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Identification of latent modal attributes which affect mode choice for work trips

Project report

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of M.Tech Degree in Civil Engineering of University of Kerala

Submitted by

VARUN V.
M1 Traffic and Transportation Engineering Roll No: 120271

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TRIVANDRUM
2013

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TRIVANDRUM
2013

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this project report entitled “IDENTIFICATION OF LATENT MODAL ATTRIBUTES WHICH AFFECT MODE CHOICE FOR WORK TRIPS” is a bonafide record of the project done by Varun V. under my guidance towards the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of M.Tech Degree in Civil Engineering (Traffic and Transportation Engineering) under the University of Kerala during the year 2013.

Guided by

Professor (PG Studies)

Prof. Anu P. Alex Professor Department of Civil Engg. College of Engineering Trivandrum

Dr. M Satyakumar Professor Department of Civil Engg. College of Engineering Trivandrum

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I am sincerely indebted to my guide Prof Anu P. Alex, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering Trivandrum for her valuable guidance and suggestions in doing this project. I would also like to thank Dr. Syam Prakash, Professor and Head, Department of Civil Engineering, Dr. M. Satyakumar, Professor (PG Studies), Prof. Jayaprakash Jain, Staff Advisor and Prof. Leema Peter, Assistant Professor (Project coordinator), Department of Civil Engineering, for their encouragement and support. I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to all my friends who helped me in completing this seminar. Above all, I thank the Lord Almighty for blessing me to complete this project on time.

VARUN V.

comfort and convenience.ABSTRACT The choice of transport mode is probably one of the most important classic models in transport planning. flexibility. Understanding mode choice is important since it affects how efficiently we can travel. most choice models use modal attributes to explain choice. convenience and flexibility variables is based on attitudinal indicator variables. In the empirical literature on travel mode choice. . the latent variables are measured through attitudes towards the chosen travel mode. In designing a socially desirable and environmentally sustainable transportation system in line with peoples’ preferences. how much urban space is devoted to transportation functions as well as the range of alternatives available to the traveler. The present study made an attempt to identify the latent modal attributes which affect mode choice which addresses the problem of unobservable factors in mode choice for work trips that are able to provide insights into the individual’s decision making and to help to set priorities in governmental policy and decision making. transportation planners must increase their understanding of the hierarchy of preferences that drive individuals’ choice of transportation. A survey was conducted on the respondent’s mode choice and on the attitudinal and behavioral indicator variables that are used to construct preferences for safety. In their applications. The data collected were analyzed by conducting a factor analysis by principal component method. The construction of safety is based on behavioral indicator variables and the construction of comfort. Individual specific variables are included to control for individual differences in preferences and unobservable modal attributes.

1 General 1.2 Latent variables identified from previous literature 5.CONTENTS Page No. METHODOLOGY 3. 1. DATA COLLECTION 5.3 Survey 5.1 Latent variables 6.1 General 3.3 Objectives and scope 2.2 Review of literature 2.2 Study area 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 4 5 5 6 4.3. DATA ANALYSIS 7 7 7 9 9 10 9 9 11 .1 General 4.1 General 5.3 Summary of literature 3.2 Questionnaire 5. IDENTIFICATION OF LATENT MODAL ATTRIBUTES FOR THE PROJECT 4.2 Need for the study 1.1 General 2. LITERATURE REVIEW 2. INTRODUCTION 1.

Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Methodology of the study Map of Thiruvananthapuram city 5 6 Gender wise classification of total work trips Age classification of total work trips Income stratification of total work trips Vehicle ownership classification of total work trips Distance travelled classification of total work trips Procedure for Factor analysis Factor analysis dialogue box Factor Analysis Extraction dialogue box Factor Analysis Scores dialogue box Factor Analysis Option dialogue box 12 12 12 13 13 15 16 17 17 18 . Factor Analysis 6.2 Sample stratification 6. Title Page No.3.4. CONCLUSION REFERENCES 11 11 14 15 18 25 LIST OF FIGURES Figure No.6.1 General 6. Steps involved in Factor Analysis 7. RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION 8.

Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Descriptive Statistics Communalities Total variance explained Component matrix Component score coefficient matrix 19 20 21 23 24 . Title Page No.Fig 13 Fig 14 Scree plot Final latent variables obtained from Factor analysis 22 25 LIST OF TABLES Table No.

travel can be made to low cost. trip distribution. a certain number of trips are generated. is probably the single most important element in transport planning and policy making. these categories are home-based work. therefore. The choice of transport mode is probably one of the most important classic models in transport planning. the region is subdivided into a large number of smaller units of analysis called traffic analysis zones. trips are assigned to a mode based on what’s available in a particular zone. trips are matched to origin and destination zones using the data that has been collected.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1. home-based other and non-home based. mode choice and trip/route assignment. The issue of mode choice. In each of three categories. In mode choice. 1 . As particular parts of the network are assigned trips. This is because of the key role played by public transport in policy making. In trip generation. On the other hand. private transport is highly flexible. trip distribution. Again in public transport. Since most trips by bicycle or walking are generally shorter. Finally. It affects the general efficiency of travel in urban areas. the characteristics of the household within that zone and the cost of the mode for each mode in terms of money and time. trips are separated out into categories based on their origin and purpose. It is important then to develop and use models which are sensitive to those travel attributes that influence individual choices of mode. Also they have more social benefits like if more people begin to use public transport. This is important because the ultimate goal is system-wide optimization. Main characteristics of public transport are that they will have some particular schedule. In addition. so some trips are assigned to alternate routes in such a way that all trip times are equal. the vehicle speed slows down. the fuel is used more efficiently. Generally. frequency etc. not optimization for any one individual. It provides more comfortable and convenient travel. there will be less congestion on the roads and the accidents will be less. In the second step.1 General Urban transportation modelling system is a four-step process with trip generation. they are assumed to have stayed within one zone and are not included in the analysis. Based on the number and characteristics of the households in each zone. It has better accessibility also. trips are assigned to the network. in route assignment. Public transport modes make use of road space more efficiently than private transport.

In designing a socially desirable and environmentally sustainable transportation system in line with peoples’ preferences. most choice models use modal attributes to explain choice. Individual specific variables are included to control for individual differences in preferences and unobservable modal attributes. conventional mode choice modal has to be enriched with latent modal attributes. 1. convenience and flexibility variables is based on attitudinal indicator variables. A survey was conducted on the respondent’s mode choice and on the attitudinal and behavioural indicator variables that are used to construct preferences for safety. comfort and convenience. 1. Understanding mode choice is important since it affects how efficiently we can travel. To improve service quality of Public transport. 3. To identify the latent modal attributes which affect mode choice for work trips in Trivandrum city. 2. The present study made an attempt to identify the latent modal attributes which affect mode choice which addresses the problