camp of the sultan." ' The ' polytheism. that it is Concerning the Ashab Ta'ah who do pious deeds This sect claims true that there exist many acts of obedience [vir- Abu-al-Hudhail and his followers among the Kadariyah also asserted this. any obedience on his part to Allah to not ac- counted to him as righteousness. al-Ibadl. third sect said " is : We do not separate the word hypocrisy from its proper usage. but our followers said that this is true only in one case. (see below) a man is guided x by such intuition. unless he intended thereby draw near to Allah. nor do we call any people hypocrites. then. during the first intuition of man. however. Over hypocrisy they differed in three is ways. But in his deed.

must be who informs him of this is a bean unbeliever. Moreover." An- other party said that the law and the commands of Islam are binding on whomever enters the religion of Islam. or that he has caused the Kiblah to be changed. The view of still others is to prayer.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Allah has called hypocrites. even though they did not come within the category of polytheists. Among these peculiarities are those held by the party which claims that there was no proof for mankind of the unity of Allah and attributes. it is incumbent upon him to know this through information. The rest of 86 say a man does not sin in doing something about which he knows nothing. Others. except when the proof [of its sinthis sect fulness] has been given him. or riding or traveling to the gardless of the 1 means used in its attainment. re- formation. whether or not he has heard or known them. thus being unbelievers. or that which takes place along the line of signs and suggestions. 108 . 'Abd-al-Kahir states apart from the " : After all we have related about them. and at the same time major sinners. 1 although he need not necessarily know that this has come to him through incertain whether the one liever or that going on foot Hajj or any of the means which help to fulfil that which is required. (we see that) the peculiarity of their views sets them rest. except its his divine and other through information. All parties as For definition of information in this sense see Lane on khabar contrasted with Hadlth." the hypocrite is Those of them who said that not a polytheist. contend that who- ever attains the knowledge that Allah has forbidden wine. are of no account. however. Still others say it is possible for Allah to send to his creatures a prophet with no sign to prove his veracity. claimed that those who were hypocrites in the time of the prophet of Allah were unitarians. What is incumbent is the doing of the deed.

Allah. and gave one of his slaves. the fleer in They if said. And if such a person does recant. who invited some of the members of his sect to his dwelling. it is well. to return to their way of thinking. but accord- command. If he repents. For example. commandment . this being possible because he created it only for them. if not. field in the case of a man who goes into a sown without the permission of the owner. this would be breaking a ing to another of the field. They consider it permissible to kill anthropomorphists and to pursue those who> flee.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJ1YAH agree that it is right to ask anyone who differs from them with regard to the text of the Koran or its interpretation. who belonged to the same sect. not the leader of the Maimuniyah among the On the other hand. and is a believer in the unity of no women and slaves from them. as well as to seize their women and children as prisoners. if not. They also said that he who commits adultery or steals should be assigned the legal punishment and then given a chance to repent. They held that this was what abu-Bakr did to apostates. They said also that the world will pass away when Allah has caused the people who have observed the law to disappear. he must be put to death. Allah has forbidden plant. but one of the men whose name was Maimun. we receive 'Ajaridah. he swore he would sell her to the Arabs. or to something about which he was not ignorant. he is the people of the Kiblah. When she delayed over it. an order. his going out because that would be harmful to the seed. it is all right. said to him " : How 109 wilt thou sell a believing . he must be killed it being — immaterial whether this difference related to something about which he was ignorant. There was a man of the Ibadiyah known as Ibrahim. which he has been commanded to over. The Ibadiyah accepted the possibility of conflicting ordinances existing over one and the same thing. moreone of g^ war is not (to be) pursued.

vol. p. Shahrastani. G. 110 .. action of Ibrahim. Islam. Das Prinzip der ibid. p.. bodies judgment can occur one Moslem agrees only where no one agrees with for if with 1 2 it. because he forbade the sale of a woman in a region where dissembling is sanctioned. who came to be known as the Dahhakiyah. vol. who answered that such a sale was permissible. The result of all this the Ibrahimiyah. lx. 139 . 405. Some were uncertain over this question. as well as those who were in doubt concerning the slave to an unbeliever?" And has permitted such a sale. so they wrote to their 'Ulamas. but the rest were uncertain about it.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Ibrahim said to him: "Allah and the followers of our sect who passed before us have also always permitted it. They said " The reason for recognize : this is . he who is present cannot help takijja ini knowing him who M. nor will we accept her inheritance. on the other hand. and the Wakifah. 213. there arose a party called the Baihaslyah. Maimun's heresy and Ibrahim's orthodoxy. Ibrahim gathered quite a following. because we do not know what her legal condition is. sects arose. vol. and that Maimun should be brought to repentance. D. because uncertainty exists only in connection with the uncertainty with regard to a it. 1 But in the case of those who are in a country where their own sect is in the ascendance. p. This group permitted the marriage of a Moslem woman to an unbeliever in a country where dissembling is sanctioned. i. this is not permitted. Ibrahim. and which is inhabited by the unbelievers of our The Wakifah were heretics because they did not people. saying about the wife : "If she dies we will not say prayers over her." Maimun left the sect. was a heretic because he did not disclaim the Wakifah. 2 88 These say that Maimun was an unbeliever. followers of abu-Baihas Haisam ibn-'Amir. the was that three Maimunlyah. ii. Goldziher. Owing to the question of the legality of this sale." After the Ibrahimiyah. Z.

also known as the Salihiyah after Salih ibn-Mishrah alKhariji. as neglecting prayer and scorning can neither be punished nor considered a heretic as long as he is drunk. Concerning the Shabiblyah. He.ra. we call him neither a believer nor a heretruth and acts on it. is all we have to say of them in this book. the Baihaslyah formed the subsects which we This. They are known as al- Shablbiyah because they owe their origin to Shabib ibn- They were Yazid al-Shaibani. One sect said: "We repudiate those who desert us after having left home and joined us. therefore. or a similar offense The 'Aufiyah divided off from the Baihaslyah and separated into two sects." Still others of the Baihaslyah. was one of the companions of Salih. the Kharijite. 21. while others said that he . Besides the Ibadiyah. we committed. fighting in our ranks. when drunk." Some of the Baihaslyah said : " When the Imam be- comes an unbeliever. known as abu-1-Saha. 89 have mentioned in the Kitab al-Milal wa'l-Nihal. The reason for this was that Salih ibnMishrah al-Tamimi differed from the Azarikah by claiming that he was one of the Sif riyah. and after him he took over the command of his army. because he would then be returning to a state that was legal for him before he came to us. Then the Baihaslyah said : tic." would keep such an one." it. who drinks is forgiven everything which he does Allah. therefore. whether present or absent." The other sect said: " No." Both sects say that if the Imam is heretical. such He called the 'Aufiyah." his followers also become unbeliev- Others said: "All drinks are originally permissible.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH knows the truth and acts on and him who knows the un" We do not call him who commits a sin a heretic until he is brought to the governor and punished. ers. his followers. Shabib ibn-Yazid. are also heretical. so that before he is brought to the governor. said " : Drunkenness is heresy if duris ing drunkenness prayer is neglected.

and feared by them. 7. i. They claimed. Salih rebelled against him. 424. in order to preach. The historians report that at the beginning of these Shabib went to Syria and came to : Ruh ibn-Zinba' 2 and said to him following "Ask the Amir of the Faithful to assign a . as one on the honor-roll for I have a large among the banu-Shaiban. I know there are is among a brave you some who are more learned than he. the mother of Shabib. that 90 Ghazalah. ii. stipend for me. 112 . and led them out against their opponents. Al-Mawayini says that Salih rebelled against al-Hajjaj ibn-Yusuf. 2 Tabarl-De Goeje. affairs. this But the " I do not know man. but he man in the opinion of your enemies. 460. vol. vol. In the days when Bishr ibn-Marwan was governor of al-Irak under his brother 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. Salih. and being near to death he said to his companions " I name : Shablb my successor over you. let him help him with his knowledge. took to flight. . he and some of his followers countenanced the Imamate of one of their women. iv." So' Ruh ibn-Zinba' latter is asked replied 1 this of : 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. pp. pp. until he came to differ with Salih about a certain thing.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS had been neither a Sifri nor one of the Azarikah. he made his mother mount the pulpit of al-Kufah. and I fear that he a Tabari. and that the battle between the two came to a head before the gate of Fort Halula. as soon as he died.. This they proved by the fact that when Shabib entered al-Kufah. having been defeated and wounded. 461. his followers paid allegiance to Shablb. when she took a prominent place in their affairs. e. 114 et seq." Therefore. held the Imamate after the murder of Shabib. until she was killed. ibid. moreover. 1 and that it was al-Hajjaj who sent al-Harith ibn-'Umair to fight him. He among you who is learned. Bishr sent al-Harith ibn-'Umair to fight him.

Khuraim is read Khuzaim. ii. 5. where the Khawarij opposing 683.Rahman bib also defeated. In vol. 5. this * : Khuraim ibn-Fatik al-Asadl says about 9 1 " The people of al-Trakain She therefore caused Ghazalah used the sword to strike for one whole year. territory watered by the Tigris and Euphrates. He then fell upon al-Kufah in the night. vol. "3 .. When he surprised al-Kufah in the night. This went on for two years. 'Ali lived. vol. xxi." So Ruh told Shabib that 'Abd-al-Malik ibnMarwan denied any knowledge of him. She went as high as al-'Irakain with an army. pp." He then returned to the banu-Shaiban. vi. having a thousand of the Khawarij with him. twenty of the armies of al-Hajjaj. Al-Hajjaj sent 'Ubaid ibn-abi-1Mukharik al-Mutannabl against him with a thousand horsemen. killing the guard of the mosque and those praying in it. al-Hajjaj waited in his house Harurah is a place near al-Kufah vol. ibid. vol. x. p. as well as his mother Ghazalah « Shabib Shabib putting to flight whom and his wife Jahzlyah with two hundred Kharijite women. he attacked the main mosque.. and he then made his mother Ghazalah mount the pulpit to preach. 4 Kitab al-AghSni. p. p. 13. with 1 whom he took possession of the district which lay between Kaskar and al-Mada'in. who were armed with lances and girded with swords. whom ShaThen he sent out 'Attab ibn-Warka' alkilled. Shabib replied: " He will know me after this. al-'Irakain suffering. 8 Tabari. and collected about a thousand men from among the Salihiyah-Khawarij. 2 Tabarl-Zotenberg. whom Shabib defeated. 85." His army being 1 scattered. He then sent against him 2 'Abd-al.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH Haruri. Tamlml. De Goeje. ibn-Muhammad ibn-al-Ash'ath. p. iii. ibid. 892.

8. over to him. Sufain encamped on the banks of al-Dujail [Little Tigris]. p. v. AlHajjaj sent an army in pursuit. 1 into al-Ahwaz. he commanded that a certain man That man had said to him: of them should be killed. however. It was just at that point that al-Hajjaj came upon him with four thousand of his army. and his wife Jahlzah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS until he ing. a 'Abd al-Kahir gives two readings. killing most of them. vol. This happened while he was repeating Surah " This is 6."' The followers of Shabib on the other side of al-Dujail then paid allegiance to Ghazalah. the mighty. al-Anbar. He also commanded the divers to bring the body it of Shabib out of the water. the mother of Shabib.. and the Surah of the Family of Tmran (Surah 3). therefore. and drove Shabib out of in the mosque. vi. and he took his head and sent 92 with the prisoners to al-Hajjaj. and the two parties fought in the market place of al-Kufah. When the prisoners were brought before al-Hajjaj. . Al-Hajjaj sent Sufain ibn-al- Abrad al-Kalbl with three thousand men in pursuit of Shabib. the knowing. to cut Sufain. the mother of Shabib. The bridge. while Shabib went to the bridge of Dujail to cross commanded his followers down the ropes of the bridge. had gathered his troops around him in the morn- In the meantime. Shabib led his companions in prayer and at the morning prayer he read the Surah of the Cow (Surah 2). ibid. 2 and taking prisoner the rest of the followers of Shabib. 96: predestined (by Allah). But Sufain ibn-Abrad mended the bridge and crossed with his army into the district of the Khawarij. and Shabib forced to flee to al-Anbar. 114 Jahizah and Jahziyah. with those who remained with him. including Ghazalah. 1 De Goeje. gave way and Shabib fell into the water with his horse. until the companions of Shabib were killed.

the accursed people " ! Not only this man's death. who went to fight the armies of al-Hajjaj ? Now. but the death of many was commanded. with Allah from 'Amr and his followers. The rest were set free. "5 . the tyrant. and you applied to her the words of Allah And abide still in your houses. so that her Imamate seems proper. 3. and her nephew 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair. and his followers 'All O Allah. then.' (Surah 33. of which each member was forbidden [in marriage]. and you claimed that she became a heretic because of this. because their husbands. because in the Koran she is the mother of all the faithful. and the Kharijite women also.) Why don't you apply this verse also to Ghazalah. v.THE SECTS OF THE KHARIJIYAH " work. the mother of Shabib. If. with heresy. why do you not one of consider 'A'ishah's act permissible?" for guarding us Praise be to Allah from heresy. then you should take into account that with 'A'ishah there were her brother 'Abd- al-Rahman. and the Companions of Siffln Mu'awiyah. 'A'ishah. to al-Basrah with her army. some of you accept the Imamate of Ghazalah. chil- dren or brothers were with them. each all whom was forbidden to her [in marriage]. Moslems are her children. and so charge her. if you con' : sider their action permissible. Besides. you discountenanced the departure of the : Mother of the Faithful." Hear from me the two verses with which Whereupon he began reciting: " I will take refuge I will end my And from And from Bless not. and therefore all are forbidden to her. " It others Says 'Abd-al-Kahir to the Shabibiyah of the Khawarij might be said.

the 'Amriyah. together with their view that 94 Allah never had a name or an thermore. each one condemning the other as unorthodox. knowledge. the Mu'ammarlyah. the Bishriyah. the Hudhailiyah. other twenty are pure KadarIyah. These twenty sects are The Wasil: We lyah. ibid. however. p. denial that Allah has eternal qualities. that eyes. the Ja'farMurdarlyah. the Iskafiyah. Those we will mention in the chapter dealing with the all sects of the Ghulat. the lyah. 116 . nor nor hearing. lxv. 1 the Hishamlyah. the Ka'blyah. heretical doctrines. and the BahshamTyah. who are named after abu-Hashim ibn-al-Jubba/I. the Jahizlyah. the Aswariyah. 1 They differ. the Tamarrriyah. the Khaiyatlyah. the affirmation that Allah has neither seeing. the Muwaisryah. the Jubablyah. sects This makes a total of twenty-two sects. 363. nor power. nor does anyone see him. but Murdarlyah correct. D. two belonging to the heretical groups of the Ghulat. Cf. The agreeing in certain g. over the question as is Shahrastani. M. the Nazzamlyah. and the followers of Salih Kubbah. it attribute. G. fur- is impossible for Allah to see with his They say that he himself does not see. the Himarlyah. c. the common life. the Shahhamlyah. nor nor any eternal attribute. vol. gives Mazddriyah. they being the Hayitlyah and the Himarlyah.CHAPTER The Doctrines III of the Erring Sects among the Mu'tazilite KadarIyah have already mentioned the fact that the Mu'tazilah were divided into twenty sects. They claim. the Hayitlyah... Goldziher's article in Z.

for is He example. religion classes. Mu'tazilah. agree that those unless they repent. nor this an unbeliever. that the Mu'tazilah agree that Allah a thing unlike other things. that he is a sinner. They also agree that Allah is not a creator of the paths of men. without any interference on the part of Allah. 1 Another thing in which They hold. 117 . nor of any of the deeds of animals. however. is the claim that the sinner within the Islamic belongs to a class between the two recognized c. In his treatise. and everything which he created he created from nothing. yes. 27). on the other hand. accord- Kadara means 1'tazala to determine. which Allah did not command or forbid. but neither a believer. asserts. 2 means 3 Cf. they agree. that he is the creator of bodies and accidents. to secede. 2 Because of the Moslems call them since they secede from the views of the com- munity as a whole. was willed by him. al-Ka'bi is 3 claimed that the Mu'tazilah agreed that Allah a thing unlike ordi- nary things.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH to some saying that the his whether Allah can see things better than himself or not. that it is man who determines his own affairs. He also says that they who commit major sins are not forgiven In these last assertions of al-Ka'bi there 95 are several mistakes with regard to his co-believers. i. This is the same makdlah mentioned later. and most of them today call his Word created. Furthermore. either in these affairs of men or of any of the deeds of animals. and that all believers perform their acts according to what Allah preordains concerning them. Word of Allah has a beginning. and others no. they agreed in the view that nothing in the acts of his servants. But they agree in the view Word of Allah is created as well as his "thou shalt" All claim that the "thou shalt not" and his revelation. above (pp. 1 As a matter of fact. It is because of this view that the Moslems call them Kadariyah.

the view that he creates a thing from nothing being true only according to the principle of the Sifatiyah. ignore the existence of accidents. 1 who deny the existence of un- Cf. Mu'ammar. others assert their existence. How could they have been agreed about this? Al-Ka'bl and the rest of the Mu'tazilah. he mistaken in his report that is the Mu'tazilah agree that Allah the creator of bodies and of accidents. correct conclusion in this matter is The that Allah creates one thing from another . with the rest of the Mu'tazilah." : " All creative power is is a thing unlike other to> They therefore do not limit this praise their all lord alone.. Ka'bi's mistake in this matter. How. such deeds are accidents. ibid. claiming. The Basri men among them claim that substances and accidents were substances and ions. According to Al- those believing in accidents. with regard to his compan- 96 were agreed over the view that Allah created what he created from nothing. for example. is therefore an accident.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ing to all the Mu'tazilah. among them. while others hold that derived accidents. our co-believers. the attribute of Allah does not belong to Allah alone. since the some of them any of creator. are accidents which have no Al-Ka'bl. p. that Allah did not create them. 305. can his is claim be true that the Mu'tazilah agree that Allah creator of bodies and of accidents. however. which arise later [after creation]. then. Al-Jubba'I and his son abu-Hashim 1 have said things. claims that Allah created none of the accidents. says that Allah did not create the deeds of his worshipers. 118 1 Horten. Secondly. below under Bahshamlyah. claim that all occurrences were things before their occurrence. . for it is known that the most determined of the Mu'tazilah exclude all accidents. that the Mu'tazilah accidents and things in their state of non-existence. that derived accidents have no creator. with 2 the exception of al-Salihi.

p. sin. p. In regard to what Mu'tazilah... 1 who was one of them. 37°. please Allah. Concerning the IVasillyah from among them. ibid. 4 important sects. are polytheists. p. 120. and their leader in their heresy after Wasil was 97 i al-Hasan al-Basri At that time at the time of the rebellion of the Azarikah. those we shall menon their sects. deny power because they deny all stance of In the same way his claim that the Mu'tazilah agree that Allah does not forgive major sinners who have repented.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADAR1YAH real things.. Muhammad it ibn-Shabib al-Basri. less "Leaders of Mu'tazilah. one of those who paid frequent visits to all 1 who commit Cf. sometimes permis- even without repent- ance. major or minor. As to the matters over differ among themselves. matters we referred to. vol. preceding the definite split by the Horten. Ibn-Khallikan. among them. 2 These are the followers of Wasil ibn-'Ata al-Ghazza. for three of their sheikhs who agreed al-Salihi. i.. 642. 3 Ma'bad al-Juham and Ghailan al-Dimashki. 1 Horten. 44- Ibn-Khallikan. this a mistake on his [al-Ka'bi's] part. ibid.. 119 ibid. ibid. agree in the which they we have mentioned about the The Mu'tazilah al-Ka'bi has made a mistake. ibid. Shahrastanl. question of sinthe over the people were divided into sects One sect claimed that ners within the religion of Islam. i. p. p. . iii. beecause that Mu'ammar. vol. is an error on his part concerning them. sible for with the Wakif lyah as to the punishments which threatened major sinners. however. claimed the act of a substance that is power is powerful. the head of the Mu'tazilah. 125. and not an act of the subaccidents. and al-Khalidi considered AJlah to forgive such sins. The Asamm. tion in the section i. vol. As is to the claim that the Mu'tazilah agree that their acts as Allah has preordained the faithful perform them. Allah. This below under Mu'ammanyah.

blessings of Allah but his heresy not the same as that of the polytheist. To this fifth view conform the companions (of the Prophet) in the early community and their followers. agreeing with the Azarikah in this. that the sin is forbidden. whether they belonged to the religion of Islam or not. . although they disagreed with them over the killing of the children. being in ignorance of this fact. that he within the .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS was the view of the Azarikah among the Khawarij. is an unbeliever and a polytheist. who claimed that children of polytheists were polytheists. but that the sinner over whom the community has differed should be judged according to the decision of the canonists in this matter. The learned followers of that age held with the rest of community who commits 98 a major sin is a believer owing to his knowledge of the prophets and the books revealed by Allah and also because of his knowledge of the fact that all that comes from Allah is truth. is which he has been warned. worse than being unbelievers who publicly profess their unbelief. as well as the killing of their They who women. Furthermore. until the testimony is brought against him with respect to a sin against The Ibadiyah of the Khawarij claimed that the sinner who commits from him. The Sifriyah among the Khawarij regarded sinners as unbelievers and polytheists. Some of the people of this age went so far as to claim that those who commited major which is sins in this com- munity were atheists. differed therefore sanctioned the killing of the children of those from them. they forgave the sinner so long as he did not know it. The Najadat among the Khawarij held that a sinner upon whose condemnation the community had agreed. however. the community. knowin that he does not recognize the is ing of the existence of Allah and what has been revealed an unbeliever . even though his error does not deprive him of the attributes of believer and Islam. He commits a major sin.

It was that occasion which gave rise to the say- They also ing that Wasil. as a slave ence. having as a companion in his error his comrade 'Amr ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Bab. When al-Hasan al-Basri heard of this heresy of Wasil. added to it an invitation to join with them in the view of the Kadariyah concerning the doctrine of Ma'bad al-Juhani. call them unbelievers. although condemning them to eternal punishment in hell. in which he differed from the sects preceding him. It is 99 owing to this fact that the Mu'tazilah are not regarded as fully Khawarij. is is a Kadarite. condemning sinners to eternal punishment. therefore. and they therefore called their followers Mu'tazilah [seceders]. Thus the a Kadari in every unbeliever " was orig- Wasil and 'Amr agreed with the Khawarij that he who commits a major sin should be punished in hell. while the Mu'tazilah. saying: " There inated. claiming that the sinner in that community was neither a believer. with his heresy. mother (text not clear). among those whom they fight for differing from .THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH When the revolt of the Azarikah broke out in al-Basrah and al-Ahwaz. but they added that he is nevertheless a believer in the unity of Allah. and therefore neither a polytheist nor an unbeliever. nor an unbeliever. So on that day it two men had seceded from the accepted view of the community. The two then publicly probleats for his was said that these claimed their heresy about this intermediate rank of sin. he drove him out of his audiWasil. giving to this error an intermediate rank between the ranks of belief and unbelief. do not dare to call them unbelievers. nor to fight the people of any of their sects. and the people came to differ over sinners in the five ways which we have mentioned. because the Khawarij. Wasil ibn-'Ata seceded from the views of all of the preceding sects. took his stand near one of the columns of the mosque of al-Basrah. and take up the sword against them.

For this reason. whereas. vol. because they [the Khawarij] agreed regarding the punishment of sinners. Their sion. [Free] from al-Ghazzal And from among them.. Quoted 122 in Mas'udi. hold that both sides in the Battle of the Camel were true Moslems. The Khawarij claimed that Talhah and al-Zubair. though not of itself. but erred when it came to the matter of the arbitration (by the two judges). p. p. Al-'Adawi said in one of his poems serted that Wasil " I am free of the Khawarij. and 'A'ishah and their followers in the Battle of the Camel proved their disbelief in 'All by the very fact that they fought him. and the followers of Mu'awiyah at Siffin. nor a people am I one of them. Return the salute to the clouds. and sinned in fighting 'All. They say that 'AH was on the right side when he fought the others. The orthodox. vol. ii. and fact. however. nor transgresfor this would render their testimony void. differing about more heresies in which he One of these differences and Talhah and al- the fact that he found the people of his age 'AH and his followers Zubair. claiming that one of the two sides must have been unjust. cannot be called heresy. and that the Followers of the Camel were rebellious. judgment is possible of two just witnesses from either side. however. S. The others contend that the unjust of the two sides might have been 1 J. A. and ibn-Bab who.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS them. and 'A'ishah and the rest of the Folloivers of the Camel. Ishak ibn-Suwaid al-'AdawI 1 as- and 'Amr ibn-'Ubaid belonged to the Khawarij. when they mention 'All. 43. xxix. that the unjust side could not be ascertained. I42 - . O. ioo as a matter of on the testimony Wasil differed from both of these sects over this matter." Then Wasil developed was owing to three disagreed with his predecessors. they claimed that 'AH was in the right when he fought the Followers of the Camel. Moreover. sin.

The innovations and heresies in religion never appeared except from the children of captives. whole matter. although not of himself. 123 ibid. " on the question of the just cause and the view of Wasil about the As we have said in one of our poems a A view which is their unity not connected with Wasil by this. if Allah pleases. because of my knowledge of the fact that one of them was unjust. his testimony would be accepted. as is menThe things in which 'Amr agreed with tioned in reports. i. or a man of the followers of 'All and a : To prove this he said " If 'All man of the Followers me over a handful of the fact that one of of the Camel. ibid. Horten.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH 'All and his followers. ibn-'Abbas. i. al-Husain.. vol. and the rest of the Followers of the Camel. These are the followers of 'Amr ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Bab.. 'All and Talhah." —May Allah split up And 2. Talhah. of Kabul. pp. should testify before parsley. contends that the unjust of the two sides were 'A'ishah. His grandfather was one of the captives 2 Concerning the 'Amriyah among them. because of my knowledge of them is unjust. would not decide on the testimony of two who were cursing each other. Shahrastani. or and al-Zubair. although not of himself. I should not decide by the testimony of either of them. ! p. al-Zubair. Wasil. al-Hasan. 47." And many are the tears shed by the Likewise I eyes of the outspoken Rafidah over this sinful seceding of the Sheikh al-Mu'tazilah of 'AH and his followers. abu-Aiyub al-Ansari and the rest at the Battle of the who were with 'AH Camel. I5°-I53- . e. 'Ammar ibn-Yasir. Wasil were the following: 1 Predestination. the heresy of Play on word wdsil which means connector. however. we will give the end of this poem later. the freed-man of 101 the banu-Tamlm. But if two men of one of the sides testified.

Mu'ammar and al-Jahiz x agreed with Wasil about the sides at the Battle of the Camel. S. because he considered both sides to> be wrong. A. O. killed 'AH gave the murderer the good news that he was from going to hell. 660. vol. Whoever calls the Camel. Amr claimed that such a testimony was to be rejected even if the witnesses came from the same side. Cj. 3 It was 'A'ishah who undertook the reconciliation between the two 102 parties. so that she failed. Ibid.. one of whom was from the Followers of the Camel. while Wasil rejected the testimony of two men. the Kadariyah differed over the same point. him. and the other from the Battle of the the followers of 'AH. p. cit. furthermore. the wrong view about having an intermediate rank for certain errors. p. Therefore. After Wasil and 'Amr. Zotenberg. and the rejection of the testimony of two men. vol. xxix. Talhah was on the point of returning. But Haushab and Hashim al-Aukas said that the leaders of the sect are safe. who was among the Followers of an arrow at him and killed him. claiming. Tabari. To these heresies 'Amr added the following: that both the sides fighting in Camel were wrong. xxix. O.SCHISMS AND SECTS Kadar. Brockelmann.. but accepted the testimony of two men from the same side. 3 A. p. condemned his fol- The Sunnites and the orthodox held that 'AH and lowers were in the right in the Battle of the Camel. J. When he reached the Wadi al2 ibn-Harmuz. however. 56. when Marwan ibn-al-Hakam. shot 1 3 J. loc. vol. S. that al-Zubair repented on that day and refrained Siba'. iii. 'Amr taking him by surprise. vol. p. fighting. one of whom came from the Followers of the Camel and the other from the followers of 'All.. Al-Nazzam [see below]. 66. had the upper hand over her.MOSLEM . 124 . i. but the followers are to hell. 152. The banu-Azd and the banu-Dabbah.

he claimed that the bliss of the people of paradise and the torture of the people in hell will cease. Among the heresies of abu-al-Hudhail was his view that the preordination of Allah can cease. is the unbeliever. 48 et seq. ibid. The rest of the sects of Islam. the 'Abd-al-Kais of Basrah.. at which time Allah would be no longer omnipotent. in which book al-Jubba'I Ja'far ibn-Harb. even including his own followers. are the followers of abu-al-Hudhail Muhammad Hudhail.. nor the thing in motion to be station.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH either both or one of the two sides unbelieving. 251. vol. p. As a conclusion from this buking abu-al-Hudhail. Ibn-Khallikan. well known among the Mu'tazilah. among whom the majority of heresies arose. unable to do anything. 2 condemned him as an unbeliever. AlJubba'I also wrote a book refuting the belief of abu-al-Hudhail concerning what is created. view. also had a book entitled Re- This book points out the unbelief and also mentions the fact that his views tended toward the views of the Dahriyah. the Mu'tazilah.) ii. ibid. Under these circumstances Allah would not be able to raise a man from the dead. the people of paradise and hell remaining in a state of lethargy.. and Concerning his Peculiar Forms of Unbelief. i. 246 et seq. rather than they. of abu-al-Hudhail. Horten calls him the client of vol.103 1 ShahrastanI.il. praise 3. p. p. These ibn-al- known 1 as al-'Allaf. 2 Horten. ibid. nor would he be able to cause the stationary to move. Such this. he. 667. be to Allah for Concerning the Hudhaillyah from among them. is the view of the sun- nites. and followed the example of most children of captives. 12S . nor to cause the death of a living man. The man known by the name of al-Mirdad wrote a long book called Concerning the Heresies of abu-al-Hudlta. He was a client of 'Abd-al- Kais. branded among the Mu'tazilah him as an unbeliever. (p.

maintaining that after the cessation of his preordination. dhail however." in the position of a man Abu-al-Husain al-Khaiyat pleas as that abu-al-Hudhail 1 offered the following two an apology for abu-al-Hudhail. and this when worse than those of the man who believed that paradise and hell would cease. he would gather together all enjoyment for the people of paradise and they would then remain thus in perpetual rest. if this plea were would necessarily follow that the condition of the people of paradise after Allah's preordination had ceased would be better than their condition when Allah was omnipotent. it would follow that if the friend of Allah in paradise happened to be offer- ing a cup to someone in one hand. as impossible as the union of pleasure and pain in one place. al-Mirdad attacked abuHis views on this subject are al-Hudhail. contended. vol. a condition which io4 true.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ary. 126 . Shahrastani. when the time of perpetual stillness fell upon all he would forever have to remain being crucified. nevertheless. in defence of abu-al-Huis. Secondly. first plea of abu-al-Husain. 79. Jahm. that after they had ceased. he claimed that abu-al-Hudhail had maintained these views for the sake of arguing with his This opponents over their investigations of his answers. nor late would he be able to form anything. he held that two opposite enjoyments can is unite in one place at one time.. As regards 1 his claim that abu-al-Hudhail taught the ibid. Among the Mu'tazilah. although believing that paradise and hell could cease. He claimed first meant that when the preordination of Allah had ceased. i. his God had no ability to do anything. it Secondly. as did Jahm. saying : " According to this. p. This abu-al-Hudhail denied. and a precious gift in the other. false from two points of view. Allah would be able to create their like. however. First. nor to annihipeople are supposedly sane! anything.

" If it is possible to have a motion and so on to the end. no creature will be allowed to perform a deed. and an occur- rence after every occurrence. because of his ignorance of this that he held his view on the cessation of Allah's preordination. in his book known as The Book of the Moulds. and all else that be- ascribed to them." It is not followed by an for this reason that he asserted that Allah's ability to preordain ceased. Allah is their views. dent distinctions " These evi- we have mentioned in the chapter entitled.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH cessation of Allah's preordination only in order to encour- age argument." a chap- ter which is to be found in our books treating of this subject. The second of abu-al-Hudhail' s heresies is his view that the people of the next world are forced to remain as they are. however. or acquire an opinion. while the people of to] hell are and drink forced to [stick I0 5 In the other world. distinguished between the pre- ceding occurrence and the following occurrence by characteristic distinctions which escaped abu-al-Hudhail. he gives a chapter on the refutation of the Dahrlyah. Besides. Proofs of our Assertions. it is refuted by the fact that abu-al-Hudhail wrote down and pointed out this fact in his book called. however. The rest of the theo- logians of Islam. the people of paradise being forced to eat and intermarry. to the end. nor an occurrence unpreceded by an occurrence ?" He compromised between the two. It was. the creator of their views is and their actions. therefore. saying: "Just as an occurrence must have a beginning which is not preceded by another occurrence. in which he states their views about believers as follows : after every motion. so there must is be an occurrence at the end which occurrence. then is not the view right which contends that there is no motion unpreceded by a motion. The Kadariyah then blamed Jahm 127 . is Evidences on the fact that the world created.

not the one who creates them. then you say about it the same thing that he says. however. in the next world. and he the creator of the lies of men. according to the view that the liar is who creates the lie. as a matter reject. say to abu-al-Hudhail " Why do you say that the condition of the people of the other world is such as to render them unable to perform deeds. our Lord." We. we hold that the oppressor is the one from whom oppression proceeds. they would be responsible for them. because the oppressors are the ones the liar the lie. ' By ." They might as well say to abu-al-Hudyou say that Allah." To this view of al-Khalyat it can be answered " Do you agree with. nor to give alms. we do- not hold that who created the oppression and On the contrary.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS cause of his view that the servants of Allah in this world are forced to do our sect in its what they do of themselves. nor to fast. which. this from what you say." But this conclusion against us does not hold good. therefore the people of the other world were the performers of their acts. is They say is to our sect : " If he (Allah) the creator of the oppression of men. creates the falsehood put in the say: 6. or : view of abu-al-Hudhail ? If you agree. But if you reject it. mouth of the people of hell. as they we were not polytheists (Surah ' 23 ) then he must be a the one liar. and then say that they are commanded to thank of fact differs is there Allah for their enjoyment. and the liar the one from whom the lie proceeds. then he must be a hail : " If liar. Allah. thus opposing view that Allah is the creator of that which his servants acquire. v. nor are they to cease from disobe- . and their reward 106 an d punishment would be in another world. then he must be an if oppressor. but not 128 commanded to pray. abu-al-Hudhail the following: " Al-Khaiyat offered as a plea for this innovation of The next world is a place if of rewards and not a place of responsibility. then no meaning to your apology for a thing which you yourself condemn.

say: Obedience to Allah from one who does not know him. therefore. aim in this act of speculation not be to draw near to him by means of it. reward for gratitude and for ceasing from disobedience was to be eternal beatitude for them? And why do you deny that those who are in the next world are to cease from disobedience. If a man fulfils this. namely that it is possible to obey Allah without knowing him. neglected all his 129 . e. however. but execute his behests " (Surah 66. is also the view of the Ibadlyah is among the Khawarij. to Allah. and were sinless. however. that the prophets were forbidden sin in this world already. as we hold. he who does not know Allah. is possible only 107 in one case. where there is speculation and deduction. although disobeying him as far as his unbelief concerned. For this reason Allah says of them They disobey not in what he Allah hath commanded them. who is not obedient to Allah in many is things. because it is possible for him to draw near to Allah if a knowledge of Allah is attained by this first speculation. together with most of the Shiites. unless by some chance he knew Allah before this speculation and deduction. Abual-Hudhail supported this claim.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH dience. he cannot draw near to Allah. No other obedience to Allah is possible for him. i. unless its aim be to draw near to him through it. because Allah has this is true even if his if. he becomes obedient (that is. Without this contemplation. by saying that the commands of Allah are in opposition to that which he forbids. The third of his heresies was his view that there are those their ' : and yet ' who This are obedient without the intention of pleasing Allah. and were sinless just as the angels were forbidden sin. 6). acceptable) And may commanded him this. The Sunnites and the orthodox. which are necessary before attaining a knowledge of Allah. v. He claims that there no Dahri in the world. and yet are sinless. nor any unbeliever.

If this were the case a Dahri would be a Jew.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS commands. This amounts to saying that his if 130 . a man is outside of the realm of obedience to Allah by following one line that is opposed to all the lines of obedience. no' qualities of belief which do not have some qualities opposed to them same time to each other. for there is not a quality of obedience without a quality it in opposition to and to each other there are . and power cannot be powerful. A man may not be sitting. He would be forced to draw the same also himself. this . If the Magian. he must be doing everything which Allah forbids. it is not possible that he should be knowing and powerful because knowledge cannot be knowing. because that kind of unbelief is opposed to like 1 another kind of unbelief. Verily I say to him. or an adherent of some other unbelief. This is similar to the matter of standing up and sitting down. because Allah had commanded that they be rejected. rejects all his unbeliefs except his Magianism. but he would not then necessarily be doing all its opposites. a Christian. however. just as the lines of disobedience. he would still be disobeying by his Magianism. But if he is knowledge Allah is knowledge and that and power. but he would be obeying Allah in the rejection of the rest of his unbeliefs. but his knowledge is himself. bending down and lying down. power is Allah. which we know was forbidden him. a Magian. From conclusion and his he said that the knowledge of Allah is Allah. it is opposed to the rest of All this it. that the commands of Allah and his prohibitions are not what you think them to 1 08 be. although not his abu-al-Hudhail was ignorant of The power fourth of his heresies is his view that Allah is is only Allah himself. if he were doing one of its opposites. and at the 1 manner. and view he must conclude power. and in the same manner anyone who has neglected all obedience must be committing all sins. is self-evident. however. he would not be In sitting.

THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZJLAH AND THE KADARIYAH knowledge to is his power. it him is performed by his power the Being of Allah. As it to his view of the existence of a decree of Allah without an object. in the other world. p. 2 Horten. the difference [between them] being that one needs an object. therefore author or subject. had a beginning in some corporeal suball his words. " Be. to things. Allah creates the words of the people of paradise and the words of the people of hell. abu-al-Hudhail must conclude that . according to abu-al-Hudhail. in this view the Basrah Mu'tazilah share. word of Allah The rest of Yet however. This sentence is ambiguous in the Arabic. therewould be something performed by his power. accord- ing to him. Muslim Theology." is of the same kind as the word of man. Horten translates it very freely. one of the speakers would be no better than the Abu-al-Hudhail has no right to assert that the perword is better in what he says than any other. stance. 1 to things." his words. he claimed that his creative word accidents. This is a form of unbelief. He is claims that the creative not uttered to an object. and what it is leads to like it. And if Allah's knowledge all is his power.. adding to that this word [of Allah] object. " Be. he because had maintained that. It probably means that where there is no subject there can be no difference. Moreover. His fifth heresy was his division of the words of Allah into that which needs an object and that which does not need an object. ibid. but he is not the one who speaks their other. that is known fore. means the place of Macdonald. because is known by him. under mahal. is the same as a de- cree of ours which needs an Consequently." He thus differentiated between two accidents which 109 were of one kind. while the other is able to do without an object. Jurisprudence and Constitutional Theory. him to hold it it correct to have origin. Mahall is In this case Cf. his theory of the existence of a word without an 1 object has led literally space. " Be. 265. 131 . 2 son saying the words. are Furthermore.

not legal unless the twenty were evidence Accordingly the information of one person proof (that a thing is legal). whose inconceivable. and the fact that he was permitted do this was a sign one was 'Abd-al-Kahir says: enough as evidence against them. 40. moreover. Mohammedan Theories of Finance. His sixth heresy is his of reports [of individuals] view that evidence along the line concerning matters which are not present to the senses. howis not to be accepted. Aghnides. what abu-al-Hudhail meant by his statement that twenty were necessary for establishing evidence. v. than four persons ever. in view of their large number. if one of them was a person from paradise. The attainment is of knowledge. 132 p.SCHISMS AND SECTS is words without a speaker. must be sufficient for because in this case one person had to to fight ten unbelievers. from information certain if one of the no a man of paradise. Cf. one or more of whom is from and the people of paradise (Moslems). cannot be accepted unless there are twenty witnesses. such as the miracles of the prophets. To fight these two hundred idolaters. however. however. which it is an impossibility. . or may this not. was against them.MOSLEM leads to . that information coming from less if their . because he 1 The mutawdtir agreement upon a is lie is the report of a people numerically indefinite. 66). coming from any number over four up to twenty may be accepted. what like it. even number should amount to the number required. or concerning other matters. This fact about the twenty witnesses he proved by the word of Allah " Twenty of you who persevere will conquer two hundred idolaters" twenty is : (Surah 8. for their agreement on a falsehood is inconceivable (mutaw&tir) 2 unless one of them is a man of paradise He claimed. Information. Nor would he neces- sarily accept as evidence the information of unbelievers impious. is intended for the abolition of the use of the information in the legal canons.

they went and concluded that it was possible for an incapacitated man to be the author of the acts of the heart. with and the sinfulness of those who follow it.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARlYAH meant that there should necessarily be among them one of the people of paradise who would be. In this heresy. But al-Jubba'i and his son abu-Hashim claim that the acts of the heart are in this case like the acts of the organs (of the He went 1 1 them to occur when the and even after the power to produce the act has ceased. those who choose to follow i33 . al-Jubba'i and his further. son followed abu-al-Hudhail's example. authors of the acts of the organs. it is possible for the acts of the organs (of the body) to come from their author even after his death. a Mu'tazilah and a Kadarite. or after the cessation of his living. however. in case he is on to say that the dead and the incapacitated can be the authors of the acts of the organs. No similar to his heretical one before abu-al-Hudhail held a heresy view with regard to the necessity of having twenty witnesses. Thus the view of al-Jubba'i and his son on this matter is worse than that of abu-al-Hudhail. in that author is it is possible for incapacitated. power. their author. or is On the other hand. is The founder of a sinfulness. if he has no power over them. however. responsible for its the day of judgment. from his point of view. up till no decrease in the sinfulness of it. it is by saying that not possible for the acts of the heart to come from dead. was ahead of him in holding that it was possible for both the dead and the incapacitated to be body). Abual-Hudhail. He who does not hold this is not. through the power which existed before death or incapacitation. however. heresy. acts of the heart His seventh heresy was that he differentiated between the and the acts of the organs (of the body). according to his heresy. a believer nor of the people of paradise. and therefore agree with him in his heresy about fate and the cessation of the power of Allah to preordain.

he dies an and an enemy to Allah. he said that the child in the second stage of his knowledge of himself does not have to bring all his knowledge of unity and justice together with. in which he differed from the rest of the be112 lievers.. 134 ibid. saying that all those of his prede- kinds. him the second is elective out a break. and happens to die in the fourth constitutes a 1 Horten. and knowledge of the evidence leading to a knowledge of is knowledge of two is and acquired. while what is known through induction is acquired knowledge. as what is known through the senses and through intuition is natural knowledge. such as knowledge of an event gained through the sense. which 1 good excuse for him. because the second stage is a stage of speculation and of thought. Bishr ibn-Mu'tamar. p. . He then set up well as the view that for himself a view that differed from cessors. he rejected both of these views. ibid. such as the knowledge of Allah. According to this view. vol. so that if he does not fulfil this in the third stage. such knowledge should be infidel to the attained by the child in the second stage of hearing. The result is that he does not fulfil the requirement of this second stage of his knowledge of himself. said that it was in the third stage that the child must show his mental knowledge. when in the third stage of his knowledge of himself. As knowledge with regard to information which can be known only through hearing. however. worthy of eternal fire.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS His eighth heresy was as follows that is : When he discovered men differed over the question as to whether knowledge natural or acquired. 65. Shahrastani. 161. p. the one compulsory knowledge. i.. From this he drew his view of the belated character of knowledge. or through syllogisms. and happens to die in the third stage. but he must bring with the knowledge of the unity and justice of Allah the knowledge of all if that Allah has commanded him to do.

Shahrastanl. every part is black. cannot have a color of be seen itself. 53. Thus he will then be an enemy of Allah. p. these same men claimed that the children of believers who died in the third or fourth stage of their knowledge of themselves. . is His tenth heresy alone. nor can it his view that the part of a body which cannot be divided. Mu'tazilah try to deceive the assert that he 1 common people when they was called al-Nazzam because he composed Horten. is the black part.. p. that this said that was not it possible. J.. called al-Nazzam. nied the view of the Azarikah that the children of their op- ponents were condemned to of those and denied also the view who held that the children of unbelievers are con- demned to hell. it is when if there is no color in This forces the conclusion that he could not see the Sunnites it. there motion in every part. 135 ibid. These are the followers 1 The of abu-Ishak Ibrahim ibn-Saiyar. is If. i. just and that the motion does not apply to the as the part which is black. however. 189. fire. who has preserved from the we have given in this chapter on abu-al-Hudhail. 141. pp.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH stage. were condemned to eternal fire. vol. p. Macdonald. when it. blackness not extending to the combination all the parts.. Concerning the Nazsamlyah. the combination of all the parts moves. he held jj^ rest of the philosophers is is only the part in which motion arises that the thing moving.. ibid. Praise be to Allah heresies which Allah created the part by itself. ibid. A. 4. S. O. combination of of all parts. although they had committed no unblief His ninth heresy lay in the fact that he contended that it is possible for a body having parts to have its motion confined to certain of its parts. The In the case of color. vol. xxix. 140. 152. worthy of eternal there are a few fatalists (Kadarites) who dehell. just as if the whole is black. 58.

however. he market of al-Basrah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS As a matter of fact. He did not. he found the fulfilment of the regulalaw unbearable. after which he associated with Hisham ibn-al-Hakam al-Rafidi. venture to profess this view. with the innovators among philosophers. He later fell in with the heretic philosophers. who assert that all proofs are equal. and with the quasiheathen in Islam. taste. and he also denied the miracles which of —for example.. It was from this heresy that he drew the conclusion that bodies penetrate each other in the same space. p. tions of Islamic Moreover. He agreed. with the dualists. its he denied evidences leading ground that he denied " the evidence of the agreement of the community and the evidence of It was on in analogy. He also admired the view of the Brah- mans who disbelieved in prophecies. "the hand had praised Allah. He fur- from Hisham ibn-al-Hakam that colors. 136 ibid. smell and sound are bodies. From the dualists he took his view that he 114 who performs ther took justice can neither oppress nor lie. 2 moreover. wadalin? Horten. He did not. fearing the sword. Nazzdm means 2 Text uncertain. ." 1 developing the derivative institutes of the a composer. dare abolition. 170. —so denywater had sprung forth between are reported of our Prophet the splitting moon. Further- more. composed only beads in the Sophists (Suman'iyah). he denied the miraculous nature of the Koran as regards its composition. From he drew his view of the leap which no one before had thought of. although this to profess to it. and it was because of this that he was called al-Nazzam. From this Hisham and the heretic philosophers he took the view on the non-existence of the atom that is indivisible. however. 1 During his youth he mingled with the sect of the Dualists and the prose and well-measured poetry. that stones in his that his fingers " that ing the miracles of our Prophet he almost came to deny his prophecy.

THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH law. Ja'far ibn-Harb also wrote a book concerning al-Nazzam's heresy in that he denied the indivisible atom. e. The view for which al-Jubba'I condemned him. and he reminded pages written by the people of his opponents. as well as the claim that knowl- edge natural. and adding to others. only a few followed him in his errors. He is also rejected proof is drawn from witnesses whose evidence not accepted. which had split over doctrine or tradition. Al-Jubba'i also condemned al-Nazzam for It rejecting that Allah could be tyrannical. As to the books written in condemnation 137 . each one of them differing with him on some of his errors. g. Most of the sheikhs of the Mu'tazilah agreed that he was a heretic. as well as for his view about the four humours of the body. including abu-al-Hudhail. He himself taught that the Companions had agreed in developing these institutes. Most of the Mu'tazilah united in condemning al-Nazzam. Fadl al-Hadathl and al-Jahiz. was the one which held that the deeds of Allah are brought forth by the affirmation of (their) creation. In this case it is al-Jubba'I who is the heretic. what he had read in the He criticized the juridical decisions of the Companions. Man and Indivisible Atoms. was on this last subject that he wrote a book against him and against Mu'ammar. also in his book directed against him on Accidents. We would like to mention a few of some of the heresies of the Mu'tazilah. however. Of the Kadarlyah. The admiration of this minority which followed him was its ball like the admiration of the scarab beetle when rolling (of dung). al-Aswari 115 and ibn-Hayit. Among the Mu'tazilah there was also al-Iskaf i who wrote a book against al-Nazzam in which he condemned him for most of his doctrines. and no one else. including the Khawarij and the Shi'ites and the Najjariyah. who called him a heretic in his book entitled An Answer to alNazzam. and of all of the sects of Islam.

nor give a disease to a healthy one. or to throw anyone who does not belong to the people of hell.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS of him by the Sunnites and the orthodox. Allah alone can count them. Nor from does he consider Allah capable of taking the enjoyment of the people of paradise. and the Zabaniyah can throw him in. we mention the most famous of al-Nazzam's First of all we will take up his theory that Allah has not 116 the power to do to his worshippers that which is not to their good. or a body of 1 An opponent of al-Ash'ari who died in 870. in ibid. According to this view. nor impoverish a rich person. 375- 2 Certain angels. but the child could throw himself in. Nor can nor take Allah increase the torment of those in hell a a jot away from the it. if he knows that sight and health and wealth are for their good. To this he then added the view that Allah could not create a snake or a scorpion. To this he added that Allah could not blind a person who has sight. he said that if a child stood at the edge of hell. wrote books and dissertations against him. nor heal a sick one. p. ibn-abi-al-Taiyib The Kadi abu-Bakr Muhammad wrote a big book on some of al-Nazzam.. The angels . shall al-Ash'arl the fundamental doctrines of He has pointed out his errors in the book on the heresies of the expositors. In the same into hell power way he cannot if enrich a poor person. v. and the jot. the tormentors of the damned hell . so-called because of their thrusting the people of the mentioned in the Koran Surah 66. lessen- ing of this share would therefore be injustice. In this book of ours heresies. 6. Allah would have no power to throw him 2 in. 138 fire thereinto. is away a jot because their enjoyment their just share. He also claims that Allah has not to remove anyone from paradise. he knows that disease and sickness and poverty are for their good. Horten. also Our sheikh abu-1-Hasan al-Ash'arl wrote Al-Kalanisi 1 three books on the heresies of al-Nazzam.

Al-Nazzam expressed evil his surprise that the Dualists blame darkness for doing him. and has not the power to perform injustice and falsehood. that light orders its different kinds which are to be found in darkness to do good. One a heresy. This was in addition to his other view that this soul is life 139 . but can do evil only. he would be forced to say that he had no 117 power over truth and justice either. Allah to be praised for per- forming justice and truth. when they claim that it has no to power to do good. in the form of a rarified body enters the compact body. no difference between al-Nazzam' s view that Allah had no power to hinder nor to cause to act.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH if he knows that the creation of something else would be better than their creation. Now. bringing in is its train other heresies as bad. why then do you deny the view of the Dualists in blaming darkness for doing evil. nor lie. because ability to do a thing necessitates also the ability to do the opposite. although darkness can do only evil and can predicate naught but evil able acts of a deeds. This also is train other heresies as bad. bringof the remark- al-Nazzam in this connection is that he wrote book on Dualism and in it expressed his surprise at the view of the Manicheans. " If. is One might say according to you. though he may not commit oppression. if al-Nazzam held that Allah had no power over injustice and falsehood. which. and the view claiming that he is forced to perform also say that there They deeds without his ing in its own choice. cause of the hideous nature of these acts or because he real- do without them. Such a view as the izes his ability to latter is heresy. The Basriyah among the Mu'tazilah condemned this view and said that he who has power over justice must have power over injustice. and he who has power over truth must have power over falsehood. even though it can do nothing else 1" His second heresy was his view that man is a soul. be- any kind.

v. but the body in which he 1 1 This would force the conclusion that the Companions did not see the Prophet of Allah. or the hand the amputated member not after all the real thief. Furthermore. we have enumerated. 1 19 His third heresy was his view that the soul which is man. when he it is says that the body is the man. or any kind of animal. . anyone looking must see only the moulds of the things which with the body. but only their moulds. and therefore one subFrom this view stance without difference or opposition. . he says of man is that he is not an external body. According is. (Surah 24. and that he the life in union This would be true also of the horse and the rest of the four-footed animals. cut off. to this no one sees his father if and his mother. : 140 . And he has also said "As to the thief. and that is the doer rather than the body which that it is its mould. man and devils. Accordingly. but saw only the mould in which the Prophet was. follow that no one ever sees an ass or a horse or a bird. the Prophet did not see an angel. whether man or woman. if is lashed. therefore. 2). This is sufficient proof from the Koran of his error. . that he too not his body and is is only a soul in his body. It would apply also to angels and jinn. .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS in union with the body. and all the birds and reptiles and the rest of animal kind. it results the heresy that it is not man who can be seen. nor do the angels see each other. soul in the Still further. v. cut ye off their hands in recompense for their doings" (Surah 5. Furthermore. . He claimed further that in the body became a compact union. nor the body lashed the real adulterer this is sufficient. for Allah has said " The whore and the whore-monger scourge each one of them with an hundred stripes" : . 42). In fact. It would. he must then conclude the body is the soul which is the adulterer or the thief or the murderer. but only a soul within a body. he must then say the same of the ass.

and lives and has strength only through the into it. This view forces him to say that the incapacitated and the dead are the soul of the man who is is living and able. he must give up his view that man lives by himself. and becomes incapacitated because of a calamity which befalls it. and dies and becomes incapacitated only because harm comes to it. and dead. this incapacity itself being a body. or else that the incapacitated dead the man's body. and its deeds of another kind that bodies are of two kinds. for in that case his soul exists even in the case of his death. This view he took from the Burhanite Dualists. life and strength that enter His fourth heresy is the view that the soul is of one kind. on the other hand. nor to give power to an incapacitated person. From follows that Allah has no power to capacitate resuscitate the dead. it is If. claims that the soul lives and has If al-Nazzam power of itself. .THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH has the power (to act) of itself. he claims that the soul which has strength of itself. nor to in- an able one. and has the power to act of himself . who claim that light is an imponderable living body whose property is to be always 120 ascending. then he does not differ from those who claim that the soul is dead and becomes incapacitated of itself. and that the heavy dead body is unable to become light [as opposed to heavy] living 141 . nor the But Allah has attributed to himself the ability to resuscitate the dead. lives through itself. then must be this from that which lives and has power. while he himself is dead or incapacitated. and that it is impossible for the living body to die. nor cause the living to die. and that it it is the body that dies and becomes indifferent it capacitated. strong become incapacitated. If he says that man is the thing which becomes incapacitated and dies. For the living cannot die. or for the dead to become alive. and that darkness is a heavy dead body whose property is to be always descending.

the same species just as fire does not give out both heat directions. nor snow give out both heat and cold. in which case it does not rise. But the penetration which he asserts is worse than mingling. therefore. rise to the world of light. penetrate each other in the same space. nor from snow. and when the light beit. that light does good and not harm. it is a proof that what caused them are in agreement. and which he disputed. 121 filth his view that it it is the nature of fire to released it If. that when it is separated from the body. In spite of this view. it rises. when they separate from the latter. which the Dualists hold. Thus he claimed that when acts agree. The strange thing is that he compiled a book against the Dualists in which he pointed out to them the impossibility of mingling light and darkness if they belong to different species and actions and had movements in different also that two different things . the 142 souls unite with . just as heat and cold do not both come forth from fire. His sixth heresy is surmount everything. This in truth is the view of the Dualists. and a change takes place in it. He claimed would not come from one and and cold. This is similar to the view of the Dualists that the parts of light which mingle with the parts of darkness. Of the soul he said the same thing. because they all agree in having the same per- ceptive powers. and darkness does evil and no good comes from it. light living body is unable to become a heavy dead In his fifth heresy he contended that all animals were of one species. it is that holds it in this world. rises until from the goes beyond heaven and the Throne. though different in species and in the direction of their motion. unless some other of its species unites with it. because one author cannot perform two different acts. comes permanent above the heavens. he claimed that light and heavy bodies (soul and body).MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS and the body.

" May Allah bless al-Nazzam. a child born of adultery of is the same as a legal child. is at above which is is fire a distance from the earth of sixteen which reaches the sphere of the fire unite. Quiescence. According to him. and these. will motion. and one species senses. is just the same Furtheras if he had said. If he affirms the existence of above the atmosphere. 143 . according to him.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH He fire therefore." according to al-Nazzam. miles. — All accidentals. they being of one species because they are all acts of animals. is If he himself is satisfied with such a doctrine he it. make cold and hot. The result of this is view of his." more. according to him. like the acts of Satan toward unbelievto the people to and that the invitation of the prophet is 122 join the religion of Allah like the invitation of Satan to go astray. are different permeating material things. " May Allah curse al-Nazzam. and are composed of motion and cealing himself quiescence. moon. Furthermore. are of all motion. worthy and of the views that necessarily follow. that the acts is of animals are of one species. according to him. is limited motion. a Dualist. that air in rising. all In some of the books he has gone so far as to say that these acts are of one species. just this. because of the differences of their order. follows that the acts of the prophet toward believers are ers. taste. sound. he considers knowledge and hence accidentals. His seventh heresy is his view that the actions of animals are all of one species. one animal cannot perform as fire can not two different acts. and love like hatred. differing only in their name. According to al-Naz- zam cannot get angry with anyone who scolds or courses him. Moreover. con- among the mass of the Moslems. like unbelief necessarily that belief and knowledge it like ignorance. because the sentiment of the author who said. As to color. and with which the rising flames of Al- Nazzam therefore either a Dualist or a Naturalist. with which the rising fires in the atmosphere combine. he is one of the Naturalists. who claim is.

however. He claims that there are not two men on the earth who* have heard the same sound. taste. just as two men eat one species of food. is it him one of them sound is If he then claims it not a word nor it heard except when consists of several letters. According to this assumption it must necessarily follow that no one has heard the same word from Allah. because what each one of all the hearers hears is a part of the sound of the word of is the speaker. each one being sprinkled with different water. This view developed from his claim that a sound is heard only as it follows into the spirit on His ninth heresy is his the path of hearing. Hisham ibn-al-Hakam futes himself. even if that which one of them eats is not what the other eats. to flow from the same object into two different organs of hearing. saying that if these three were objects they could not unite in one thing. so that accordnot the word.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS His eighth heresy is the view that color. nor in one body. He refuses the view of knowledge and will and motion are bodies. nor from his prophet. smell. He who maintains that bodies permeate each other in the same space must admit the possibility of a camel passing through the eye of a needle 123 view concerning sound. This idea implies the absurd 144 . And yet he holds that color. taste and sound are bodies permeating each other in the same space in answering his opponent he conthat . except in the sense that it (the sound) is of the same species of sounds. sound and sense are bodies. for one letter cannot divide into several letters according to the number of hearers His tenth heresy is his view concerning the divisibility of every particle ad infinitum. The word as a whole ing to that the may perhaps consist of two> letters. He compared this with water which is sprinkled on a crowd of people. and that many bodies can permeate one and the same space. follows that a group of people itself cannot hear just one letter. It is not possible.

THE SECTS

0;F

THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH

view that Allah does not include the whole of the world by knowing about it, yet the following is the word of Allah: 'And taketh count of all things by number" (Surah 72,
v.

28).

One

of his peculiarities

is

that he denies the view

of the
spirit

Manicheans to the

effect that

Ahriman, who

is

the

of darkness, passed through the abodes of darkness,
light.
:

124

carrying out the worst possible evil until he saw

In
the

connection with this al-Nazzam said to them

" If

abodes of darkness stretch

downward without

limit,

then

how can Ahriman

For to pass through what has no end is impossible." Although denying this, he nevertheless claimed that when the soul separated from the
body,
it

pass through them ?

passed through the upper world, in spite of the fact
that the

that he maintained

space in the upper worlds

through which the
each part in
case,
its

spirit passes is infinite in its parts,
is infinite in its part.

while

turn

If this is the
It

how can

the spirit traverse them in limited time?
this possible that

was to make

he adopted the doctrine of

the leap, a doctrine which had never been held by any philthat, he drew from and darkness are finite What led him to this in everyone of the six directions. way of thinking was that they held that both light and darkness were finite in the direction in which they met. According to this, was he trying to show that everybody has finite If, howparts in the center because it is finite on all sides? ever, the finiteness of the body in its six directions does not

osophers before him.

Stranger than

the Dualists the conclusion that light

its center (according to him), he is then not disagreeing with the Dualists in their view that all light and darkness are finite on the side at which they meet. One

incur finiteness in

must
sides.

not,

however, conclude that they are

finite

on

all

other

Al-Nazzam's eleventh heresy is the doctrine of the leap. He says that a body which is in a given place, may pass from
14S

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
I2t.

that place to a third place or a tenth without necessarily-

traversing the places which separate the

first and the tenth, nor by being annihilated in the first to be resuscitated in the tenth. If al-Nazzam is just, we will refer this case to him

to declare

its

fallacy,

although

we

believe that after the

(famous) arbitration of abu-Musa al-'Ash'ari and 'Amr ibn-al-Asi any arbitration is nonsense. His twelfth heresy was so horrible that the heavens were almost rent asunder by it. It is the view that no information about Allah, or his prophet, or his worshippers, can be

accepted as true.

Furthermore, that bodies and colors can
them.

not be

known simply by information about

What

drove him to
there are

this accursed view was his other belief that two kinds of known things, that which is perceptible and that which is not perceptible. The perceptible are bodies about which knowledge can be acquired only through

the senses.
that which

According to him, the senses can perceive only
is

body

;

color, taste, smell
It is

and sound being,
it

ac-

cording to him, bodies. reached by the senses.

because of this that they are
also
is

As

to the imperceptible,

of

two
the

kinds, the eternal

and the accidental.

They way to know

two is not through information, but only through syllogism and intuition, and therefore neither through the senses nor information. He was asked in this connection how he

knew

that

Muhammad,

as well as the rest of the prophets

and the kings, were on the earth, since nothing can be known His answer was that those who actually saw the prophet, in the act of seeing him took from him a particle which they divided among themselves, and united
through information.
with their souls.
their descendants,

When

later they reported his existence to
this particle left

some of

them and joined

the souls of the descendants.

The

descendants, therefore,

know the prophet because a particle from the prophet has 126 joined with their soul. This continues as each report is
146

THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADAR1YAH
down to our own made to this was that Jews, Christians, Magians and heretics know that our prophet was on earth.
time.

passed on to the succeeding generation

The

objection

Does al-Nazzam then think that a particle has passed from him into the spirit of the unbelievers ? This is a necessary
conclusion.

He

claimed, furthermore, that

when

the people

of paradise have intercourse with the people of hell, and the

people of hell see them, and the
other, particles of

two converse with each
In this

each become exchanged.

way

particles of the bodies

and

spirits of the people of hell enter

paradise, while particles of the bodies and spirits of the

people of paradise enter

hell. And there is enough shame on him for having dealt with this heresy. Al-Nazzam's thirteenth heresy is reported by al-Jahiz, and is to the effect that forms and bodies renew themselves

from one condition to another, and moreover world and that which is in it without Abu-al-Husain first annihilating it and then resuscitating it. that abu-al-Ruwandi al-Khaiyat says in his book against
as they pass

that Allah creates this

in his report about this view of might be said to al-Khaiyat, "If al-Jahiz were right in his report, you should accept it as a sign of al-Nazzam's foolishness and mental aberration; but

al-Jahiz

made a mistake

al-Nazzam.

Now

it

if

he lied about him, then you should accept

it

as a sign of
this
!

the shamelessness of al-Jahiz

and his idiocy."

And

was

the sheikh of the Mu'tazilah and their philosopher
the Mu'tazilah lied about their

Since

Lord and

their Prophet,

we
I2 7

cannot deny that they lied about their ancestors. His fourteenth heresy is his view that Allah created

man
;

and four-footed beasts and the rest of the animals, and all kinds of plants, and the forms of minerals all at once and that he did not create Adam before creating his children, nor did he create the mothers before creating their children. He claimed that Allah created all these at one time, but that
i47

MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS
certain things are

more numerous than
is

others.

So

that the

question of priority and sequence

merely one of appear-

view he condemns as a lie everything that has been agreed upon by the ancestors of the Believers, as well as the people of the Book, whether Jews,
ance and place.
this

By

Christians or Samaritans.

The view

of

all

these being that

Allah created the tablet and the pen before the creation of
the heavens and the earth.

As
is

thing over which they differ

to the Moslems, the only whether heaven or the earth

was created
zilah,

first.

Al-Nazzam

differs

the people of the Book, as well as

from the Moslems and from most of the Mu'ta-

because the Basrah Mu'tazilah claimed that Allah

created his will before creating the thing willed; while the
rest of

them

assert that
others.

some bodies

in the world were

created before
created his

Abu-al-Hudhail claimed that he

word

to the thing " but not in a place " before he

created bodies and accidents.
is

Al-Nazzam's view about what
is

manifest in bodies and what
is

hidden, as well as their

permeation,

worse than the view of the Zahiriyah who claimed that all accidents are hidden in bodies. The charhowever, are ascribed to them by
the manifestation of certain accidents,

acteristics of the bodies,

and the hiding of

I2 " others.

In both doctrines, there

is

a turning away from the

Duhriyah (Dahrite?) view to- the denial of the finite character of bodies and accidents for they assert that all these exist in every condition, provided some are hidden and others manifest, although nothing may have appeared in the condition of manifestation. All this is heresy and unbelief; and in fact everything that leads to error is like it. His fifteenth heresy is that the composition of the Koran, and the beauty of the literary arrangement of its words, do
;

not

show

the miraculous character of

its

Prophet; nor are

they a proof of the reliability of his claim to prophecy.
basis for the proof of his reliability lies only in
148

The
the

what

THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARlYAH
Koran contains regarding
things.

the manifestation of

unknown

As

to the composition of the Koran, and the beauty
its verses, verily

of the literary arrangements of

the worand even of what is more beautiful than this, in composition and literary arrangement. But this view is in opposition to the words of Allah "Were men and jinn assembled to produce the like of this Koran, they could not produce its like, though the one should help the other" (Surah 17, v. 90). In denying the miraculous character of the Koran, he is denying the prophecy of the man who defied the Arabs to produce anything like it. His sixteenth heresy is his view that a report may be a lie, even though the number of the transmitters may surpass the prescribed limits, and even though the aims of those who transmit it and their motives may differ. He asserts this, together with the view, that a report may, on the other hand, be true, even though only a few may have handed it Our followers have condemned him, as well as 129 down. those of the Mu'tazilah who agree with him in this doctrine
shippers are capable of the same,
:

which he adopted.

His seventeenth heresy
the
all

is

as follows

:

the agreement of

Moslem community
be an error.

of each century, as well as that of

centuries combined (as regards opinion

and inference)

may

From

this fact

he was bound to conclude

that nothing

upon which the community have agreed can be
according to him, there
is

trusted, because,
bility

always a possirere-

of their agreeing on an error.

Since some of the reg-

law have been taken by Moslems from ports that had been handed down, others from single
ulations of the
ports, others

from things upon which the community had agreed, deducing them by analogy and inference; and since al-Nazzam disbelieves in the evidence drawn from what has been handed down, as well as from agreement and analogy, and also rejects a single report, unless the knowl149

such a punishment is considered by most limit that people to be necessary for the theft of even a quarter of a dinar. al-Nazzam has based his limitation of the punishment to two hundred on the fact that the two hundred is the amount given for alms. 130 The Ibadiyah considered amputation necessary for small as well as big thefts. no one limiting the punishment to two hundred dirhams. did not commit a crime. until what he has taken by force or stolen. steals the follows. or steals one hundred and ninety-nine dirhams only. or their value. the man who steals number necessary for 150 the offering to be . that he who to be thousands that are not guarded or that belong to son. is his own not guilty. With it this view al-Shafi'i and his follow- Malik said should be inflicted for a quarter of a dinar or three dirhams.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS edge it gives is unmistakable. moreover. He claims that the man who takes by force. however. amounts to two hundred dirhams and over. while others should be inflicted for forty dirhams. said it Abu-Hanifah said amputation should be inflicted for ten dirhams and more. deserving of amputation. is authenticated by the thief himself. its value. In fact. because amputation is not inflicted on one It who takes by force. he is putting himself in a position to reject the divine regulations of the law. His eighteenth heresy comes under the head of threats. If the fact of guilt. If. by rejecting its methods. he is not to blame. If he has based this view on the amount of a theft for which the penalty is the amputation of the hand. he who would On is wrong. or ers agree. and about which he has acted treacherously. he must then condemn the forty sheep. because no decision is found about these two cases [the case of one who confesses. the contrary. and then confesses. for there is no one punishment to two hundred dirhams. and one who steals unguarded thousands]. even the rob- bery of thousands of dinars will not be a transgression.

bees. scarabs. by giving them more pleasure than he bestows on the insects. ingly he claimed that Accord- Abraham the son of the prophet of Allah could not in heaven have precedence over the children of the faithful. is no work for the latter no work for the former. Furthermore. The result of this view was that he regarded words and deeds as in no way faith. some saying that all prayer was faith. as regards its performance. because there just as there is 151 . men before him were divided. prayer. the is not forsaking of major sins is. If analogy has is no place it and there Satan no reference to tradition. beetles. and others that nothing in prayer was faith. claiming that whereas prayer faith. but went on to say that the Lord of the worlds did not even have the power to do this. Thus he limits the Lord of the worlds from making a difference for the children of the prophets. rest of the ani- mals and insects. As to this. Moreover. Nor do the children of the faithful in heaven differ in degree. pleasure or grade from the snakes. Al-Nazzam did not even stop here.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH considered alms. dogs flies. At the same time he held that both the acts and their forsaking are virtue. and swine. he claimed that Allah bestowed on the prophets only that which he bestowed on scorpions and beetles. for faith is the forsaking of major sins. even if its value was below two hundred in this definition of his dirhams. life. or the true comes only as the whisper of in the who invites him to error. however. enter He claimed also that everyis one and everything that Allah judges worthy of heaven not necessarily of a different grade of precedence. snakes. then his definition Koran. His twentieth heresy comes under the head of the future 131 It was his view that scorpions. Al-Nazzam differed from both of these groups. is neither faith nor drawn from faith. as well as the heaven. His nineteenth heresy is his view that faith is the avoiding of major sins.

if The lawyers of al-Trak hold that even is used only in anger. provided there is intention of divorce. g. " You are to me like the back of my mother. His twenty-first heresy appeared when he brought forward his view about mental sciences. This is contrary 152 to' the view of the majority flat of the leaders. : liberated. unless there is excrement. He also condemned abu-Musa al-Ash'ari Furthermore. according to the worth of their works. which had never been heard of before." there is : And our wish for him is that he may remain in the condi- tion to which this prayer consigns him. for his decision. The Canonists agree that such formulae constitute a divorce. or depart. He introduced these 132 same errors. whether he intends divorce or not. or . for these differ only as to reward and punishment. the word of the husband to his wife " Thou art free. it is not a divorce. no difference made between those who are wise and those who are not.. or thou art free to gO' thy way. instead of back. al-Nazzam cannot get angry at any one who says to him " May Allah resuscitate you with dogs and swine and snakes and scorpions in their quarters. or follow thy people. was not legal e. for he says that to have a husband say. This differs entirely from the customary view of the community. Holding such a view as this. al-Nazzam brought forward his view that sleep does not destroy the purity of ablutions." means divorce. according to his view of precedence. whereas if he uses the word belly or generative organs. into the dominion of religious law. Another of al-Nazzam's errors is about separation.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS the animals. His view was that divorce enforced by any of the following formula. because." or any other divorce formulae accepted by the Canonists. the formula for divorce if equivalent to the declaration of divorce even is no inten- tion present. who believed that sleep lying destroys .

will receive no merit for fulfilling it." ibn-Hanbal. "He who it forsakes passed. g. Both disagreements are not to have consideration. and who differ only about sleep taken in a sitit ting. kneeling. al- Nazzam has attacked the reports of the Companions and the Disciples because of their interpretation of the Koran. this was a heresy him. Al-Shafi'i held that a man who neglected neglected prayer intentionally should be executed. he Sa'id said: must perform the prayers of one night and one day. Al-Jahiz alluded to him in his work entitled Knowledge (al-Ma'arif). is or bent position. accompanied on the other hand. 153 . while it most of the followers of al-Shafi'i de- nied by the process of analogy. its negligence lawful. although he did not condemn as a heretic the man who it it out of laziness but not if he considered illegal. is similar to the disagreement of the infidels (zanadikah) over the obligation of any prayer. munity say that ibn-al-Musaiyab Some of the religious lawyers of the comif a man neglects a prescribed prayer. prayer. condemn intentionally. Abu-Hanlfah held that permissible. and in his book known as Opinion (Futya). In addition to the heresies which we have recounted. nor is its fulfilment obligatory for To the rest of the community. until the man prayed. as an infidel though he may not consider Ahmad any man who e. Abu-Hanlfah. Al- Nazzam's disagreement with the community over the obligation of performing neglected prescribed prayers. that they forsakes it The place of prayer has been so dignified by some religious lawyers. a prescribed 133 prayer so that the time for is must perform a thousand prayers (to make up).THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH purification. similar to the one which claimed that the five prayers are not prescribed. decreed imprisonment for the neglect of by torture. Another of his errors was that he claimed that he who intentionally neglects a prescribed prayer.

iii. pp. caliph. 709 where this mentioned. vol. p. In this he expressed his ignorpp. is Hakam it should be very- al-Hakam incident 5 Cf. vol. 1312. He then mentioned 'All. ibn^abi-al-Asi. 566 et seq. he said " I judge this my to opinion. i. 202. 'Ibid. Instead of giance was sworn to the Prophet. p. He also blamed 'Uthman for helping Sa'Id ibn-al-'Asi 134 4 with forty thousand dirhams for his marriage contract. Zotenberg. claiming that when asked about : a cow that had according to 1 2 killed a donkey.SCHISMS AND SECTS saying that he blamed the traditionalists because they handed traditions of abu-Hurairah. Taban ed. Furthermore. . 466. He was also with those who were angry with the Prophet on the night of the 'Aka3 bah. he accused him of claiming for himself the possession of the land belonging to the Moslem community (hima). And he claimed that 'Umar introduced genuflections in prayer. 4 Ibn-Hisham." iii. and he struck Fatimah and (not clear in text). p. The night on which alleMohammed. 288. Ibn-Hajar. 703 et seq. By-name given 'Umar the *'Akdbah.MOSLEM down . p. Moreover. iii. Mistake in Baghdad!. ibn-al-'Asi. he criticized 'Umar for sending Nasr ibn-alHajjaj from al-Madlnah to al-Basrah. vol.. ibid. Margoliouth. In fact.. he claimed that Faruk was in doubt about own faith at the battle of al-Hudaibiyah as well as on the day of the death of the Prophet. He blamed 'Uthman for sending al-Hakam ibn-al-'Asi to al-Madinah and for making al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah 5 his governor over al-Kufah. p. Tabarl. 204. 1 2 He claimed that abu- Hurairah was the worst of liars. vol. . Ibn-Hajar. and the marriage of a freedman to an Arab woman. and he attacked 'Umar alFaruk. 154 . Biography. Al-Walid was the man who led the prayer when he was drunk. and forbade temporary marriage [mut'ah] during pilgrimage. 566. his .

. None of the more important historians mention this man. under TJkbah ibn-'Amr. according to hideous infidel." In addition he contended that abu-Mas'ud was lying stated that the Prophet had said " He is happy : when he who re- joices in the unhappy in womb of his mother. the be leaders of sects. then it is from Allah. p. v. iii. then it is from me." Al-Nazzam also liar in his report considered him a of the " splitting of the moon. but if it is He also attacked abu-Mas'ud tradition a mistaken one. ii. He who gets angry with those whom Allah blesses. own opinion. 18). chose to accept analogy [as legal] uted to Al-Nazzam thus attrib- them the preference of desire to religion.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH ance. for who is he that he should judge according to his 1 opinion ? for his view about the which relates to the marriage of the daughter of 2 [For he claimed] " I judge according to my Washtif. vol. deliberately chose the view that cast the least reflection [For they on did not them.] this The only crime of the followers. 757. I5S . then. and thus rather than they. or else wish to be remembered as disagreeing. vol. 1 p. 439. is that they were unitarians. Tabari. and if it is a correct judgment. who hold the heresy of the Kadariyah 1 who reckoned numerous 135 ibid." and in his report about the Jinns of the " night of the Jinn." Such was the view of al-Nazzam with regard to the report of the Companions and of the people of the abode of paradise. and he is unhappy who is the womb of his mother. he incurs anger : He then said in his book that those of Companions who believed in analogy either are of opinion that this is legal for them and ignore that it is forbidden to judge by analogy according to decisions directed against them. Because of this [latter difficulty] they . Nawawl. p. of whom Allah said " Well pleased now hath God been with the believers when they plighted fealty to thee under the tree " (Surah 48. 36.

only because this differs from the view of the Kadariyah who assert that neither happiness nor misery come from the decree of Allah or through his predestination. If. v. ' Moon hath But whenever they see a miracle they turn aside and say. ever. 136 addicted to drinking spirits. As to his denial of vision to the Jinn. he accepts their ability to see. 1 and Al-Nazzam's assertion that the "splitting of the moon" 2) never took place. as lying within the range is it of ability and possibility. it took place by magic. just as he denies any miracle in connection with the composition of the Mas'ud. according to he the is what he says of the processes of the mind. Ac- al-Nazzam in addition to what we have reported of his error was the most corrupt of the creations of Allah. howcleft ' . He rejects the tradition of abu- happy who is happy in his mother's womb." although Allah mentioned the Koran been The hour hath approached and .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS other creators with Allah. 156 'Abdallah ibn-Muslim-ibn- . is worse than the view of the polytheists who hold that even when they saw it splitting. possible. then what made him it accuse abu-Mas'ud of being a ting of the " : in his report of the "splitin the moon. This is well-devised magic " (Surah 54. he must verily conclude that the Jinn cannot see each other. why does he say that abu-Mas'ud cording to is lying when he claims that they can see. that he is Lvoran. He who denies the existence of prophetic miracles is worse than he who attempts to explain them in some other way. and he is unhappy who is unhappy in his mother's womb. he acthat cepted the "splitting of the moon" liar. however. forced to conclude that he who combined the parts of is moon unable to separate them. and the most all this. If he considers the " splitting of the moon " im- although it is mentioned by Allah in the Koran. Al-Nazzam's denial of the " splitting of the moon " is due to his unwillingness to ascribe any miracle to our Prophet. If. the boldest in committing major sins. then.

And 137 holding this view that Allah creates neither life nor death. at the end of the folio 58b. vol." In his attack on his report of the Companions. ii. he condemns as false Allah's describing himself as one who 1 2 Ibn-Khallikan. so such a man does no harm. p. The annihilation of a body is the act of the body from its nature. it.) 2 the phenomena of the body came from the acts of the body according to its nature. According to him. that of the and in the errors of his acts. moreover. Mu'ammar ibn-'Abbad Horten. 143. And the healthy or unhealthy condition of seed is. Shahrastani. ibid. Allah has neither action nor power. 67 et seq. and from the following it appears that several pages are lost. al-Sulami.. singing the following verses about drink " I do not And Thus consider cease taking the spirit of the flagon in gentleness it legal to drink the blood of the unslain. While the flagon lay a body without a spirit. p. sound is the act of bodies that are sonorous by nature. his case is like man about whom the following proverb is told He who has a bad faith and is mean in his descent. He claims. p. 22." that al-Nazzam drank spirits in the Kutaibah 1 morning and the evening. vol. But harmed by the barking of the dogs ? Just as harmed by the barking of the dogs. does not it leave a shameful act without committing considering praiseworthy and permissible though are the clouds the clouds are not it be forbidden. I was revived and felt two spirits in my body... and that the author is now talking of Mu'ammar. accord- ing to him. Macdonald. that in the case of phenomena. due to the acts of the seed. ibid. p. 157 . 274 et seq. that the annihilation of a finite thing is He also claimed its due to own act from its nature.. ibid. i. ibid. (Here the writing breaks off.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE RADARIYAH has mentioned in his book entitled " The Difference of Tradition. in the heresy of his views.

accord- body upon which the words descended. according to him.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS gives life or causes death. because Allah. and smell as well as any other phenomena belongs to its bearer through an idea outside of itself. in his treatises. nor an attribute. or in the sense of an act. and the comact. he has no power to command. Al-Ka'bl. again. ing to him. since he could not state that Allah's word was an munity did. just as the rest of the Mu'tazilah de- This heresy forced him to the conclusion that eternal attribute. taste to its bearer for the sake of (through) an idea outside of it ad infinitum. to the act of a forbid. because he held opinions leading thereto. His third heresy was his assertion that every kind of phenomena existing in the body is endless in number. So 138 he said if a thing moves through a motion arising in itself. Thus he speaks of every idea belonging Thus color. relates is how al-Mu'ammar claimed that motion 158 opposed to rest . attribute. This involves a denial of divine obligation. The Koran. If he then has no word. belongs to its bearer for the sake of (through) an idea outside of itself. Thus it is not possible for him to actually have a word. but is not an act of Allah. He same time denied the eternal attributes of Allah. as the Sunnites Allah has no word. either in the sense of an attribute. for how can he who created neither life nor death give life or death? His secomd heresy is his idea that Allah created at the no phe- nomena whatever. as for he did not ascribe to Allah any eternal Nor could he say that his word was his the rest of the Mu'tazilah held. nied them. had not created any phenomena. This idea. this motion belongs to its bearer for the sake of (through) an idea outside of itself. This idea again belongs to its bearer through an idea out- — — side of itself ad infinitum. and of the provisions of the Canon Law and of what others have affirmed. was nor to impose obligation.

it has in that connection created phenomena that And naturally that which creates what is are unlimited. asserting that he was accustomed to say that man has no power of action outside of his will. according to him. every one of It man produces various kinds of phenomis which kind endless in number. " eth all things by number " ( Surah J2. to which ascribed the creation of the phenomena. for Allah produces only bodies that are limited. 28) which is And count - . it necessarily follows that the nature. which are finite. One is that he posits accidents that are unlimited. heretical for Now such a view is two reasons. (masking) against that of the [orthodox] Moslems in reFor the [orthodox] Moslems inferred the creation of the phenomena in bodies from the fact that opposing phenomena may succeed one iS9 . The second an unlimited number of phenomena have been created leads him to hold that the body is more powerful than Allah. the rest of the phenomena being the work of the body reason is that his saying that acting according to is its nature. v. in ought further to be said that the view of al-Mu'ammar regard to endless phenomena opens the way for those held the doctrines of zuhur (appearance) and who kumun gard to the creation of phenomena. and these two ideas are opposed to ideas other than they. is more powerful than Allah. In the same way rest is opposed to motion through an idea outside of it. when the body creates a phenomenon. Allah has created nothing but bodies. Now. In his treatises al-Ka'bl tries to excuse al-Mu'ammar. If this report of his views is correct. as both we and he hold. For. according to him. *39 while the nature of ena. may be followed ad infinitum.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARlYAH only through an idea outside of it. unlimited must be more powerful than that which can only create what is limited in number. sitates the positing which neces- of accidents which Allah cannot count directly opposed to Allah's saying. This series.

or is colored. But since the combination of endless phenomena in one body is impossible. he cannot refute the claim of the followers of appearance and masking. able to and possesses free will. " answer. its opposite appeared. And that which leads to such a theory must also be heresy. or keeps quiet. I 4° His fourth heresy is his theory that man is something beside this sensible body.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS But the followers of zuhur and kumun denied the creation of phenomena and believed that they were inherent in bodies. he is. Mu'ammar says that the combination of unlimited phenomena in a body is possible. or in hell as places. or touches. he would I do not deny any of this. or act sees. nor does If one place contain him to the exclusion of another. however. their succession in a body through being created is proved. or changes from place to place. or in paradise. and if not. and not through successive masking and appearing. If. this idea in its appearing and its masking would need an endless idea outside of it. when a phenomenon was masked there." This view once and appears once. that he is living. knowing. now. its opposite was masked there. or in the sky. he were asked. nor 160 . neither present nor contained in any one of these delight. and that whenever one phenomenon appeared in a body. breadth. or in the earth. that it is possible for endless phenomena of the kind called appearance and masking to be in one and the same place. but I assert that he is body as something led. and that another in bodies. But he claims that it is not man himself who moves. or in hell?". in paradise as something given something given punishment. because he has neither length. The Mukassidiin said to them " If a phenomenon is masked : its masking and masking after its appearance would be due to an idea outside of it. its appearance after its carried to that its legitimate conclusion leads to the assertion eternal phenomena are —which is a heresy. " in the Do you say that man is in this body. depth.

Allah it. also possible for a knower own self. because to be mentioned to possible for his own by a speaker. is proved by the if it is it is fact that a speaker may self mention himself. this view entails the idea that it is impossible for man to see man. or weight. Moreover." He thus ascribes attributes to ascribed to Allah.141 lows that the Companions did not see the Prophet of Allah. it. in the sense of according to is him. or smell. and therefore it fol. Al-Ka'bi boasted in his writings to the effect that Mu'ammar was one of his Mu'tazilah teachers. when in the body. from the thing knowing. however.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH weight. that he possesses color. or cold. or dry. false This view of however. it man as Allah is described. or taste. rest. attributes necessarily be applied to Allah. a view which is in itself sufficiently shameful. in the sense that he is managing if and knowing what happening in it. just as the poet has said " Is there Is there any buyer as long as Sa'Id any seller as is the seller ? " long as Sa'id 161 is the buyer? . and yet at the same time describing him as existent and eternal. Then he man or be hot. so. but not in the sense almost as of being present or contained in It is by meet to express quite this opinion. or wet. His fifth heresy was his view that it is not proper to say of Allah that he is ancient. is its manager. is in every place. in that he says that man which are man is living and which must denies that knowing and able to can move. And just as he claims man. because he considers to be separate it essential for the thing known his. but is not there being present or contained. Allah from such attributes. or be at also is free that act and wise. think describing wishes him to be His sixth heresy was his refusal to say that Allah knows himself. he worshipped. so he merely said something that would naturally lead to it. He did not. Now anyone who boasts of his likeness to the like of know his him can keep it.

thus favoring them. view that also if first created the wise in paradise. nor an enemy to an unIt was necessary to believer in the state of his unbelief. Moreover. Concerning the Bishrlyah among them. they 142 condemned his view that Allah does not cease desiring. He is therefore his enemy before his unbelief. his would make They also condemned better for them. For it instance. we condemn his view that Allah is not a friend to' the believer in the state of his belief. that infidel involuntarily a believer. Some Kadariyah condemned he is his views on certain points in which considered right by other Kadariyah. would have been his view that if Allah should know that by lengthening the life of a man. since it is contrary to the view of all Moslems as well as our immediate followers for we say that Allah does not cease being a friend to him whom he knows to have been his friend. As to these main points. while he was alive and an enemy to him whom he knows to have been an unbeliever during his life and to have died in his unbelief. 162 . heresies. All the other matters. they condemned his view that Allah was capable of so much kindness that if he showed Allah had it it to an infidel. those Bishr was right while in reality themselves worthy of con- who condemned him were demnation. that slave would become a believer. .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS 6. is to be committed by a sired its man and then he has de- occurrence. held that Allah 1 not a friend to a man before See note on page 134. however. in the state of his unbelief. then to lengthen his life would be better for him than to have him die a heretic. are hateful and we condemn Bishr as an unbeliever. and . condemn him for this. These are the of his brother 1 followers of Bishr ibn-al-Mu'tamir. In these five views which the Basrah Mu'tazilah condemned. and also his view that if They condemned Allah knows that a certain act does not forbid it. First of all. after his death. is all except Bishr. the Mu'tazilah.

nor an enemy to the unbeliever in the state of the existence of his unbelief. him declared own followers and the rest of the Mu'tazilah a heretic." is Bishr. however. . nor his 163 enemy before he becomes disobedient. however. said that it if this [conclusion] right. He gave as proof of this. it is right. that if it is right that Allah should be a friend to the obedient [only] ^43 and an enemy to him [only] in the state of his unbelief. Our of his view of heat and cold. man can create color. 1 and he is the enemy of the unbeliever only in the second state where his unbelief exists. he is not his friend before he becomes obedient. Bishr. it is right. Allah becomes his enemy after having been his friend. " If Allah does so. We say that if Allah does so. if the believer returned to his unfriend. theory that Allah may forgive a e.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH the existence of obedience in him was possible . claimed that Allah is not the friend of the obedient in the state of the existence of his obedience. because of his assertion that taste. according to them. provided he The same is true is the author of that which causes them. wetness and dryness. then must follow that the unbeliever can be transformed in his state of unbelief. But our followers say in the state of his obedience. becomes his same way he belief. is . it is only in the state of obedience that he In the an enemy to the unbeliever only in the state of his unbelief moreover. then it is right to reward the obedient in the state of his obedience. is The second of he claimed it Bishr's heresies the fact that he exagto' gerated his view about reproduction possible for a such an extent that man to create color and taste and smell and sight and hearing and the tions according to the rest of the sensa- method of reproduction. smell and the sensations. He is only friendly to the obedient in the second state where obedience exists. is his His third heresy 1 i. and to punish the unbeliever in the state of his unbelief.

the punishment for such a sin on the part of those who are of the Moslem community is like the punishment of the unbeliever. .MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS man his sins and then change his mind about such forgive- ness and punish him when the man : is again disobedient. would Allah punish him day for his unbelief for which he repented?" He It was then said to him: "According to this. indeed Thus the beginning through this injustice he becomes just on the last said " yes. Bishr was questioned about this " If an unbeliever had it turned from his unbelief. then. while those who believed in phenomena differ over the time of the occurrence of motion. His fourth heresy is his theory that if Allah punished a 144 acting unjustly towards it in meting out baby. and death should seize him before he had re- pented from his drinking of wine. This is the same as if he said that Allah has power to act unjustly. sensible. the baby would have to be grown up. then. for if Allah does this. without considering legal to drink wine. and drank wine after having repented from his unbelief. and the body then passes through it from the is 164 . Their views in is. Our followers if say that Allah has the power to punish babies. but Bishr's view His fifth heresy is either as it his view that [when a body moves from exists. so. he would be such punishment. first to the second place. in the first or the second place it but that the body moves through This view ity " is from the itself. unreasonable in Theologians before him disagreed as to whether motion an " unsubstantial real(ma?Ml) or not. one place to another] motion is but not in the body. and if he acts unjustly. this are not contradictory." ! of this theory contradicts the conclusion. Those who do not believe in phenomena said no. and deserving of punishment. some of them claiming that it starts in the body when the body is in the first place." And Bishr had to accept this deduction. his act he does matter must be a just one.

304. p. Others said that motion exists in the body when the latter has reached the second place. ibid. One of them occurs in the moving body while it is in the first place. i. To abu-Hashim.. These are the followers heresies follow in succes- of Hisham ibn-'Amr al-Futi.. it is also But the Koran gives this quality to Allah. 167) " Our Allah is our sufficiency. 76- ibid. 1 3 4 Horten. ibid. although we know that there is no state between the first and the second." This is the view 14$ and also of our sheikh abu-al-'Abbas alof Bishr ibn-al-Mu'tamar differs from these views because he claims that motion takes place while the body is neither in the first nor the second place. i. If this view is unreasonable even for him. Ibn-Khallikan. but no such man is tioned by the leading writers on these heresies. v.. ShahrastanI. 74. Horten. vol. Among them : is the fact that he borbids men to say (Surah 3. Horten mentions this abii-Shamir was also a pupil of al-Nazzam it seems justifiable to conclude that this is the man to whom BaghdadI same man on is p. ? Concerning the HishSmlyah. p. 350 et seq. 4 His sion his [initial] heresy about predestnation.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH first agree al-Nazzam and abuShimr al-Murji'. vol. about this stances in " : Our Some sheikh abu-1-Hasan al-Ash'ari is says sub- of them say that motion two two [separate] places. and he is our best guardian [wakll]. 375." because he does not consider it right to call Allah a guardian. p. a Murji'. As referring. i. ibid. p. because it is the first time the body exists in the second place. 3 2 The view it be reasonable for others 7. while ShahrastanI tions abu-Shdmir. 165 . This is the view of abu-al-Hudhail and al-Jubba'i and his son this 1 to the second place.. how can of al-Ruwandi Kalanisi. and mentioned in the Sunnah which has been handed menmen- 1 Muhammad Badr points this dbu-Shimr. the second occurs in the body when it is in the second place. p. vol. 160 et seq..

" in place of depend upon [mittazmkkal claimed that the "guardian. If guardian means protector. This. v. and he is the best supplier. It is and he is our sufficiency " is our therefore necessary that what follows the is in Allah. in spite of the fact that it is written in the Koran. The word guardian really means " the one who is sufficient. Al-Khaiyat defended al-Futl by saying that Hisham used : to say " Our sufficiency is in Allah. He who depends Guar- on Allah. " Our sufficiency dian. and the opposite of protector would be a stupid man._' still more when al-Futl forbade them to apply to Allah those attributes which were mentioned of him in the Koran and the Sunnah. forbid the use of the word guardian among his 166 actual names. and handed down in the authentic Sunnah." is c. he is the best to alaihi]." Besides. e. your protector. Allah said. then what other names should be applied to him? Our followers used to wonder if applied names to Allah that and the Sunnah. " his sufficiency. This is the " meaning of his say- ing. If this name cannot be applied to Allah. however. the best guar- meaning of word "best " should agree with the word that precedes it. Allah dian [waktl] of us." And also the adequacy. and he is the best forgiver. then we should not 66)." may also mean in the Koran " one in charge "Say I am not in charge of you" (Surah 6. and if Allah is a satisfier and a protector.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS down concerning the ninety-nine names of Allah. as when we say "Allah is our supplier. even at the Basrah Mu'tazilah who were not mentioned in the Koran there is analogy for them." He word guardian implied someone above make him guardian)." we do not say "Allah is our supplier. i." (to the ignorance of him because he suffices the one under his guardianship in what is given him to guard. . is a sign of Hisham and of him who defended him by 140 resorting to the meanings of nouns in the language. his satisfier. i. Their wonder increased .

This is in opposition to the words of Allah. v. 8). man and his unbelief. 27). "Hadst thou spent all the riches of the earth. and to his words. and to his words. it follows that one should not say that Allah created the believer. but Allah. 179). v. v.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH The remarkable thing not permit its is that Hisham permitted in the Koran. not the creator of man's be- Similarly one should never say. " But none will he mislead thereby except the wicked " (Surah 2. 32). v. but Allah hath united them" (Surah 8. and forbade men to say that Allah created the unbelievers. He also promen from saying that Allah unites the hearts of be- and causes the evil to err. He : also re- jected the saying that Allah increases the days of the unbe" only liever. but according to him Allah is not the creator of his unbelief. On this analogy. he rejected the say. and unbelief cannot be 'Ubad also rejected the saying that Allah '" is the third to every two.147 ing in the Koran that Allah blinds the unbelievers. lief." which contradicts the saying of Allah in the Koran "Three killed man and or struck. : persons speak not privately together but he is their fourth. " one has killed an unbeliever or has struck him. al-Futi's heresies is The second of use of hibited lievers his prohibition of the many things uttered in the Koran. this name for Allah to be written and read But he did use outside of the Koran. 64). is man and belief. because the word believer is a name for two things. "But the wicked shall he cause to err" (Surah 14. thou couldst not have united their hearts. v. according to him. because the word unbeliever is a name for two things. 'Ubad ibn-Sulaiman al-'Amri ('Umari?) agreed with this error. If 'Ubad took 167 this error from his pre- . Moreover." because the refers to both word unbeliever his unbelief. and the fourth to every three. and this in spite of his word in the Koran " their sins give them length of days that they may increase We (Surah 3. nor five but he is their sixth" (Surah 58.

these evidences must each have another evidence to prove them. are some whose existence prove it. His companion 'Ubad said the same. it is like the case of 'Asa coming from 'Asiyah. in proving it they would need to prove the truth of the evidence used in bringing such proof and each evidence must have another evidence to and so on ad infinitum. And if phenomena prove no decision." and the " secret of the twilight. then the proof of the word of Allah and the word of the prophet of Allah about that which is legal and that which is illegal. and give 1 Muhammad Badr is in a footnote says 168 that 'Asa is the name of a horse and 'Asiyah the mother of that horse. and so on ad infinitum. for the teacher rejected the word guardian and guarantor from among the names of Allah. The third of al-Futi's heresies is his view concerning 148 phenomena. He held that nothing in them predicates anything about Allah." and the " changing of a stick into a snake. But if Allah is to be made evident by this." and the " splitting of the moon. It was objected that if he held to such an evidence. nor do they even prove a basis for a legal decision. 1 " the snake gives birth to naught but a snake. page 156) do not verify the Prophet's claim to prophecy. both claiming that the " separation of the sea. however. then the student would have drawn this from his teacher by analogy. he would have to say that phenomena do not prove anything. ." and the "walking on the waters" (see above. They phenomena which can be known through deductive proofs. because if they proved a thing or a decision. Among phenomena." But if this assertion of his is original. nothing. the evidences supposed to Al-Futi claims that per- come from Allah must be are ceptible. just as bodies are perceptible. is abrogated.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ceptor Hisham. and that which is promised and that which is threatened. and are therefore evidences for Allah.

for Allah has forbidden him has no this. tastes. for they asserted that bodies are a conglomerate of phenomena. it necessarily follows that these known pheis nomena tible. thus drawing near to Allah with the determination to complete the prayer. and has prohibited it." And arguing from analogy. it. it follows that bodies cannot be known of necessity. and if [break in text] His fourth heresy and continuation. such as colors. what he had already performed would be of obedience. Nevertheless he is way of knowing before the beginning that he it. if before his time. He claims that a small band surprised and killed him without a regular siege. agreed that the part of the prayer which has been performed even though the prayer he died during an act pleted. because those who deny phenomena 49 doubted their existence. and then recites and genuflects and prays to Allah in the proper manner. going to commit a sin and so avoiding The community to Allah. one can say The Naj jariyah and the Darariyah have doubted the existence of the body which was not a phenomenon. but interrupts it before the end. Now if al-Futi says that " : phenomena are have r not perceptible. even if the whole prayer was not com- His fifth heresy is his denial that 'Uthman was besieged and was murdered by conquest and force. the beginning of the prayer as well as its end is sin. are evidence for Allah because they are percep- just as bodies are evidence for Allah bcause they are perceptible. in spite of the successive traditions about it which have been handed down. as for example. And he who rejects the view that 'Uthman was besieged.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH known by necessity. however. is an act of obedience is not completed. is like him who 169 rejects the battles of . motion and quiet." is his He maintained that view concerning " interruption if a man performs the ablutions for prayer and begins praying. smells.

By this view he only wished to attack the Imamship of 'All. 170 . the Imamship should not to be fixed upon anyone under these conditions. but they do not condemn the man who says that they are created. forsaking it tyranny and cor- ruption. and they swear by Allah that he Horten. eo His sixth heresy chapter on the is the view which he expresses in the that "Community". the community comes it to a consensus of opinion. The Rafidah. should be condemned as a heretic. then rebels Imam and sins and kills its manage it and that when Imam. who inclined to the Mu'tazilah views. for the Syrians were championing someone else until 'AH died.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Badr and 'Uhud. He is also like the man who I rejects the miracles about which traditions have been handed down. were thoroughly satisfied with the attack of the sheikhs of the Mu'tazilah on the Imamship of 'AH. because the community did not agree about him. By that he meant to attack the Imamship of 'AH. about the testimony of 'AH and his followers. Wasil. in spite of the successive traditions which have been handed down about them. because the Imamship was given to him during a rebellion. needs an when . p. after the doubt of their leader. Those convinced of the creation of paradise and hell condemn those who deny 1 their existence. 298. While rejecting the Imamship of 'All he accepted that of Mu'awiyah. His successors among the Mu'tazilah doubt the existence of paradise and hell to-day. ibid. and after the killing their This agreed with the view of al-Asamm. 1 that the Imamship should remain only with him upon whom the consensus of the community rested. His seventh heresy is his view that whoever says that paradise and hell are created. because after the killing of 'AH the people were tmanimous about him.. of the Imam preceding him.

i. 642. though the term was taken from the His surname al-Murdar was also well suited.. tion is Indeed. the verse may be applied to him: " Thine eyes seldom see a man whose appearance does not remind you of his surname. Concerning the Murdarlyah among them. 71. cunning. In general. al-Murdar condemned the person in close communication with a Sultan. 1 Shahrastani. claiming that he can eloquent. . retaliation be Nor should demanded of one who awarded kills one of them nor blood-wit nor atonement. his denial of the marriage of the He who denies this is not worthy to how much less to marry a virgin there! Besides the errors which we have recounted of him. the surname suited him. v. 1 He was called the known as abu-Musa monk of the Mu'tazilah. and even something more Christian monks. In addition to his various errors. p." This Murdar claimed that men had the power to produce something similar to the Koran. vol. al-Futi believes in killing those who differed from him with secret enter paradise.THE who freed . for which praise be to Allah. But in this way they show stubborn opposition to the word of Allah " Say. 171 Horten. The 151 Sunnites said of al-Futi and his followers that their blood and their possessions belonged to the Moslems. al-Nazzam had said.SECTS denies OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH them hell. as : . a certain rank and sta- to be to the one killing him. 8. ibid. muzdar. ibid. though the one should help the other" (Surah 17.. is ' will not enter paradise and will not be from His eighth heresy virgins in paradise. even if they belong to the Moslem community. These are al- the followers of 'Isa ibn-Sabih. p. Murdar. index. verily were men and Jinn assembled to produce the like of this Koran they could not produce its like. and that they had the usual right to a fifth of the spoils. 90).

that he was a shameful person.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS neither His predecessors nor can he bequeath. one of them being creator and the other acquirer. Allah would become a tyrannous and lying God. is an unbeliever himself. and so is the man who has doubts of the man who doubts. "The right to some of his goods was quesand the poor had a claim on them. The rest of the Mu'tazilah agreed to condemn only him who admitted that him. also claimed that he Al-Murdar who admitted that Allah could be seen by the eye though without form. He held view in spite of the fact that he rejected the opinion of the Sunnites that a deed could result from two doers. when death came to al-Murdar dying command that his goods should be given report that as alms and that none of his possessions were to be given Abu-al-Husain al-Khaiyat tried to excuse him : for this. Murdar. who agreed with him as regards fate inherit and secession. held that such a person was an unbeliever. He also' claimed that Allah could act tyrannically and lie. are united in condemning al-Murdar. or Allah could be seen when man confronted is when Those the rays of the sight of the seer reached the seen. who assert that there sight. said of the person holding communication with a Sultan. and so on ad infinitum. The Mu'tazilah he gave the to his heirs. for if he really carried out what he was able to do in the way of tyranny and lying. considering his condemnation of the Sultan himself and of those who associated with him. as well as those who doubt his condemnation. the deed being created in the this way of generation. while he who doubts that such a man is an unbeliever. is an unbeliever. It is a 152 wonder that the Sultan of his time refrained from killing him." By this excuse 172 . saying tionable. Abu-Zufar reports of al-Murdar that he admitted that a deed could exist which was the result of two created doers. but could not be called either a believer or an unbeliever. among the Mu'tazilah. however.

173 . of his view that these same corrupt persons were unitar9. The least we can oppose to this view of his is to say to him "According to us. namely. Both of them attained As to the heights of error and the depths of ignorance. was a creation of Allah. one is the unitarian and neither believers nor unbelievers.153 mar for his view about the creation of colors. Christians. would a shameless person. ibid. Only alluded to by Shahrastanl. 443 and vol. 231. He thus made who is not an unbeliever worse than the infidel dualist. he claimed that among the corrupt of this community there are some who are worse than the 2 This was in spite Jews. he said. Ja'fars among them. according to the Mu'tazilah is condemned to eternal hell.. The rest of the Mu'tazilah condemned him because of his view about the generation of one deed by two creators. vol. vii. of two Concerning the Ja'fariyah. 2 A Thanawiyah or dualist. and he condemned his own teacher Bishr ibn-al-Mu'ta. and his sheikhs conBoth parties are justified in condemning each his sheikhs. 295. And the robber. other. p. He also condemned al-Nazzam's view that created things are the deed of Allah. This." ish dress ! This would make of him a Mu'tazilah in monk- He condemned demned him. p. v. Horten. Magians and Zindiks. that " the Messiah. the son of Allah. 290. also applied to an unbeliever. smells and perceptions. Al-Murdar himself condemned abu-al-Hudhail for his view about the annihilation of the powers of Allah." He also claimed that in Mas'udI. Ja'far ibn-Mubashshir. thou art worse than all unians. These are the followers 1 and Ja'far ibn-Harb the other is Ja'far ibn-Mubashshir. He wrote a book on this. tastes. necessitate the acceptance of the views of the Christians. : believers 1 on the face of the earth.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH he only proved that al-Murdar was a robber and a betrayer of the poor. pp. Both of the Ja'fars are to be found Les Prairies d'Or.

however. and he take and a thing was possess her without a contract. 154 Ibn-Mubashshir also claimed that he who steals a single grain. But the punishment must tended fornication. then. he claims that if a man send to a woman. Some withforced. If one does. that such known through the law and not through reason. because she came to him with the idea of being married. and she come to him. one deserves punishment in spite of those who disagree with this view. get drunk from it. 1 with the Najadat among ishment for the use of liquor. she is not to be punished. because agreement is reached through speculation (not given Ja'far shares this heresy of his the Khawarij. who condemn punThe theologians of the community unite in condemning him who rejects the punishment for drinking raw wine. in the Koran or tradition). thereby differing from his predecessors. or even something less.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS the consensus of the companions to the effect that he who drinks spirituous wine should be beaten. they differ only about nabidh. their is wrong. In this he differs from his predecessors who main- tained that minor sins may be forgiven. Al-Shafi'i and the legists of al-Hijaz agree about this. provided one does not get drunk from it. He also claimed that the condem- nation of the guilty to hell-fire can be inferred by mental processes. Moreover. and is condemned to hell. because he in- This ignorant is man did not know that is who gives in to fornication a fornicator unless she The legists differ only about a man who forces a commit fornication. if their author avoids the major ones. is corrupt. according to the view of the followers of speculation and tradition. woman to- hold the punishment of the that the 1 man because they consider dowry is sufficient punishment for him. some holding that the woman should have a dowry and the man be punished. But not Date-wine. she fall upon the man. asking her to marry him. 174 .

ibid. 2 Horten. 231. He likewise disagreed with the view of those of his predecessors who hold that Allah could practice injustice and lie. : . Concerning the Iskaflyah among them. 58. and also added his view to the effect that a part of the whole is dif- This amounts to saying that the ferent from the whole. vol. p. by a book called Harb (war) against ibn-Harb. p. He took came to dren and differ about predestination from Ja'far ibn-Harb. He claimed that to Allah can be attributed the power to oppress chil- madmen. but not those who have their full senses. vol. by the help of Allah and his gifts. according to which 1 Misprint in Baghdad! for al-Shafi'i. The opposition of the consensus is sufficient shame for him. but over certain of his deductions. 10. vi. p. according to which Allah had not the power to act unjustly or to lie. which was ibn-Mubashshir's view.. On this basis it was necessary that he should hold that he who' knows a thing does not know it! i55 'Abd-al-Kahir says " Ibn-Harb wrote a book explaining his errors but we have refuted his book. we refute its bases and its principles. al-Murdar. He also claimed that what is forbidden by the mind has power over (that) mind. Mas'udi. since all parts of it are different from it. 299 et seq. This is what al-Sha'bi * said of him in his treatises. 175 . ibid. Between these two views he took a middle course. and that he can do without them. but has no power over another thing. As for Ja'far ibn-Harb. He disagreed with the view of al-Nazzam.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH one of the early Moslems thought it right to withhold pun- ishment from a woman who gives in to fornication. vii.. and in it. but does not do so because he knows that they are both abominations. These are the 2 followers of his errors Muhammad ibn-'Abdallah al-Iskafi. whole is different from itself. he shared in the errors of his preceptor.

and it is not possible for one letter to be a word. he dismounted from his horse. indeed. but not to those who have their His predecessors condemned him for this. mean that man could not be a speaker. We believe this to be true. And according to your assertion. is composed of letters.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS he claimed that Allah has the power to act unjustly only to those who senses. accept this absurdity that applies the You must. ' ' according to you. The place of each word is different from the letters. the word dwells in the tongue. Kadariyah. conversor is it would mean that the word sets which not the case with the addressor. verily word of Allah we believe among the they would say to. Your reasoning would." ' Some of the Mu'tazilah glorified al-Iska. the originates with him. letter among the letters of the place of the rest of the therefore. Evidently this is a lie. according to you and the rest of the Mu'tazilah.fi. Allah is not the speaker because the word does not arise within him '.him " This excuse of As to his predecessors : 156 yours forces you to conclude that that part of the body of man that speaks is the tongue. but that it could not be said that he spoke with them. nor could any part of him be a speaker. This is enough because. so does the expression " who converses " imply that the speaking commences with him. by claiming that when Muhammad ibn-al-Hasan saw him walking. Moreover he calls Allah the addressor but not the conversor. have no mind. Just as the use of the " word who something in motion " implies that the motion commences in him. because al-Iskafi did not live at the time of Muhammad ibn-al- Hasan. it He became so abstruse in his heresy as to say that could be said that Allah spoke to his subjects. because the word. name of the speaker to a thing. for ibn-al-Hasan died in al-Rai during the caliphate 176 . He claimed that in using the word arises in him. and he differing condemned them for from him.

the one led who these heresies " is was that when he shared the opinions of the companions of wisdom " in their assertion that knowledge necessary. Muhammad would not have dismounted from his horse for a man whom he considered a heretic. that he is al-Ma'mun astray by making him Two heresies distinguished him from the a Mu'tazilite. how could the Imams of Islam. General index. authorities of al-Madinah agree. while al-Iskafi . 177 . but is work and slave labor. his prayers must be repeated. he claimed that he whom Allah does is not compel is to know him (Allah). 1 who had it from abu- Yusuf. time of al-Rashid of and even if was not alive in the he had been alive in the time Muhammad. Thamamah ibn-Ashras al-Numairi. who condemned the Kadariyah. that he was questioned about the Mu'tazilah and said. is not compelled to know. rest of the predecessors of the Mu'tazilah. honor them by dismounting for them ? ii. 2 one of He was the leader of the Kadariyah in the It is said time of al-Ma'mun. he claimed Mas'udi. These are 157 the followers of their freedmen.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH of Harun al-Rashid. " They are Zindiks. Hisham also reported of Muhammad Yahya ibn-Aktham. Not in Shahrastanl. and therefore to be classed with animals who 1 2 are not responsible. al-Mu'tasim and al-Wathik. In this question Malik and the legal If that is so. ibid." Al-Shafi'i has pointed out in his book Al-Kiyas his refusal to accept the testimony of the witness of the Mu'tazilah and the people led astray by their desires [AM al-Ahwa]. and it was for One of these that the whole community condemned him. As a result of this. Concerning the ThamSmlyah among them. Hisham ibn-'Ubaidallah al-Razi reported as the word of ibn-al-Hasan that whoever follows a Mu'tazilah in prayer. nor created for unpaid he prohibited from unbelief.

also. the word of man is a deed without a doer. since. rebellion is possible only for him who knows his Lord by necessity and then it denies him. so for the one who. or erasing without one who erases. while his mother was a captive. there is who knows Allah by no virtue for which they deserve a re- waid. according to him. nor creator. Moreover. Why do you then blame man for his lies and his words of : unbelief. or a building without a builder. the next world is He also claimed that only the abode of reward or punishment. acis cording to the law governing capture. or his words of unbelief ?" Among his shameful heresies Thamamah used also to say that the abode of Islam was the abode of polytheism. become dust in the end. not having known him.died as a child. Thus they become dust. or necessity. adultery. 178 . and to enter in to one who could not be a captive. nor sin for which they deserve punishment. the existence of the doer it is deed to exist without a doer. or rebels against him. could not have disobeyed his Lord. because if one deed can exist without a doer. Thamamah's heresy about this matter suited his pedigree. and the Zindiks. His children are therefore children of adultery. since they have no share in reward or Thamamah's second heresy acts are acts without is his view that generated it is an author. and then one could not prove from the deeds.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS that the community of al-Dahrlyah and the Christians. From this assertion. according to you. It might be said to him "According to you then. follows that he confesses himself a son of adultery because he belonged to the freedmen. he forbade captivity because the captive. According to him. he is not the author of his act of lying. would the This would creation of the world be a proof of its be similar to the assertion that there could be writing with- jcg out a writer. This error leads to the detrue that possible for every nial of the creator of the world. punishment.

and rolling mud. p. 546. " Look at these donkeys and cows. day when he saw Thamamah drunk. Zotenberg. i. p. Ibn-Khallikan. 122. and he said." " Let it come. 61. And mah ibn-Ashras Wathik. Among what 'Abdallah ibn-Muslim ibn-Kutaibah said in his book Mukhtalaf al-Hadith. meaning the Prophet of Allah. " If his death does not have 3 good results. Al-Jahiz said in his book of jests that al-Ma'mun was riding one in the plied.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH The these is historians report wonderful things regarding the imbecility of Thamamah and his shamelessness. me Thamamah my : said skin if " May Tabari ed. He said in this that Thamamah ibn-Ashras saw men on a Friday hastening to the mosque for fear the hour of prayer would pass.." and Thamamah replied. and blamed Thamamah. ibid." in Ibn-abi-Da'ud said his death 1 " May Allah imprison was not the right thing." Then he said. that the 1 accused Ahmad ibn-Nasr al-Marwazi to al- saying that the former condemned everyone who denies that Allah can be seen." iv." "Aren't you ashamed?" " No. and everyone who claims Koran was created. may Allah slay : me between fire and water. Whereupon he said to a companion of his. by Allah." said to Al-Jahiz also said that a servant of Thamamah 159 him one day. vol." The author of Ta'rlkh al-Ma/rcLwizah says that Thamation." but he paid no attenthe servant said to him. vol. but promptly repented of his death. ibn-abi-Da'ud " and ibn-al-Zaiyat Ibn-al-Zaiyat said to him : who advised his death. Fihrist. "Arise and pray. al-Kadariyah. and is free from the heresy of Wathik thereupon put him to death. " What has that Arab made out of men?". "Thamamah?" Thamamah re" Yes. 179 . " I will rest if you will leave me. 2 3 p. arise and pray and rest." Upon thee be the curse of Allah. by " Allah. " The time is short.

180 ibid. ibid. Among the errors ascribed to him. nevertheless it is an far 1 Shahrastani. . in spite of his pride in him. p. 405. p.. Thus Allah's words 160 were fulfilled "And they tasted the harmfulness of their own conduct: and the end of their conduct was ruin" in his own way. and it was he who Whereupon the banu-Khuza'ah gathcaused his death. These are the 'Amr ibn-Bahr al-Jahiz. in killing if you were not right him. relates about him in his treatises. vol. Then the enclosure. Ibn-Khallikan.. verily he was killed and fell into the fire with his clothes on. he went to Mecca where the Khuza'ah saw him between al-Safa. iii. Concerning the Jahifiyah among them. they would have begged Allah's pardon for calling him a man. which al-Ka'bi.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS Allah cause swords to rule over me. though they have no meaning. 12. and they brought his body out from sacred the wild animals outside devoured it." Allah answered the prayers of each one As to ibn-al-Zaiyat. p. pp. Had they known the ignorance shown in his here- from ascribing beauties to him. 22-25. and contain words which terrify. and thus died between fire and water. 80. Mas'udi. ii. in the bath. are the words: " All knowledge comes by nature. 1 They are the people who were led away by the beauty of the language used by al-Jahiz in his books. vol. alMutawakkil imprisoned him. about which we might say "They are followers of : compositions which are clear. vol. thus remaining imprisoned in his skin by paralysis until he died. 9). v. and one of the men called out and said " O ye men of Khuza'ah. i. and al-Marwah. though they have no substance." sies. 77. v." ered against him with their swords and killed him. Ahmad ibn-Fihr. 33-36. And as for Thamamah.. vol. vol. ibid. : (Surah 65. this is the man who conspired against your master. viii. and he had a stroke of paralysis while in prison. As to ibn-abi-Da'iid. pp.

nor then obliged to> maintain that man nor go on a pilgrimage. with al-Ka'bl that is al-Jahiz agrees man does nothing without free-will. If knowledge he (Muhammad) has and the truth preached by his messengers. thankless for the of his creator. though knowing. According to him. or the mechanism of his rewarded or punished for members. 1 must necessarily follow that man should in no sense have reward or punishment for them. nor commit adultery.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH activity of man in which he has no choice. infidels are stubborn. it is not he that performs prayer. Because. nor fasts. and hell and its torments. nor steals. nor steal. natural and not fast. and naturally arise from his claimed that it is He says that he also not possible to become an adult without knowing Allah. because man 161 cannot be rewarded or punished for what he has not acacquired. the heresies of al-Jahiz view of the impossibility of the annihilation of the bodies after their This results in the view that Allah is able to create a thing. do not mean it if we in the sense that Allah has not the power to annihilate 181 all . nor kill. And if these acts which we have mentioned are. nor calumniates. it quired himself . and that the will. nor kills. are not done with his will." They add that al-Jahiz agreed with Thamamah that man has no other activity except the will. taken up with a love for their particular school. just as he is not his color. But we. he does not pray. nor commits adultery. also his Among creation. but is unable to annihilate it. For these acts. according to him. nor makes a pilgrimage." rest of his acts are ascribed to man only in the sense that they occur by nature. nor calumniate. in the same way that he was alone before he created it. according to him. even its say that Allah does not annihilate paradise and pleasures. according to him. since these are is not of his own attaining. and that he cannot remain alone after he has created a creation.

. he would also have to say that he caused the people of hell to enter the Mu'tazilah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS this. Concerning the Boasting of KoJitan over 'Adnan. a number of poems in which Kahtan satirizes Adnan." father. 301. 2 Ibid. This would also compel the view that paradise attracts people to itself by its nature.. One of them tells of p. fantastic books. 118. and then holds Al-Ka'bi boasts literary works. The Superiority of the Freedmen over the Arabs? Moreover. The text seems uncertain. If one were to hold this view. It might be said to al-Ka'bi " If he [al-Jahiz] was a Kinani as you claim. own Whoever satirizes his father — He composed many 1 Ibid. claiming that he was one of the sheikhs of He also boasts of his many was a Kinani of the banu-Kinanah. for had 1 he been his son he would not have satirized his father. the desire for Allah's rewards would cease. then why did he write the book. satirized his In satirizing ibn-Bassam 2 Jahzah has rightly said the mere fact of his satirizing is sufficient (to show that he is not his son). if he said that Allah caused those who should go to paradise to enter paradise. And in truth the man who that he : and claims ' delights in the satires against his fathers is like the man * who who " himself satirizes his father. and the use of prayer would be gone. ibn162 Khuzaimah ibn-Mudrakah ibn-Ilyas ibn-Mudhar. i. p. why did he write the book. he mentioned in his book called. but that hell by on to them of itself forever. On the other hand. The boasting of the KahtSniyah over the Kinamyah and the rest of the AdndMyah? Moreover. very nature. about al-Jahiz. Among attracts its the heresies of al-Jahiz there is also his view that Allah does not cause anyone to enter people of itself its hell. We mean only that paradise and hell are everlasting in a general way. 182 . vol. and that Allah does not cause anyone to enter paradise. if he was an Arab. hell. vol. ii.

except that he considers is it possible that there two determiners. And among books are those on the laws. on the teachings of the Companions. vol. ibid. tithes of industry in modities of merchants. in this manner he taught his evil people methods of stealing. Al-Jubba'I and his son denied this. p. and to it he added what is mentioned by alMada'ini 1 regarding the knowledge of the Arabs.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZIL/ H AND THE KADARIYAH the tricks of robbers the . Some of the weak-minded imagined that the teaching of al-Shahham was similar to that of one thing determined by 1 1 Ibid.. The contents of these books suit him. family. He filled the book with dialogues between dogs and roosters. There is also his book about the Fatwa (religious decision). the contents of which he drew from Aristotle's book on animals. and sodomy. These 2 are the followers of abfi-Ya'kub al-Shahham. A man who And 13. which is full of attacks by his preceptor. And to whomever boasts about al-Jahiz. Horten. and their poems about the uses to which animals could be put. His heresies resemble the heresies of al-Jubba'I. 578. a mote in the eye of everyone who looks at him. al-Nazzam. we *"3 commend the saying of the orthodox about him in the words of the poet concerning him " If the ugliness of the swine His ugliness would still is doubled be inferior to that of al-Jahiz. his trade and his He also has a book about the habits of animals. Among them which he depreciated the comalso in his book on which shows how dishonest men get hold of the and money of the people. and about the tricks of the avaricious. is himself a substitute for hell. p. also his books about prostitutes and rabies.." Concerning the ShahhSmiyah among them. 338. who was the preceptor of al-Jubba'i. To be engaged in such dialogues wastes time on that which treasures is loathsome. 183 . i.

These are the the followers of abu-al-Husain al-Khaiyat. But others of the an object which can be known and described. 'Uyun al-MasaW Concerning the Khaiyatlyah among them. Al-Shahham allowed the possibility of there being one thing determined by two determinerseach one of which two could produce the thing determined interchangeably. grant that there are two determiners for one thing determined. existing even when (the object) is non-existent. except that he differed from them in saying on the nonexistent what none had it is said before. and that such attribute remained. Al-Ka'bl reports this in his book entitled But the Sifatiyah do When they do not grant the possibility of two creators. 14. either for itself or for its genus.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS the Sifatiyah on this point. and the creator is not the This gives the exacquirer. they do SO' in the sense that one of the two is its creator and the other the acquirer. 1 He agreed with the orthodox in not calling the non-existent an object. nor a phenomenon.. nor the acquirer the creator. nor a substance. nor an essence. Al-Jubba'i and his son abu-Hashim claimed that every attribute was rendered real. p. For the Mu'tazilah disagreed about calling the non-existent an object. He claimed further that an Mu'tazilah claimed that the non-existent is 1 Ibid. planation of the difference between the two parties in the difference of their two methods of exposition. or described. This was al-Ka'bi's opinion. but is not essence or phenomenon. by the one that originated it. Al-Khaiyat agreed with the rest of the Kadariyah in most of their heresies. who was preceptor of al-Ka'bl in his heresy. But there is a wide difference between the two views. This was the opinion of al-Salihi among them. 305- 184 . Some 164 °f them say not true that the non-existent can be known. nor that it is an object. ala abi-al-Hudhail.

that essences and phenomal-Jubba'i and his son — ena are essences and phenomena even in a state of non185 . a appears is not necessarily in motion. forbade calling the non-existent a body. but that it is not necessary for the non-existent to be in motion. namely. and without at all changing him from one form to another. Such reasoning demands that such. and white was white even when non-existent. howa state of non-existence. broke with al-Khaiyat over his view that the body was a body before its appearance. has become complex. as is by something all attributed. having length and breadth and depth. according to him. He . according to them. He makes the point that this view leads to the view of the pre-existence of But the folbodies (as opposed to their being created). All of these men. lowing conclusion is necessary on the part of al-Khaiyat. was an essence even when in a state of non-existthat a phenomenon was a phenomenon even when in and that black was black. the body. because.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH essence ence. it is ever. said body when it " Every : attribute [or qualification] may become appearance " its existent when [the thing described] it makes its therefore he holds to be existent even in state of non-existence. al-Jubba'i In a separate book. man be man before he appears as if Allah could have brought him form of man in all his completeness without having formed him in the loins and in the womb. He claims that the body when non-existent is a body because it must be a body when well as it appears. impossible to describe something non-existent to which a bodily reality zilah. 165 The most advanced of these Khaiyatiyah are called alMa'dumiyah because of their extreme views on ascribing to the non-existent most of the attributes of all existing This were possible into existence in the things. From the Mu'ta- from the rest of the sects of the faithful. al-Khaiyat differs on this subject. This appellation stuck to them. and comes to be an agglomerate.

" It is Concerning the Ka'blyah among them. he failed to grasp the superficial. We say to al- enough shame and disgrace for you to have been connected with a preceptor whose heresy you acknowledge. nor anyone else. —how much more. . . among then. al-Khaiyat denied the value of traditions coming from a single authority. and with colors. both special and 166 general. they are forced to regard them as eternal. just as they deny that others see him.) He was a gatherer of wood before he was introduced to various studies.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS existence. Besides his heresy about Kadar and non-existence. In fact. (The following sentence not clear.Ahmad ibn-Mah- mud known is as al-Ka'bi. and phenomena. on the other hand. Al-Ka'bi wrote a book against him on the evidence coming from tradition going back to a single person. because most of the legal ordinances are based upon believe that essences traditions going back to a single authority. and he did not acquire a deep knowledge of their secrets in any one department. 186 . If they now say that they are still is objects. but the meaning is obviously con- tradictory. essences. Al-Ka'bi. except in the sense that he knows himself and others. whose appearance still dependent upon their being objects." 15. liter- He 1 followed al-Nazzam in his view that Allah does not The text at this point is clear. but they denied that he sees himself. and in reality hold the same view as do those who and phenomena are pre-existent. the kernel. claimed that Allah does not see himself. He dif- fered from the Basriyun points. . In this book he con- demns ( Ka'bl : ?) * those who deny such evidence. for the the Mu'tazilah over many Basriyun held that Allah sees his people in the body. These are text of the the followers of abu-Kasim 'Abdallah ibn. In doing this he practically denied most of the Shari'ah laws. al-Banahi.

and that when one says that Allah wills a thing which he performs. 186). dead person not necessarily as a matter of necessity. Furthermore. For this denial of the will of Allah they condemned as heretics by the Basriyun. Still other points of disagree- 187 . But our followers say that he does not cease willing through an eternal will. hold that Allah exercises will in the true sense of the word. : merely figurative.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARlYAH ally see anything. claim that he wills through his temporal will. Al-Ka'bl and the Baghdadlyun among the Mu'tazilah claimed that Allah hears nothing in the sense of perception Moreover. v. 76). together with fined Allah's attribute as the hearer known as sound. among the Mu'tazilah. The rest of the together with our followers were : people agreed that that a all killed is are dead. one means and when one says that he of himself willed a deed. the ascribing of will to a wall is that he did this thing. " Every spirit this does not agree with the word of Allah must taste of death" (Surah 3. According to both of these explanations. Al-Ka'bl and al-Nazzam. ascribing will to him is merely figurative. Another point of disagreement is that al-Ka'bl held the same views as those who make it compulsory on Allah to do the best thing. while the Basriyun. and their followers do not agree with these two views. and not simply in the sense that he knows them. Another thing over which he differed from the Basriyun and our followers is that they held that Allah literally hears word and sound. however. they deand the seer. our followers. although they admit killed. just as in the words of Allah " The wall wills 167 to fall " (Surah 18. Another thing over which they disagreed was But that al-Ka'bl claimed that he who is killed is not dead. unlimited by space. one means that he commanded it. v. some of them claim that the Basriyun among them. in the sense that he had knowledge of the hearable which others heard and the seeable which others saw. for they claim that Allah has no actual will.

" and then that one was asked for his opinion in this matter. as we explained in the book entitled.you. is obedient to his servant if he [Allah] fulfils his will " will]. according to me. Al-Jubba'I said is : "The essence of obedience. "Agreement to a command. 16. "According to. but afterwards joined the school Among the heresies of al-Jubba'i is was this the one in which he said that Allah if obedient to his servant he does what his servant wills. he therefore considered it possible to derive a name for him [Allah] from every deed which he performs. 1 Horten. what does obedience mean?" 168 The sheikh answered. Allah is far and away above being Al-Jubba'i furthermore claimed that the names of Allah are subject to the regular rules of grammar. He servant. Al-Ka'bi claims that it does. As a matter of fact. * These are the followers of abu-'AH al-Jubba'I who' led astray the of Basrah at that people of Khuzistan. p. agreement to the c. Heresies of the Kadariyah. Our sheikh abu-1-Hasan answered: "Acthis. will. As for the Basriyun among the Mu'tazilah. ibid. And whoever fulfils the will of another obeys him " the other]. 188 . e. 352. of his son abu-Hashim. the servant's Then our sheikh said: "You differ from the community of Moslems and you blaspheme the Lord of the Worlds. For if Allah is obedient to his granted this. cording to one must conclude that Allah [i. each party is justified in condemning the other.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS ment were that both the Basriyun and our followers held that ability does not necessarily mean soundness of body and safety from disease.. while the latter in their turn condemn the former. they condemn the Baghdadiyun among them. then he must be subject to him. this. [/. The reason for day he said to our sheikh abu-1-Hasan alAsh'ari. The Mu'tazilah time belonged to his school. Concerning the Jubbaiyah among them.

It is thus the same whether it is written in a thousand many places even in places." Among the to be in heresies of al-Jubba'I it was also the one. for they agreed before you that he who binds his oath to the will of Allah does not violate it if he does not keep his oath. it exists in two places. and without making its appearance in the second. accord- ing to which he considered possible for one phenomenon more than a thousand thousand Thus he considered it possible for one word to be places. although even they do not hold that he produced pregnancy in Mary." because he '' creates the pregnancy in them. creates a spaceless of which he destroys all bodies and essences. Verily I will pay you stroy the world. that according to this view Allah should be named " the producer of pregnancy among Al- women.' and then does not pay He answered that such a man vio- lated his oath. he to spare others. if his debt the next day?" Allah wishes. Our sheikh said This heresy of yours is worse than the heresy of the Christians in calling Allah the father of Jesus. and the payment is constantly being put off. in a thousand thousand places. that our sheikh said to al-Jubba'I " If you say that Allah wishes all that he decrees.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH Our sheikh abu-1-Hasan said. It is reported is not able to destroy them separately. l ®9 : ' the debt tomorrow. or in a thousand thousand places. He and his son abu-al-Hashim claimed that Allah. and he claimed that when a word written in one place is then written in another. Jubba'i could not escape this conclusion. then what do you say of a man to whom a debt is owed. when he desires to de- phenomenon by means But it is not within the power of Allah to destroy some essences and Though he created them separately. and the debtor says." 189 . Our sheikh said to him : munity of the Moslems who preceded you. because Allah desires him to pay the debt " You differ from the comthen. without passing from the first place to the second.

while ability is passing to from the rence is state of possibility to that of actuality. its He had conclude that the occurrence of the deed or non-occur- possible when no hindrance exists.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS 17. if you declare it possible were called that ability precede the deed. may not do it. These are the follow- ers of abu-Hashim and of al-Jubba'I. tazilah of our age hold the and most of the Mu'same view regarding the claims he made on ibn-'Abbad. In addition to was claimed that ability does not mean ability to perform the deed at the moment of occurrence one of them this. Among others. They shared in most of the heresies of the Mu'tazilah. even though the deed is not performed. Thus verily they claimed that the one who is able to do a thing [desiring to do it]. was their view about the deserving of blame and punishment when a deed had not been performed. it necessarily follows that two times and the conclusion. though they also distinguished themselves from them in special heresies which they were the first to hold. This assertion of theirs is due to the fact that our followers said to the Mu'tazilah. because the one precedes the other. Concerning the Bahshanuyah. They came to differ over the answer to some saying that the occurrence of the deed is 170 or its non-occurrence possible. granted that ability might be non-existent just as the occurrence of the deed was non-existent at the very time inability occurred. to wit equality between the two times and the many. the vizier of the Buwaihids. in that he held it possible that : ability should precede the deed. when which is the very opposite of ability which has vanished after having existed. Abu-Hashim ibn-al-Jubba'I saw the necessity of accepting the conclusion forced on him by our companions. and yet commit infidelity. They al-Dhimmlyah because of their view concerning the deserving of blame. in spite of the fact that there is no hindrance to the deed. the many times are equal. it . 190 It was impossible for the .

see said to him "Can you : : : zilah who used to condemn him who says that Allah punsin. but dies before he has performed an act of obedience or disobedience by his ability?" He answered " He deserves blame and the punishment of eternity. and not doing what he was forbidden to do. and not deserving a reward because he did not do what he was forbidden to do." Furthermore. yj condemn abu-Hashim for his views on the punishment of one who was not disobedient. it He considered possible for the being removed with regard to it. in so far as concerns the doing of the deed and was Concerning this it what is the condition of the man who possesses ability and has moral responsibility.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH Mu'tazilites to come to a real conclusion and he had to find some way power ability to last — man with forever together with the continuance of his the Koran verse fitting his case and all hindrances out. They. 1 ishes the disobedient because of the commission of a which the sinner did not himself originate. over. he should be condemned for calling the person who did not do what he was commanded disobedient." " How does he deserve punishment for It was said to him doing what he not was commanded. then it is possible to have obedience. not because of his deeds. either for his own deed or for that of some one else. an obedient person without actual Morebesides these hateful heresies. now said : " It is preferable to disobedient person without having actual disobedience. even if he does not do what he was commanded ?" There were some of his predecessors among the Mu'taits abandonment. thus applying the name of obedient only to him who If it is possible to have a actually obeys the command. although he had the ability and had no hindrances. he claimed that if 191 . however. even though that person did not commit a disobedience. or an unbeliever without actual unbelief. but because he has not done that which he was commanded to do.

and Allah commands him to do a thing which he does not do. avoiding adultery. and drinking of wine. nor does he do the opposite. is when a wrong thing is committed (for doing what wrong. our this. The same view garding blasphemy. If he does the right thing and performs the deeds of the prophet. in the case of adultery. fasting and withholding from food. e. which and the other because he did not do which was incumbent on him. deserve a double portion of the punishment. he committed something still more hateful than these heresies. then indeed he becomes immortal. punishment. because of these heresies of his. And thirdly. for example. according to punishment is be two punishments. The rest of the Mu'tazilah condemned him for the three followstatement that punishment is ing propositions. in order to escape the necessity of two that his conclusion 192 .. companions said that there must. even First. one for a breaking of necessitates atonement. i. deserved. and the holds re- second because he failed to do that which was incumbent on him. his when not due to the actual deed. i. e. but his at the same time does not do its opposite.. one for adultery which is committed. 172 They said that it also necessarily follows that two atonements are incumbent upon him who breaks the fast in the month of Ramadan. in that case he does not deserve eternal fire in hell. and yet fails to do one thing which his Allah commanded him. is his claim that a double portion of the punishment de- erved. and the other because he did not perform the beautiful thing which was commanded him. and is obedient just as were the prophets. About view of the double portion of punishment.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS this morally responsible man did a wrong thing. he would. and for not doing what is right). in this case. When ibn-al-Jubba'i saw the trend that was taking against him. the fast. Secondly. view that if he does the right thing. One part for the hateful thing which he did.

take the hitting an arrow. it is But as for the avoiding of these deeds. and a third because of the per1 formance of the opposite of the cause of the word ?" Some of our companions report of him that he did not assert that 73 were two punishments except in the case of his not having produced the cause of speaking a word. Everyone of these motions is a cause for that which follows by preceding causes. Furthermore. of the target with until the actual hitting of the target takes place. this is produced by many motions accomplished by the throwing of the arrow. So he said " He simply forbade adultery and drink: ing and blasphemy. We said to him " Would one deserve three punishments. commanded a man make and he does not do he deserves a hundred punishments and one more. and one because he did not commit its cause. one because he latter cause he did not make the necessary motions. he deserves two punishments. According to him. the because he did not the hit. but if its he performed something opposite to the cause of the word. and one because he did not produce cause. he does not deserve both punishments. one because he did not commit the act. the hundredth of them would be the cause of the hitting. One should therefore conclude to hit. we may find causes produced For example. they said that he must conclude that there are three punishments and more ad infinitum." ments for that which is committed by man.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH punishments and two atonements in connection with one deed. that if Allah so. did not say the word. for this would take the place of the cause which he did not produce. one because he does not say the word. and did not do so. many If there were a hundred motions. and the hundred beOne must also conclude that if a man was commanded to speak. But he had pointed out the opposite view in his book Istihkak al-Dhimthere 193 . another because he : does not produce its cause. because he asserted that there are two punish- not compulsory for man.

of alms. such as alms. In this he said that every thing that could have a special neglect is in the same category as the cause of a spoken word. even though he were not actually doing wrong. according to which he said follows that there may be much reward in heaven which is : 194 . Among the inconsistencies he committed in this chapter is the fact that he called him who did not do what he ought a wrongdoer. the cause for neglect must be fore. whereas. one who does not give does not deserve another portion of punishment in addition to the blame he deserves. it or does other things of the kind. and atonement. if he refrains from calling him disobedient he should not call him heretic and unbeliever. as the payment of a debt and the return of What he meant was that alms and atonement and the like are not performed by a special organ and that there is not a special organ of neglect in connection with each one. For if a man prays or goes on the pilgrimage. There- he neglect the cause of speaking a word. He thus called him unbeHe liever and heretic. unlawful possessions. he deserves one portion of punishment. and therefore to neglect it is hateful. there is But in the matter of giving no hateful neglect." Such a view is a departure from religion and all that is connected iwth it. thus considered it possible for Allah to consign a man to fire forever. but hesitated to call him disobedient. then it must be" beautiful. will occasion a neglect its As to speaking a word. even though he did not deserve the appellation of But if he called him unbeliever and heretic.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS viah (The Demanding of Protection). Therefore. And so they said to him " If the neglect of prayer and alms is not hateful. But those things which cannot have special neglect are in the same category as the neglecting of giving an obligatory gift. he him disobedient. Another inconsistency is his disagreement with the consensus of opinion by making distinction between disobedient. call must j " It j * recompense and reward. if special.

This view forced him to say that there was double praise and double blame. i9S e. and he committed it. to the effect that Allah created the gains of his and then either rewards or punishes them for it. He refused to call it recom- pense. and that in hell there bution that is may be much retri- not recompense. This view of his is not like the view of the rest of the comcipient of the gift for the act act of munity. and the other for the thing commanded. if one else. he does not himself deserve the blame for the sin which is due to< the act of another. is only for an act. For example. separates you from the view of : the Azarikah that Allah torments the child of -the polytheist for the deed of his fathers. then you must conclude that man deserves praise and reward for a deed done by Allah in ^ conjunction with the deed of man. denies the truth of what those say who live for gain. one of them for the command which is performed. is How can this view of his be when he v. which is the act of another. It e. because recompense ing to him there It may been any act. which in reality the act of another. it might be said " If you conclude this. Zaid commands 'Amr to give something to someand he does so. he deserves thanks from the re- which was really due to the someone else.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARlYAH not recompense. g. in that he claims that one deserves thanks or blame according to the command given. might be said to him " What you deny on this basis. servants." Furthermore. and which was done for another. then why do you for deny that there an act?" is no reward and retribution except Abu-Hashim's second heresy was his view that one could deserve blame and praise for the act of another. true. and accordbe punishment without there having might well be said of him " Since there : can be no recompense save for an act. not according to the act commanded him. a man who is on . In the same way if he commanded him a sin.

The acceptance of his repentance (for the one sin) is all right. steals from various persons. and at the 196 ." Is it possible for a man to escape retribution same time be punished for the sin of which he does not repent? Here is 176 what we said further to him: "The essence of what is in for the sin of which he repents. it would show that the reason for his forsaking the first was not simply because it was evil. In support of his assertion he gave the following illustration.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS is given food and drink. one of the sins may accepted even he persists in the other. according to this conclusion he deserves praise and reward for his own life and for the satisfaction of his hunger and thirst. We say to him " That which you deny is the abandoning of evil in order to escape of : retribution. He if also claims that repentance of heresy cannot be accepted the sinner still persists in with- holding the smallest item due by him. just as in the case of the son is who ungrateful to his father the Imam. His third heresy is his view that repentance is not ac- cepted as long as the sinner adheres to some other evil thing which he knows if it is good in is evil or which he believes to be evil. Allah. even itself. is really an act of his deathbed. after all. if he is punished for the other. which. But such an ex- ample can not be admitted as illustration. but his hand the rest of the property (stolen). and as a result lives and breathes again. but if he persisted in some other evil. then asks forgiveness of the father for the ungratefulness. and the repentance of his ungratefulness is accepted for the is money he stole from him (his father). and he adultery. and commits adultery with his maids. that he kills who be another man's son and commits adultery with the his repentance for if latter's wife. is cut off for flogged for the For his proof in this case he asserted that the only necessity for his forsaking what was evil was the fact its being evil.

and whose repentance you accept with regard to some evil they know to be evil. might be said to him that if the man persisted in his Judaism. even when it is connected with persistence in some other evil which they had believed was good? According to this you must conclude that if you say that he is commanded to avoid everything which he believes is evil. and if he said no he would be opposing the whole of the community. he did not repent of his Judaism. 197 . therefore. This is very evidently contradictory.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH this chapter. silver he away from the one who knows such an act is illegal it. although in such a case is the ? man's this. and to avoid the school of abu- Hashim. then you should recognize his sacrifice as legal and take tax from him. both because of his view that his Islamism was not true. and commits adultery and theft. This view differs from that of the and it community. because of his belief of all evil in their evil. but persisted in but is no Jew. as in the case of the Khawarij and others who have held corrupt beliefs considered good by them. because the regulations of the Jews are not binding on him. repentance of heresy to be accepted If he said yes to down his own excuse. He is then commanded to avoid adultery and theft. and behe would be breaking cause he was heretical about his . that it. Judaism which he had held before his repentance lastly. is that he who repents of some of his sins. that his repentpersists in ance cannot be accepted except by his forsaking everything which he believes is evil. why is this one's repentance not accepted on what he repented. nouncing and repenting these sins because they are still but some other vile sin. nevertheless He claimed." Our followers repents asked him about a Jew who becomes a Moslem and except that he persists in keeping a small piece of justly deserved . then you say of the man among us who believes in the evil of the school of abuHashim. revile.

we should have proof of the thing that is both real and unreal. nor repentance for adultery when the man is a eunuch. it is standpoints. is repentance for lying acceptable when the tongue becomes unable to speak. If it is real. who can and does commit adultery. different standpoints regarding said that the standpoint of acIf the stand- quisition is necessarily either real or unreal. What forced him to this is that he spoke him who believes in acquisition and creation he against ." With his excesses in threats. he must believe that one can and commit adultery and yet does not disobey Allah. then if can be said lie : " In like a sinner?" And manner. created from all If it is created. if it is it proves that ated. so that some Murji'ite said " He says shameful things about the Murji'ah until He sees some hope in the sins. it is if he says yes. according to after inability to sin is not acceptable. He was also given to drinking wine. then obedience and repentance are necessarily present. He was led to this view by his thought that a thing must be desired from one standpoint and abominated from anthe 198 . t yy him. And it was said that he died when drunk. it is necessarily either created or non-created. existence of a I7 g point is unreal. which is an impossibility. It might be said to him " Do you believe that a man who has a tongue and tells a lie. And the greatest sinner among the people are the Murji'ah And my servant persisted in the major sins (?)" fifth His heresy was his view on the conditioned will.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND His fourth heresy is his SECT'S sin view that repentance from Nor. while not cre- mind becomes eternal (non-created) from one standpoint and created from another. This is contradictory to the view of all of the community before him. abuHashim was the most dissolute of the men of his time. The chief point in this is his view that it is not possible for one thing to be desired from one standpoint and abominated from another.

wills nothing except from all : standpoints. he had committed himself to most of these. and thus had to conclude that among the greatest heresies there were some that Allah did not abominate. To all he committed himself. is : is it willed from one standpoint.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADAR1YAH It may be said to him "Then will. although this is if Allah hates to have kneeling used as a worship of it idols. and abominated follows that the one who Wills has willed from another. a great evil. of idols. It also Muhammad.(?). at the same time he rejected the fact that the same thing could be willed and abominated from two different standpoints. 199 . so that it is not possible for him to abominate it from another standpoint.. on the other hand. although to kneel before an idol if And it thus 179 he should wish that his description of Muhammad as the prophet of Allah should refer to ibn-'Abdallah. which is a contradiction.. Collection that and moreover he mentioned kneeling to idols is in his great not abominated by Allah.. there were some that Allah did not will. and. what he wills and abominated what he wills. to kneel before Allah is The explanation of this is that if worship is . not related to a thing." This view is necessarily followed by the question of the known and the unknown. necessary for other that would be follows him not to dislike it to be a description of anheresy. since he does not deny that a thing can be known from one standpoint and unknown from the other. which is also an abomination. then he does not wish to be a worship of Allah. among the beautiful truths. except from the standpoint of its occurrence.. even though (in such a case) beautiful obedience. by committing himself to the view that the same thing cannot be willed from one standpoint and abominated from another. according to you. he laid himself open to problems which destroy the basis of the Mu'tazilah creed.. In fact. it be the worship of Allah and this. And if a thing other." But he said "The one willing.

because he did not will this to be a command. according to abu-Hashim and others. this view is not based upon proper principles. . a command word . as ibn-al-Ikhshid among them said. or its in180 herent will to be a command and a report. willed the occurrence of his word. and for forcing this conclusion there is an answer and a reversal. unless there were two occurrences of the thing. as well as the belief from them.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS This view he said abu-'AH. considered to be right. it follows that what he abominates is what he wills. v. This conclusion which is forced on him is not forced on his father. ex- cept in the matter of occurrence. "Let him believe. According to us. or to an attribute which it has while occurring such as willing an act and willing that it should be him. As to the answer. sembles the view that this (obedience) being an attri- bute that develops at the time of the occurrence. rather is it a threat. 28). his father. in reality the father meant that the will is related to the thing while it was occurring. but the words. and at the same time abominates it. and although 200 it has been having kneeling made a wor- . According to me. according to them. therefore. for will has nothing to do with the thing. This re- command and report are not command and report except through the will. He has. The it report. his father in his view does not mean that will has to do with the thing from the standpoint of occurrence." is not. proved that Allah's Although dislike of the reason for the will- ing of the occurrence of a thing. because Allah had said. in this case. he who relies on him is wrong because we hold that will has to do with the willed from the standpoint of occurrence. an act of obedience to Allah. "And let him then who will. either the will of the one commanding. as abu-Hashim held. according to us and to If he wills the occurrence of a thing. is not a report until he wills to be a report about this this is man and not that man. believe" (Surah 18. as well as from other standpoints.

first is The Therefore the state exists in three situations. must therefore follow that he forbids is something from the standpoint which he commanded. that Allah has in his dif- It attribute from the ignorant a significance (ma'na) or an by which he is differentiated. had two occurrences. he would not be superior to anyone necessarily follows. If. what abu-Hashim said about its being willed from the standpoint which he abominated. from himself. too. the one in which the subject (mcmsuf) itself 201 . He thus claims that Allah differs from the ignorant only for being in a special ference state (Ml). as well as the other sects. it . whereupon the same conclusion about commanding and forbidding is forced upon him which was forced upon his father and the merchants ( ?) with regard to willing and abominating. however. in differing else. it would be necessary for it to be created from one standpoint and uncreated from another. does not follow. as to him in himself because both are of sible that his difference one kind. as they have held that Allah kneeling as an act of worship to him. They rejected the view that he differed from Mu'tazilites. and its it has been firmly held by only the occurrence of the Mu'tazilah that Allah commanded commanded the thing. because then. it is said Allah forbids kneeling to idols. and has given a command about it. It is imposwith himself should be neither be- cause of himself nor for some other reason. Moreover. the old whether the learned among us differs from the ignorant by his knowledge in himself or for some other reason. to this heresy was the question put by our followers. for he forbids only the occurrence of the thing. and kneeling only one occurrence. And as ship of idols for the reversal. His sixth heresy is his view regarding "the status" 181 (Ahwal) which view was considered heretic by his fellow What forced him Mu'tazilites. and also forbids only it occurrence.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE RADARIYAH yet is different from his will about its occurrence.

abu-Hashim. They then said to you know the status or not?" And he said no. because. Zaid's learn- ing belongs to him for some it ers say that his learning belongs to neither because But our followhim by its essence. What forced him into this was a question put by Mu'am- mar regarding "the some significances": "Did the learning of Zaid belong to him rather than 'Amr. 202 . he does not say that status that they are non-existent. belongs to him or to some one to According abu-Hashim. nor that Do Moreover.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS receives the attribute and deserves the is attribute because of the state in which it is. and becomes attached to that quality rather than anything else attached its state. some significance. state (hal). he would have had to prove that they were objects. for they are for learning. The second bute is situation that the subject to which an its attri- given becomes attached to that attribute as third situation itself state (Ml). because changes occur only in the case of objects and substances. nor that they are known. then it follows that all is branches If it is. Nor could he say that they were changing status. The is that the subject deserves an attri- bute neither for to the subject as nor for an attribute. nor does he say nor that they are eternal. If it is attached to another significance neither for himself nor for it some signifi- cance. then is Mu'ammar right in holding that each significance endlessly. for himself or for significance. of learning belong to him. because if he had said that they were known. then the fact that else is immaterial. nothing is known unless it is an object. according to him. " exist. and was knowledge nor because it was Zaid. nor that they are created. or neither for himself nor some all signifi- cance ?" If it is for himself. 182 which is like saying that black is black because of its essence and not because it has a self or a being.

in what fashion does he differ from the ignorant. and as in and by itself described and defined. inevitable and natural condition so that no other or can be like 203 . or in essence through some other causes. or phases or particulars. " They are neither he nor another. (For what is the wise man more than the fool?) These twain differ not in essence nor in the phenomena. nor does he say that they are mentioned. is The that it point of these aspects is that it is true of the divine essence it is as it is and can be no its other. genus. Furthermore. that they are endless just as his capabilities are : Our companions say to him " You did not deny that for one known thing there are endless conditions. held that it was not in essence or in some quality of the essence for both belong to the same . although he mentioned them. He in claimed. and this essence — — differs in ways. and conditioning nature is is its it. he claimed that the conditions of the creator as to the what he knows are endless his conditions in his same thing being true about own capabilities." They Sifat- then said to him. the old Mu'tazilah. holding that they are unmentioned.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH they are unknown. These early Arab enquirers. the accidents nor the acquirements of life a Semitic view as old as the Preacher of Ecclesiastes and the difference. the learned from the ignorant. since they are neither he nor another?" 1 In the sixth of his heresies Abu-Hashim addresses himself to the problem of absolute being. which is a contradiction. al-'Alim. that the learned has in each known thing a condition which cannot be said to be his condition another known thing. But Allah. or are they he himself ?" To this he answered. human and divine and raises the question as to how the essence of this being differentiates itself from another being of the same genus or of another class and kind. " Why do 1 you deny the view of the fyah that the attributes of Allah are endless. what ever source it is from does not make the one superior to another. are the conditions of the creator brought about by others. moreover. in what sense and in what attribute does he differ? Abu-Hashim asserts that God differed solely in essence and not otherwise. for the known can be dependent on any existent knower ad inendless. Does a philosopher differ from a fool. To this end. by what the philosopher or the learned know. the knowing. finitum.

such as continuance. he cannot then consider the pleasures of the people of heaven more than the pleasures of infants which are given to them for well-doing. the existence of which has been established 183 by almost everyone. He claims that pain which has been inon man by an accident. they are not more than perceptions of a desired thing. from which it follows that according to him harm also is nothing. he said it is a reality like that which comes from a blow. and yet he asserted that benefit and sensation are nothing. The same is true of the perception of the substances of people condemned to fire while they are in fire. This claim he founded on the basis of his assertion that bodies cannot be annihilated except by an annihilation created by Allah in no particular place and one that is opposed to all existing things because 204 it is not pecu- . grief. Moreover. Moreover. For proof of this he gave the view that it was included under sensation. and the sting that comes from fire and from the drinking of bitter herbs are the same as regards sensation.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS His seventh heresy is the denial of certain phenomena [accidentals]. and pain which comes from drinking distasteful medicines. because the pain due to stick. pleasures are not realities. if a blow with a he rejects the existence of pleasures as a reality. pain. and perception is not a reality. to the effect view in his chapter on annihilathat Allah has no power to annihilate an is his atom from the world and still preserve the integrity of heaven and earth. His eighth heresy tion. and doubt. for nothing cannot be more than nothing. But he claimed that pleasure in itself is a benefit and a sensation. perception. which is a strange view. according to him. does not mean more than the perception of something which temperament shuns. Of the pain which comes from the plague. is not a reality. and the pain from mustard medicine. according to him. In the same way. flicted therefore perception. he claims that all pain is harm.

Regarding this heresy. is a whole. and the payment of debts. Thus.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADAR1YAH liar to some of the substances. chapter that the leaders of the Mu'tazilah condemned each other as heretics. Most of them also conin this imitated them. claiming that standing and going [around the Ka'bah] and running are not necessary to the pilgrimage. this inferred that ablutions are not a necessity. although Allah com- mands pray only after ablutions. because he can acquit himself of all duties when riding. since If it is it does not pertain to any of them. it opposed to them. illegally acquired). and vows. He came to the conclusion about ablutions with water illegally acquired. The following applies to the relation of their followers to them " When those who have had followers shall declare themselves free from their followers. as well as the atonement. Yet these are the most important regulations of the religIt becomes evident by what we have mentioned ious law. to them we : We have aroused v. because these can be done by proxy. He then carried this reasoning into the matter of the grimage. because one his followers to man may pil- perform the ablutions for another. (his view and The distinction he made between the latter and prayer performed in a house illegally acquired. What his view that ablution is not a necesdrove him to this was that he asked himself about ablutions with water illegally acquired (his view and that of his father being that prayer is illegal if performed on ground able. was that ablutions are not necessary. he must hold the required alms not obligatory. exclusive of others. enmity and hatred among them" (Surah 15). it is 184. suffi- cient to note that he says that Allah was able to annihilate able to annihilate a part. According to this view. but was not His ninth heresy sity. and it will be acceptable. after that they 20s have seen . can apply the following saying of Allah " demned their followers who So 5. annihilates them all.

167). v. and that a small bug is able to drink the whole bottle ( ?)." are the same as those used in saying that Christ is a God. without need of a medium. When other. who does not consider such views as these mental arro- gance. those We We find here also the obstinacies of that class of perjurers who assert that the dead really kill who are alive. Another of them. ro6 we cannot whether . and that the letters which are in the creed. also that the letters which are in the Koran are the same as those in the book of Zoroaster of the Magians. and that those who is able to arise rise above the earth one span has also the power to who have chained and bound hands are able to scale the steeps of the heavens. and when the 2. The Ashab al-Makalat (the writers of sayings) report to- that seven of the leaders of the Kadarlyah gathered gether in a meeting and talked of Allah's power to oppress and lie. ' ties between them further: life. 168). v. also find the obstinacies of many above of them in which they assert that he the seven heavens. as they have declared themselves clear of us " (Surah 5. being He actually the same and not simply alike in one sense. known as Kasim al-Dimashki claims that letters of truth may form an untruth. they separated. each one was con- demning the this One of them said to al-Nazzam in [sufficient] it meeting replied : " Has Allah j86 comes forth from him to turn into oppression power over what and lying?" tell He : " If he has such power. Among Nazzam passes the obstinacies of their leaders is that of alregarding the " leap " and his view that the body first from the place to the third or the tenth. cannot consider the denial of the tangible by the Sophists an arrogance. And "The Could we ' but return to we would keep ourselves clear from them. "there is no God but Allah.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS the chastisement. shall be fol- 185 cut asunder" (Surah lowers shall say.

or over what he said he would not do. which Allah knew would not According to your occur. is your view of two views. and to do what he knows he would not do. reasoning and that of al-Nazzam this is a denial similar to denying Allah's power to oppress and lie. then. or whether he may oppress or lie in the future. or may even have oppressed in some parts of the earth [and not others]." The questioner went on: " What evidence then makes us secure from such behaviour on out there is his [Allah's] part. and this." Al-Nazzam then said to al-Aswari " Your view is apostate and heretical." He replied to replied: He "I compromise between the : : — abu-al-Hudhail : " Since ?" this view is that would you answer it And Allah has power to oppress and to lie. this To this 'AH al-Aswari answered: it "According to that Allah has reasoning of yours necessarily follows no power over what he knows he does not do. how My 207 . On the other hand. because if he had power over it. according to you. then how do you escape the fact that things occurred through them." Al-Nazzam said : "This does necessarily follow. if you say that they were able to believe.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH he has oppressed or has lied in what has already come to pass. and of those whom Allah knew would not believe. just as you and I say that he has no power to oppress and lie. or over what he said he would not do. but to find this no way. he might have brought it about [after all] in the past or he may cause it in the future." Abu-al-Hudhail said to al." And both of them said to him he replied : necessarily " follows. were they able to believe or not? If you claim that they were not able to believe. or that he said would not occur. The only security we have against his oppression and his lying is by our having a good opinion of him. it?" —what. then Allah would have laid upon them what they were unable to bear.Aswan "What do you say of Pharaoh. and say that Allah has no power over what he knows he will not do. is heretical.

then worship is an act of praise toward the worshipped. and it is impossible for misfortune to come : upon Allah. Abu-al-Hudhail replied " And what do you say ? Do you claim that Allah is able to torment a child. except when misfortune comes upon him. Bishr said to> them that everything which they held was nonsense." Abu-al" Hudhail said to him May your eyes weep. sinful." Bishr then said to him " Does he deserve worship or not? If he deserves it. and if he does this. and deserving of the punishment which Allah imposes upon it. How can it be an act of virtue not to do what you can do along the line of oppression?" And al-Mirdar said: "Verily you have denied an opinion of my preceptor. al-Nazzam) : : ' holds that view ?" ' power to do is this." Bishr said to him: " How do you say?" And he replied " I say that Allah has the power to oppress and to lie. child : : : other hand. If. do you see what is to be made of replied: the principles of the essence of the evidence which tries to prove that Allah does not oppress or lie?" " " He This is impossible. then he deserves blame and not praise. e. then the must be an adult. This man (*"." Whereupon they both said to him How can the impossible be within the power of Allah. and oppress it. if you consider it within his power?" His " Because it does not occur until misfortune reply was comes to one.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS !87 " If he oppresses and lies. on the able to do. The evidences in themselves would be evidences of his justice." He replied And he said : : " I hold that Allah has " If he does that which he namely torment a child." And the three were amazed. or do you merely say." They said to him " It is also impossible for him to have power over what takes place through him. and my preceptor was wrong. lord without it?" 208 how can he be a . he becomes an oppressive and a lying God. he does not deserve worship. and why did you consider it impossible for such a thing to occur from him. and if he practises oppression. intelligent.

possible ?' we answer. and that he knows he can." does tyranny change into it. came to alfrom answering in this One of the followers of abuHashim does not mention this question in his book. but no power to oppress the wise. What do you say?" And he commits tyranny and lying. we then say. just as he has the power to do that which he knows : T gg he is not going to do. he would it. Tell us if his ability to oppress and lie is applied.THE SECTS OF THE MU'TAZILAH AND THE KADARIYAH Al-Ashbah said to them "I hold that Allah has the power to oppress and to lie. what would be his own condition ? Does the occur' ' And if he says. Can what Allah is able to do in the line of oppression and lying occur?" we reply.' And if he says.' from Allah Its occurrence through him is not possible. Is such an occurrence rence of his oppression prove his ignorance or his need?".' If one says. for it is done to an insane or defective man. If : * he does Al-Iskaf I said to justice?" said : him " How he knows he will do it. And when the turn to answer Jubba'I and his son. he is upright. ' and lying come from him. they refrained matter. because if its occurrence were not possible." At that time." 2 Ja'far ibn-Harb said to him: "This amounts to saying that Allah has the power to oppress the insane. have no power over because power over the impossible ' is an impossibility. we say. is A lie to an insane man not considered a lie. with advisedness. he cannot is it ' 1 2 'atima inserted here is a corruption of the text. his act does not exist. 209 . And he said " If we are asked. because of the hatefulness of such a deed. then possible to say that this does not 189 prove his ignorance or his need ?'. the fact that Allah can do without it. and even if he oppresses and lies. 'This can ' : occur. ' This is impossible because we have known him If oppression to be wise and rich. the people dif" I hold that if Allah And he replied: " fered over the reason for the different opinion held by each one of them.

if it comes from him. And praise be to Allah who saved us from this heresy of theirs which leads to such contradictions. As for the Sunnites. belies their principles in his answer. and had no power to perform them." These leaders of the Kadariyah of our age acknowledge their inability. and the If inability of their predecessors. they would accept the view of our followers that Allah has power over everything subject to power. ' its author or his need. if he lied. is not tyrannical on his part.Aswan.' we say. to answer this question. And they had to find an answer for the question of him who asked them about the occurrence of those things subject to his power that came from them (lying and oppression) if they were a proof of ignorance and need or not. would that be or would it not be a proof that he was not a prophet? He claimed that the answer to this was impossible. the prophet 210 . So you say '. they hold to the principle that was free from lying and oppression.MOSLEM SCHISMS AND SECTS be described in this manner because we know that oppression proves the ignorance of then says. they would escape from the conclusions which were advanced against them in this matter. And the Mu'tazilah. ' they should succeed in finding out the truth about it. One of the excuses given by al-Jubba'i for not being able to answer this question by yes or no was something like this: If someone were to say: Tell me about the Prophet.' And if he Indeed. This is private guess on his part. aside from al-Nazzam and al. you do not answer the question asked of you regarding the evidence of the occurrence of oppression and lies through him who is ignorant and needy. either by yes or no. Whoever of them tries to answer this. ascribed to Allah the power to oppress and lie. as our companions did. and that everything which is subject to his power. And if they consider it impossible for him to lie. by yes or no.

S. we : will numerous treatises which have appeared since. vol. Abu'1-Fath Muhammad al-Shahrastanl. His manucopy of Baghdadi's work. In verse Abdallah ibn-Muhammad al-Nashl (293/906) wrote four thousand verses on philosophy and religious systems. p. Friedlander. H. script in Berlin is practically a Shuhfur ibn-Tahir ibn-Muhammad This literature having reached not mention here the its height with Shahrastani. in his Tabakdt al-Shafi'iyah (ed. Abu-Muhammad All ibn-Ahmad ibn-Hazm (456/1064).) al-Isfara'ini (d. 360 A. Religious Sects and Philosophical Schools. with Shahrastani's work printed on the margin. Kitdb alMilal wa'l-Nihal (a book on differences and sects). translated by Haarbrucker (Halle 1850). Published in Cairo. 1078). H. 214-229 (sects on p. Abu'1-Fadl al-Balaml (329/941). Abfi-Mansur (d.. in the A.288. one of Muhammad ibn-Ahmad ibn-Nasr abu-Ja'far al-Tirmidhl. 252. i. 89). ii. vols. those best versed in the teachings of the heretics.. Les Prairies d'Or. Al-Subkl. wrote a work on the Fundamental Differences of the People of Prayer. vii. Cairo 1324 A. xxviii and xxix. wrote essays on this subject. Among the most important on the great question of sects are the following: pp. versed in theology and tradition. vol. sects and beliefs (Mas'udi. pp. 211 . Religions-Partheien und Philosophen-Schulen. may be found translated by Prof. Of the above-mentioned works. translated by Haarbrucker. Parts of ibn-Hazm J. al-Kahir ibn-Tahir ibn-Muhammad al-Baghdadi (A list of his important works is given elsewhere. vol. mentions these Shafl'i writers on this subject: Husain ibn-Ali ibn-Yazid abu-Ali al-Karabisi (245/859). vii. Bibliotheca Geographicorum Arabicorum. one only is available in translation that of Shahrastani. 171). vol. p. 217). O. Abd 329/1037).) who wrote a chapter on Arts and Religions of Arabs before Islam and the Schools in Islam.BIBLIOGRAPHY Many of the numerous Arabic works on the religion of Islam have come down to us only as titles. Among the earliest polemical writers are Abu-All Ahmad ibn-'Umar ibn-Rustah (d.

Paris. G. vi. 1884). in lournal Asiatique.. O. den Arabern. 191 1. Rousseau les trois plus Mfmoires sur fameuses sectes du Musuhnanisme (Paris. Christensen l'heterodoxie Musulmane. xxviii and xxix.Purgstall Tableau Genealogique des 73 sectes de f Islam. M. 1892). Conn. vol. 1907. 1909). M. Sitsungsb. in Le Monde Oriental. ed. . vol. 439-524.) Ignaz Goldziher Beitr'dge sur Literaturgeschichte der Shi'a und der Sunnitischen Phil. 177-191. 1st ser. pp. Hist. S. (Vienna. Horovitz Uber den Einflttss der Griechischen Philosophic auf die Entwicklung der Kalam (Breslau. lvii. 349. A. Vorlesungen uber den Islam (Heidelberg. lxv. der Wiss. vol. 321-335. vol. klasse. 32-46. v.. 1903. xxvi (Paris. Remarques critiques sur le Kitdb baydni-l-adydn d' Abit-l-Ma! all . Blochet : this subject by European scholars are Le Messianisme dans A. pp.) Polemik (in Akad. 1818. (New Haven. Zeitschrift der Deutschen. S. D. 212 A. B. vol. 75. vol. in Revue de I'Histoire des Religions. Conn.. 205 et seq. (Translated into English. p. vols. Nepvsn.Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. Le Denombrement des Sectes Mahometanes. p.) Die Zahiriten (Leipzig.BIBLIOGRAPHY The most important works on the following: E. This article includes his translation of portions of ibn-Hazm. 1910).. New Haven. Mohammed and Islam. Israel Friedlander The Heterodoxies of the Shiites. Review of Baghdadl's work.. vii.. J. L. J. pp. lxxviii. 1912). 1917. Horten Die Philosophischen Systeme der Spekulativen Theologen im Islam (Bonn. Uber den Einfluss des Stoicismus auf die Entwicklung der Philosophic bei J.) Hammer. pp. Z. vol. 80). pp.

i. Islam. p. M. G. 211 (Paris. F. no. 2 (Berlin. vol. xxix.. i vol.. vol. vols. 463 and vol. Zur Geschichte des Asa'ritentums. xxxvi. die Sym- Wellhausen Religios-Politischen oppositions-parteien im p. in der Jiidischen Literatur. 1801). 1891). 77 (Leiden. p.. Gesellschaft d. p. xxxvii (Gottingen.. 213 . M. PhiloL- N. p. J. G. 145. Actes du Troisieme Congres In- ternationale des Orientalistes. vol. Abhandl. v. liii. M. Z. Revues des Etudes Juives. Wiistenfeld Der Imam al-Schdfi'i und seine Anhdnger. Beitrdge zur Geschichte der Theologischen Bewegungen im Islam. Hist. 1901). 51. Z. p. iv. Kbn.BIBLIOGRAPHY Martin Schreiner: Der Kaldm vol. alten 99. Gottingen. Abhandlungen der Gesell- schaft der Wissenschaften. Hi. sec. Klasse. 1894). Steinschneider Die kanonische Zahl der Muhammedanischen Secten and bolik der Zahl 70-73. Wissensch. D. D.

.

98 77. 107. 125 148. 151 80 'Abdallah ibn-IJubab ibn-al-'Aratt. see abu-Bakr abu-Bakr Muhammad ibn-al-Taiyib al-'Ash'arl.78 Abdallah. 91. abu-Bakr al-Siddik. 31-3. 21 Abdallah ibn 'Umar. 175 'Abdallah ibn-YazId al-Ansari. abu-Hurairah. 96. 77. 133. 59. 147 abu-Baihas.Maimun al-Kadah. 87 Abd Rabbihi al-Saghir. abu-IJanifah. 165. 45 abu-'Abdallah. 4S-7. 52 Abdallah ibn-Najiyah. 7. 113 'Abd-al-Rahman ibn 93. 125 94. 52 22. 106 -Muhammad - Muljim. 28.Wahid ibn-Ziyad.. 35 'Abdallah ibn . 35 'Abd-Rabbihi al-Kabir. 12.ibn-Ibad. 77 Abdallah ibn . 61.Rahman ibn . 21 ibn-'Amr ibn-al-'As. 68. 118. 116. 101 'Abd-al-Rahman ibn ibn-al-Ash'ath. 64. 91 abu-Baihas Haisam ibn-'Amir. 88. 36 Abdallah ibn-al-IJasan ibn-al-fju sain.Muslim . 37. ff. no abu-Bakr. 8S 'Abd-al-Malik ibn-Marwan. 165 abu-al-Hudhail Muhammad ibn-alff. of 'A'ishah) US Abd-al-Rahman al-Nisaburi. 106. 94. Abraham. 50. 46. 5o. al-Abtar. 21 'Abd al. 88. 54 31. 156. 54 86. 132.. 8. 21 Khaiyat abu-al-Ruwandl. 92 Abd 102 al-Kais. 39. Abstainers (from war). 73. see al- 80 ff. 173. 108. 92 Abdallah ibn-YazId. see al-IJasan ibnSalih ibn-IJai al-Kufi abu-al-'Abbas al-KalanisI. 33 'Abdallah ibn-Harath al-Khuza'l. 184.ibn . J 'Abd-al-Rahman (bro. 179 Abdallah ibn-Muti' al-'Adawi. 33 'Abdallah ibn-Wahab al-Rasibi. 207 ff.Ziyad ibn An'am.INDEX Abadiyah. 8 'Abd al-Kahir. "5 Abdallah Abdallah Abdallah Abdallah Abdallah ibn-'Amr. 84 'Abdallah ibn-abl-Aufi. 84. 71 Abdallah ibn-Jausha al-Ta'i. 107 'Abdallah ibn^Ja'far. 5. 190 ff-. 58 'Abd al . 9. 84.Kutaibah. 'Abd-al-Karlm ibn-'Ajrad. 112. abu-al-fjusain al-Khaiyat. 52. 109 Abd-al-Ghaffar al-Faris. 'Abs. 85. 165. 82 'Abdallah ibn-Kauwa. 87 ibn-IJammad al-Jubarl. 33. 84. 153 abii-Hashim ibn-al-Jubba'l. 21. 49 ibn-Dajah. 101 104. 113 59. 'Abdallah ibn-al-Zubair. 209 22. 22 ibn-'Amr ibn-IJarb. 90 ff. 154 21S . Hudhail al-'Allaf. abu-Fudaik. us. 138 abu-Bilal Mirdas al-Khariji.. 63 Abdallah ibn-al-Wadln. 45.

80. 83 aba-Sahl Bishr ibn Ahmad ibn- Amarlyah. 48 ff. 34. see al- Jahiz Bashhar Isfara'lni al . 115. 36. 123 . 6. 71 'All ibn-Masa al-Rida. see al- ibn-Nasr al-Marwazi. 'Akhnasiyah. al-Murdar. 155 ff. 122 ff. 99 abu. see Muhammad ibn-al-Hanaflyah aba-'Isa al-Warrak. 37..Muhammad 'Abdallah ibn'Umar.. 177 abu-Zufar. 78 Adimawat. 21 abu-Sa'id al-Khidri. 122. 104 aba-Rashid. 36. S9 abu-Musa. 99 ff. 66 All Zararah ibn-A'yan. 182 abu-Ishak. 75. 98 'Akabah. 22 ibn-'Ubaid ibn-Bab.Isfaraini. 21 Ahmad ibn-Fihr. ibn^-Yasir. 104 aba-Masa al-'Ash'ari. 71 Adam. 94. see al-Aswari All ibn abl-Talib. 152 aba-Mukarram.Salman. 36. 60 ff. 39 Ahmad Ahmad Ahmad ibn-al-Hasan ibn-'Abd al- Jabbar. 56 al-'Adawi. see al- Mu- Shahham abu-Yusuf. 122.Sa'ld ibn- ibn-Ziyad al-Sumaidhi.2l6 abu-Imamah. 121. 95. see al-Nazzam aba-Ja'far al-Mansur. 64. 22 abu'l-Jariid. 68.Jahiz. 172 hammad ibn-al-Hanifiyah. 100 49 33. 58 al-Ahnaf ibn-Kais.1 - Hasan al - Ash'arl. 124 ibn-Sa'id. 22. 64 'All ibn-'Isa Hazm ibn-Hadiyan. see ibn-Ziyad abu . 75 ff. 57 al-Ahwaz. 102. see al-Murdar aba-Muslim. 146 .. 22 abu . 103 All. abu-Kubais. 68 aba-Kudail (probably abu-Fudaik). 121 Ailan... 170 aba - Muhammad Abdallah ibn- All al-Aswarl.. 123 aba aba-Shimr al-Murji'. 60 'Amir ibn-Wathilah al-Kinani. 154. 179 ibn-Shumait. III abu-1-Shamrakh. 122 'AdI ibn-Hatim al-Ta'I. 60 aba-Karib al-Darir. 106. 82 abfl-Mas'ur. 93. 33. All ibn-Maitham. 62 abfl-Kamil.All ibn-'Abdallah ibn-'Abbas ibn-al-Mutta'Ali lib. al-Azdi. 96. 5. 43 ff. see ibn-lijazm All ibn-al-Husain Zain al-'Abidln r 49.Hashim 'Abdallah ibn - INDEX abu - Ya'kub al - Shahham. see ibn-Bashshar 'Ammar 'Amr ibn-Yazid 'Amriyah.. 43 abu . 48 abu-Kasim 'Abdallah ibn -Ahmad Ahl al-Zahir. 154 al-'Akhnas. 87 ff. night of. 116. aba'l-Darda. 36 Amr Amr Amr Amr ibn ibn-al-'Asi. 85 ff. 71 'Amarlyah. see al- 'Amr ibn-Harmaz. 123 ff. i6g . see 'AH All ibn . 37. 103 Ash'arl abu-1-Julandi.Bahr al . ibn-Ghalib ibn-Salih abuMuhammad. 22 abu-Muhammad ibn. 22 Adnaniyah. 57. 80. 8 abu-Ishak Ibrahim ibn-Saiyar. 146. 30. 54 'A'ishah.Bashshar. the people of.Yahya Yasuf ibn . 33 ff. 71 aba-Maryam al-Sa'di. see al-Murtar abu-Ishak al-Isafara'inl. 103. 180 ibn-Mahmad al-Banahi see al-Ka'bl al-Ka'bl. 66. 91 abu-Malik al-Hadraml.Ahmad ibn . J24 Ajaridah. 99 abS-1-Sahara.

49 Bishr ibn-Marwan. 168 al-Asamm. 87 ff. 69. 60. Banu-Khuza'ah. 116. 82 Arabs. 139 Basriyiin. 76. 207. 91 ff. 38. 58 Ashab al-Makalat. 48. 109. 88 Bayaniyah. 37. 122 ff. battle of. 172 ff. 207 Bishriyah. 57. Dahri. 46. Buddhism. 170 A'shi. 209 Ashras ibn-Auf. 182 Aristotle. 182 Ban™ Kuraizah. 35. 86 119 ff. 78. 104 Banu Yashkur. 36. 125 Darar. 189 Companions. 115. 13 Christians. 65. 100 Bust. 75. 190 Dhi Salam. 71. 39 Azarikah. l69 (Dirarriyah. 66 al-Baghdadi. 161 22. 178. 58 Banu Isra'il. 91. 180 Banu-Kinanah. 61 al-Basrah. 34. 36 Banu-1-' Abbas. see Abd al-Kahir 116. Cairo. 41 Bakirlyah. 11 al-Auza'i. 190 Baihaslyah. 29. 107 Banu-Tamim. no. 32 178 Darar ibn-Amr. 64. 45 Buwaihids. 170 Baghdad. 61. 65. 29. 112 Bishr ibn-al-Mu'tamar. 137. 56. 116 Atawiyah. 60. see Jews 157. al-Ashhab ibn-Bishr al-'Urani. 35 Dararlyah. 120. 113 Armenia. 168 Asma' ibn-Kharijah. Bayan ibn-Sim'an. 94 Burghuniyah. 162 ff. 190 'Attab ibn-Warka' al-Tamimi.INDEX Amwariyah. 85 ff. 155. 21. 56 al-Aswad ibn-Zaid al-'Anasi. 59 al-Dhimmiyah. 45 Atlyah ibn-al-Aswad al-Hanafl. 79. 35. 187 Bahshamlyah. 8. 66 Battle of the Camels. 37 Burhanite Dualists. 147 ff. 82-4. 65 Bakr. 82 Aslyah. Dahriyah. noff. Badr. 183 ff. 153. al-Bakir. 124 Banu ^anlfah. 92. 35. Batinlyah. 135.. 105. 189 138. 112 ff. 54 Asa. 101 Butriyah. 49 (abu-1-Hasan) al-'Ash'ari. 129 ff. 80 Banu-Shaiban. 12 al-Bukhari. ill. 123 Banu Umaiyah. 35. 78. 28. 38. 154 Basrlyah. 86 ff. 56 . 165. 82 al-Ashbah. 35. 37 Anas ibn-Malik. 12. D Dahhakiyah. 36. no ff. 206 Ashab Ta'ah. 32 al-Aswarl. 22. 99. 217 33 al-Anbar. 11 Baghdadiyun. 103 Banu-Azd. 30. 36. 173. Cordova. 113 'Auflyah. 22. 57. 195 al-Azd. 54 Bakrlyah. 124 Banii-Dabbah. 210 Aswarlyah. 186 ff. 45. 130. 62. 162 134. 41) al-Dhar. 165. 76 Bashhar ibn-Burd. 141 Bushanj. 136.

80 Fadak. ^afsiyah. 124 Haushah. 57. 136. 64. 63 Hindu. 43. 28. 116 Greeks. 154 Halula. 50 Farwah ibn-Naufal al-Ashja'i. 65. 36. 54. - 47. 82 Ghassanlyah. 125 Hurairiyah. 62. 99 ff. see Ashab Ta'ah Friedlander. 105 Hisham ibn . 81 Dualists. 52 Himariyah. 32 Fadl al-Hadathi. 12 Hirat. 33. 86 Duwaibiyah ibn-Wabrah al-Bajadi. 99. 116. 35 al-Husain ibn 'Ali. al-Kharijl. 33. 12. 79. 154 Hakakiyah. 67. 58. al-rjajjaj ibn-Yiisuf. 75. 119. IJammad 'Ajrad. 36. 37 Ghazalah. 121 al-Hasan ibn-'All. 37. 116 Himrun. 60. H IJabib ibn-'Asim al-'Audl. 112 Haluliyah. al- Followers of Obedience. 55.Salih ibn Kufi. 5. 114 Diilab al-Ahwaz. 112 £tarithlyah. 70. Hisham ibn-Salim 67. 45. 36. 54 Dhu'l-Nunain. 59. day of. 38 al-5akam ibn-al-'Asi. 46-8. 34. 6 Harblyah. 85 Harith ibn-Mazid al-Ibadi. 116. 105 ff IJarjarayah. 45 Hashim al-Aukas. 37. Ghailan al-Dimashki. 112-15 al-Ghazzal. 46 Harun al-Rashid. 105. 32 82 Hayitiyah. 37? Hazzan. 82 al-Harrah. 75. 82 Fatimah. 71. 177 Harura. 123 . 80 Fakhr al-Din al-Razi. 50 Dhu'l-Thudyah. 77. 154 Followers of the Camel. 49. Fort of. 35.. 77 tjaruriyah. 46 Hisham ibn-'Amr al-Futi. 81 PJafs ibn-abl-i-Mikdam. 35 77 Hamzah ibn-Akrak 'o8ff. 81. 85. 165 ff. 137 al-Faiyad ibn Khali al-Azdi. 112 al-IJasan al-Basri. 77. 43. 119 Ghalafah al-Taimi. 141 ff- INDEX Hamadhan. 36. 122 ff. 34-36. 63 ff. 99 Faruk. Hishamlyah. al-Futl. 97. see Wasil ibn-'Ata' Ghulat. 100 Hisham 177 ibn - 'Ubaidallah al-Razi. Holy Land. al-Harith ibn-'Umair. 136. 106 ff. 73 al-Jawaliki. 52-4. see 7. .al - Hakam 144 al-Rafidi. 105 al-Shari. 58. 116. 6 Hanifite. 31 al-Hudaibiyah. 78. 165 al-Haitham ibn-Kharijah. 21 Mt. 49 Harithah ibn-Badr al-Fadani. Hisham ibn-'Abd al-Malik. 96. 97. 36. 98 Hanbalite.218 Dhubyan. 36. 73. 86 112 ff. al-Dujail (Little Tigris). 64. 54 al-Hijaz. 44. Haisam Hajir. 27 al - 'Asadi. 77. 61 IJamran Kaumat. 36 Hudhaillyah. 124 al-Hasan ibn Hal 11 Hisham ibn-'Amr Hautharah ibn-Wada' Gabriel. 67-71. 123 44. 48. ^lamziyah. 8 Faljard.

173 Ja'far ibn-'Umar. 182 Jahziyah. 175. ibn-Arwa. 21 Isma'lliyah. 22 Jabir ibn-'Abdallah al-Ansari. 21. 133.. 33. 43. 7 ibn-al-Zaiyat. 52. 36 ibn-Ziyad. 68. 116. see Twelvers Jabir. l 79. 38 Ishmael. 124. 81 Jerusalem. 130. ibn-IJazm. II. 109. 5.. 1 al-Jazirah. 35. 54.Jubba'i. 'Imran ibn-Hittan al-Sadwlsi. 92 Jahzah. 34 ff. 189 209 . see Ja'far ibn- 23. 54. 179 ff. 137. 93 Ibadiyah. 62. 12. 65 Ja'fariyah. Ispahan.Jubba'i. 54. 62.. 183 ff. 86 5. ibn-Khuzaimah ibn-Mudrakah Ilyas ibn-Mudhar.. 52. 80. 29. 173 ff. 55 ibn-Yazid ibn Unais. Mubashshir. ibn-al-IJanafiyah. 137. 182 ibn-IJayit. 112. 46. 62. 38. 116. 36. 59. 92 ibn-Musa. 175 209 Ibn-'Abbas. 57 Ibrahimiyah. see 'Amr ibn-Ubaid ibn-Bashshar (abu-Yahya Yiisuf). 54. 21 'Ibad ibn-Akhdar al-Tamimi. 147. 30. 83. see Muhammad ibn-al-ljanaflyah ibn-al-Ikhshid. 173 Idris ibn-'Abdallah. 106 ff. 81. 35. 31 al-Iskafi (Muhammad ff. 116. 66 Ja'far ibn-rlarb. 77. 5. 219 ibn-Numair al-Sukiiti. 27 al-Isfara'ini. 52. 200 ibn ..Saba. 104 ff. 09 ibn-Bassam. 209 lah).. SO ibn-Bab. 63 Ibrahim ibn-Malik al-Ashtar. 53. 37. 137. 28 Ithna 'Ashariyah. 41 Mubashshir ibn. 63 'Isa ibn-Sabih. 189 (see also 'Isa ibn-Mar- 10 yam) Jews. 118. 114 Jaml' ibn-Jusham al-Kindi. 68 ibn-al-Salah. 54. 22. 44. 87 Imamiyah. 182 ibn - ibn- 180 ff. 173. 7.al . 8. 126 ff. 60. 33. jarudlyah. 28. Iskafiyah.INDEX al-Husain 9. ibn-'Abdal- al-Iskafi. 12 ibn-Khallikan. 37. 180 Jahm ibn-Safwan.Hashim ibn-al-Jubba'i ibn-al-Rawandi. 36 Jaririyah. al-Jahlziyah. 6S Ja'd ibn-Dirham. 137 209 Ja'far ibn-Mubashshir. 152 'Isa ibn-Maryam. 81. Jahmlyah. 129 Ishak ibn-Suwaid al-'Adawi. 120. 43-5 Ibrahim ibn-'Abdallah. 65 98 ibn-abi-Da'ud. 34 ibn-Shihab. 147 ff. 'Idhaj. ff. 37. 31 Jesus. 80 Janahiyah. 99 al. 30. 122 Ishakiyah. 125. 44 Ibrahim. 47. 86. 123 Ibn-'Abbad. 92ff. 179 ff. 125. 21. Jiwaih ibn-Ma'bad. 113. 137. 33 Ja'far al-Sadik.. 8 al-Jahiz. 31 'Isa IJurkus ibn-Zuhair al-Bajall 'Urani. 60. 54 al- al-'Irak. see abu . iCKjff. 190 ibn-abi-al-Salt. 65 Isma'll ibn-' Abbas. 165. 55. 36. see Murdar 'Isawiah. 63 Jiraft Kirmin. 35. 72 ff. 153. 175 Isma'il ibn-Ja'far. 70.

38. 5. 182 Kirman. 36. 58. 37-9. 94 ff. 156 al-Kahdiyah. 113 al-Mada'ini. 87 Kuraib ibn-Murrah. 59. 179. 122.. 27'. 29. 46. 206 Mahdi. Kita'iyah. 35.. Majhuliyah. 155 ff-. 172. 77. Makrumiyah. 63. 22 Katarl ibn-al-Fuja'ah. 102. 44. 47. 23. 37. Maimuniyah. 98. al-Khaiyat ( abu-al^usain) ff. 71 Kahistan. 37. 100 Kasim al-Dimashkl. 54 Maimun. of Maimiinlyah. 21 Kharijites. 50 83. 116. Kumis. 121. 206 Kaskar. Banahl. 135. 80 88. 104. 63. 197 36. 166. 60. 36. 119 ff. 74 ff-. 80. 72 Karukh. 147. no 128. 185 Maghrib. 82.220 Jubba'iyah. K al-Ka'bi. 63. 52-8. 41. 98 ff. 36 97. 37 (Jubabiyah. 63 Magians. 186 ff. 62. 36. 35. see Khawarij Mamturah. 98 ff. 138 Kamiliyah. 121 36. 45 al-Katif. 58 Madhhij. 32. 100 al-Khalidl. (caliph). 32. 113 Katadah. ff. 180 ff. 37. 116) Juzajan. 177 Malikite. 113 47. 145 . 48. 49. Khaulan. 96. 48 Kaisaniyah. 177. 65. 173. 1 77. 41. 38. S8-60.. 46. 12-4. 154. 31. 137. 118 161. 12. 174. 89 Katl'lyah. Khazimiyah. 34. 183 al-Madhar. 61 al-Karabiyah. 54 al-Madinah. 184. ff. 101 al-Kufah. 35. 184 Khalaf. 128 129. 49. Kabul. 80 al-Kalanisi. 62. 51... 154 124. 184 97 Khaiyatlyah. 137. 39. 54 Khawarij. 55. 48 M Ma'bad al-Juhani. Khuraim ibn-Fatik Khurasan. Kathir al-Munauwa. al-Asadi. 41. 101. 113 ff. 76. 64.. Ma'badiyah. 6 Ma'lumiyah. 63. 95. 37. ft"-. 47 INDEX 36. (Khorasan). see Kadariyah (Kurman). 44. 30. 97 Khalafiyas. 5.. 85. 60. 103 al-Mada'im. 98. 95-6. 50. 27. 98. 119. al-Ma'mun 179 66. 66. 139. Ka'biyah. 72 al-Ma'dumiyah. 27. 96. 97. 183 al-Kadisiyah. 34-6. 60. 37. 86 ff. abu-Kasim 'Abdallah al 75. 177 Karbela. 95. 47. 32. 38. 64 Karramiyah. 100. 54 Kaisan. 22. 35. 29. 93 162. 52. 97 72 ff. 46. 101. 47-9. 97. 23. 87 117. 43. 32 Kuthaiyir. 104 Malik.. 33. 116. 96 (not leader 109 126. 130. 33. 101 Kahtaniyah. 36. Manicheans. 65. 116. ibn159. 37. S3. 182 Kais. 73 Kaisiim ibn-Salamah al-Juhani. 22. 176 ff. 101 Ahmad ibn-Mahmud 28. 5. 123 Kadarites. . 85 ff. 117. 127. 133. 22. Kadariyah. 147. 66 al-Mahin. Kuraish. 72. 186 ff. 75. 100. Khalid ibn-' Abdallah. 86 Kinaniyah.

59. 82 Mughiriyah. 6. 52. Murjiyah. 66. 62. 82 - Alkamah al- Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad 9asam 62. 77 Mas'ud ibn-Kais. 208 Mu'adh ibn-Jarir. 149.Buk- Man-sir. 57. 51-8 al-Murdar Murdariyah. 29. 64 Mujassimah. 72. 82 Masma' ibn-Kadali. ibn-'All ibn-abi-Talib. 41. 37 Marwan ibn-al-IJakam. 177 Mutawakkil.. 36.Shabib al-Basrl. 68. 49. 25. 85 Muslim ibn-Ahwaz al-Mazinl. - Sabih. 73 60. 62. Badr. 65. al-Murdar). 97 ff. 135. 81 92 al-Muhallab ibn-abi-Sufrah. 5. 179. 30 Mukarramiyah. 35 ibn^'Umar. 79 - ff. 189 Masldhan. 66 ibn . Mukassidun. 89 Muwaislyah. 47. 57. 157. 27 al-Mirdad. 161 166. N Nabhan. 63.. 139. 170 ff. 35. 32 al-Musawiyah. 202 Mu'ammariyah. 156. 38. 44 35. 66. 60. Musa. 36 72 Maradis al-Khariji. ff. 205. ff. 48. 36 Mukarran. 116 Muhammad Muhammad Muhammad hari. 65. 56-8 Musa ibn-Ja'far.. 182. 65. 54 .. 76.al . 88. 112 Mecca. 23. (Isa ibn 116. 62. 116 Muhammad ibn-al-IJasan. 181 Mustadrikah. 82. 76. 41. 45 al - Muhammad.. Muhammad ibn-'All. 137. 27 Miklas al-Azrak. 118 ff. 62. 63. 28.. 29. 47. 34. see Murjiyah 175 Mu'awiyah. 82 Mu'ammar. 48. abuff. 70. 86 IJabib ibn-'Abd-Shams. 180 Mu'tazilah.. 71 al-Mughirah ibn-Shu'bah. 159 ff. 88 Millat al-Islam.. 36. 59. see abu - Ja'f ar al- Muhammad fidl. Muhammadiyah. see al-Iskafl al-Mu'tasim.. 184 186 191. 119. 37 Mustaurid ibn Tamimi. 1. ff. 27-31. ibn-Tahir ibn-'Abdal- Muhammad Muhammad lah ibn-Tahir. 124 Mary. 13 ibn-'Abdallah al - Is- kafi. ibn- Muhakkimah.. 66 al-Mughirah ibn-Sa'id al-'Ijll. 125 ff. Mushabbihah. 36. 27. 63 Musailamah.Ash'ath alKindi. First. n6ff. 124 137. 47 Muslim ibn-al-Hajjaj. 44 1766?. see Muhammad 37-H9 al-Bukhari ibn .INDEX al - 221 ibn-al-Nu'man al-Raibn-'Amr.. 171 170 Murjiites. 160 al-Muichtar ibn-abi-'Ubaid al-Thakafi (known also as abu-Ishak). 22. 44. 210 al-Muttarih. 100 al-Mausil (Mosul). 76 Marislyah. 59 201. 140. Muhammad ibn . 63 22. 125 ff.. 203. 31. 46 MubSrakiyah. 37. Mansiir Mansuriyah. 21 ibn-Isma'il. 107 Michael. 198 Mus'ab ibn-al-Zubair. 106.. Si. 36.Ismail al . 44. 79. 33. 122. ibn-'Abdallah ibn-al- 131 ff-.. 5. 146 154. 37. 64 Muhammad ibn-al-Kasim. ff. 58 Muhammad ibn-al-]Janafiyah. 161. 23 Muslim ibn-'Abs ibn-Kuraiz ft'. 170 Mu'awiyah ibn Ishak ibn . 60. ff.Yazid ibn-Harithah. 54 al-Mawayini. 23.. 48. 5. 64 147 176 ff. SS.

61 Nasr ibn-al-Hajjaj. 100 Shabib ibn-Yazid al-Shaibani.. 36. 41. 55. 60. 120. 63 of. 165 ff. 60. 183. 36. 104 Rashid al-Tawll. Salih ibn-Mishrah al-Tamiml. 176 Sai- 6 al-Shahham. 35. 32 ibn-IJarb. 75. 169 Najran. Radwa. 72 Shamitlyah. 174 ff. 41. 171. 118 ff. 28 Shibt ibn-Rab'i. Najd. 135 ff. 83 ff. followers of. 38. 135 ff. 153. see ibn-Bashshar Nasr ibn-IJarimah al-'Ansi. al-Ju'fl. 23. 46 Nawisiyah. 50. 47 Sabbabiyah. 184 Salih ibn-Mishrah al-Khariji.. 87-90 Najjariyah. 61. 70. 50. 64 Sawad al-Kfifah. Salihiyah.Salamah al-Khariji. in. Nahawand. 116 al-Nu'at. 80 Sa'd ibn-Mujalid al-Saiba'i. 91. 124. 85 Persians. 46. 64 Sabur. 51 Sajah. 39. IOI. 34. 60 al-Nazzam abu-Ishak Ibrahim ibnSaiyar. 206 ff. 47 Prophet. Rawafid. 7 (Nisabur). 71 (Rafidah). 170 73. 23. 54 al-Nahrawan. 45 Sanan ff. 55. 183 al-Shahhamiyah. 103 Shaibaniyah. 35 Shaiban ibn . The. 34-6. 37 (Nazjamlyah). al-Rashid. 77. 5. 43. ill in in Nazzamiyah.. 52. 49 Ruh Zinba'. 30. 165. 36.. 61. 101 Sabat al-Mada'in. 86 Sa'd ibn-abl-Wakkas. 116 Salt ibn-'Uthman. II. 72 Shaitaniyah. 36. 106. 32 Sa'd ibn-Kufr. 54 (Same as Khawarij on p. 98 Saltiyah. 82 Sha'bah. 76. 34. 90 ff. Radwa. 210 Sahamiyah. Pass 48. 37. 32 al-Salihi. 34. 104 Rashidiyah. 183 Shahrastani.222 86 INDEX al-Ruwandi. 148 al-Nukhailah. 60 Sharikan. 113) Salih Kubbah. 137. 98 Samaritans. ff.. 111 ff. Rawandiyah. 37 Sa'id ibn-al-'Asi. 112 al-Arji. 71. 47 (Rafidlyah). 77 . 32 Safwan-Ansarl. 29. 82 Samarkand. 173. see Muhammad Satan. 34. 154 Nasr ibn-Bashshar. 154 Saiyid al-^imyari. Mt. 39. Nafi' ibn-al-Azrak al-rjanafi. 177 Rafi ibn-Laith ibn-Nasr ibn yar. 59 - al-Shabibiyah. 87. Najdah ibro-'Amir al-Hanafi. 37. 101 Sammak Persia. 186 ff.. 28 Sharikaniyah. 80 Sa'd ibn-'Ubadah al-Khazraji. 65. 82 174 36. Shafi'ite. 82' Sa'd ibn-Mu'adh. 104 Shaitan al-Tak. I7S. 37. 79 Nlsapur. 87. Rukanah ibn-Wa'il 80 116. battle Najadat. 115 al-Shafi'i. 101 al-Rai. 51 of. 103. 88. 32 Nahd. Nizamlyah.

22 Uhud. 1. 35. 99. 35. 1 10 (Wakifiyah). 22 al-Walid ibn-'Ukbah. Thanawiyah. 85 ff. 95. 36. 37 al-Thauri. l69 'Uthman ibn-'Affan. 27-32 ibn-Hudair. 88. 45 Sunnites. 50 16. 36. 36. 33 'Uman. i. 75. 135. 95 Shuhfur ibn-Tahir. 37 Tauwaj. 60. 81 'Umar. W Wadi al-Siba'. 122 Sifriyah. al-Faruk. 170 Ubai ibn-Ka'b. 171 Surakah ibn-Mirdas al-Bariki. 96 Shu'aibiyah. 45. 119 Walid ibn-Maslamah. 45. 177 ff. 95 Talhah ibn-Fahd. 33. 94. 77. 32 Twelvers. 98. 8 Sufain ibn-al-Abrad al-Kalbi. 100. 34. 101 Sophists. 54. 57 Sufriyah. 119 . 203 Siffin. ibn - Ziyad. 136 ibn-al-Hirr al-Ju'afl. 101 Tha'labah ibn-Mashkan. 124 Wahb ibn-Bakiyah. 6. 79 Sulaiman ibn-Jarlr al-Zaidi. 121 ff. ff.Sulaiman al . 119. 58 Taumanlyah. 167 'Ubaidallah S3. 82 Talakan. 116 Taraikiyah. 97. 101 al-Ta'if. 44. 83 'Ubad ibn . 112. 37 Tigris. 39 170 1 Wasillyah. 124 Tall-Mauzan. 170 'Ukbah ibn-' Amir al-Juhani. 44 Talhah. 23. 37 Ummat Urwah 59 Taim 'Adi. 7. 44. 5. 76 Sifatiyah. 154 ibn-Sa'd. 62 Tulaihah. III. 76. 10 Shumaitiyah. 124 129. al-Wasy. 154. 5. 12 Thaubaniyah. 76 'Utbah ibn-'Ubaid al-Khaulani. 00. 94. 36 Shurah. 154 'Umar 'Umar Tabaristan. 21 Wakifah. 87 'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'mar al-Taiml. 102 Thamamah ibn-Ashras al-Numairl.'Amri ('Umari?). 6. 45 Sulaimaniyah. 60. 44. 57 'Ubaidallah . 53 'Umariyah. see ibn- Ziyad 'Ubaid ibn-abi-1-Mukharik al-Mutannabi. 138. 181 Thamamlyah.. 81. 88. 120 22' Thu'al. 91 ff. 104 Tha'alibah Khawarij. 102. 106. 33. 12. 81 Tamamlyah. 114 Subki. 103. 38 Tarif. 113 Syria. 87 Tahir ibn-al-Husain. 184. 112 (See Sifriyah) Sufyan ibn-al-Abrad al-Kalbi. (See Sufriyah) Sijistan. S. 56 'Ubaidah ibn-Hilal al-Yashkurl. 9. 129. 81. 93 Tha'alibah. 66 U 'Ubad ibn-al-Husain al-Haiti. 36. 37. 154 Wasil ibn-'Afa al-Ghazzal. 137 Shuaib. 29. 106 'Uthman ibn-Ma'mun. 86 'Uthman ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn-Ma'- mar al-Tamlmi. 54 Thumamiyah.. 32.. 52. SO. 87 Suhail ibn-'Amr. 177 al-Islam. 80 'Uthman.INDEX Shiite. 122.

43.Rahman Kummi. 34-6. 92 Yazldiyah. 92 Yunus ibn . Yahya ibn-Zaid.'abd . 76 Yazid ibn-Mu'awiyah. 46 177 Zahirlyah. 104 Ziyad ibn-Abihi. 93 . 47 Zurkan. 88. 46. 179 INDEX Wathilah ibn-al-Aska'. - 5. 45.224 al-Wathik. 83. 47 Ya'kiib. 100 Zararah ibn-A'yun. 72. 48 Yazid ibn-al-Muhallab. 105 al- Zaranj. 45 ibn-al-IJusain al-Yamamah. 47. 30. 91 Yazld ibn-'Ali ibn-al-Husain ibn'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. 90 al-Yaman. 70 . 37 Zahaf ibn-Rahar al-Ta'i. 46 Ya'kubiyah. 104 al-Zubair. 36 Zarariyah. 47. 36. 29. 82 Ziyadiyah. 173. 52.al . 66. 124 Zur'ah ibn-Muslim al-'Amiri. 72 Yfinusiyah. 60. 91 Ziyad ibn-Kharrash al-'Ijli. 90 Ya'mur ibn-'Ubaidallah ibn 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. 122. 53. 178 Ziyad-ibn-'Abd-al-Rahman. 73 mar al-Maiml. Ma'- 60.al - Yahya ibn-Akthara. 22 al-Za'faranl. 72 Yusuf ibn-TJm-Thakafi. 36. 34 Za'faraniyah. 59. 81. 36. 37. 35 Zaidiyah. 82 Ziyad ibn-al-Asfar. 48. 71 Zindiks. 148 Zaid ibn-'Ali ibn Zaid ibn-'Ali I-Iasan ibnibn- 'Ali ibn-abi-Talib. 60. 52. 37. 95. 46. 177. 74. 36. 87 Yazld ibn-Asim al-Muhadhi. 177.

VITA Kate Chambers Seelye was born in Erzerum. April 27. She was prepared for college at Miss Irwin's School in Philadelphia. She received the degree of Bachelor of Arts at Bryn Mawr College in 191 1. and the degree of Master of Arts at Columbia University in 1913. . She passed her examination for the degree oi Doctor of Philosophy at Columbia University in 1915. 1889. Turkey. Pa.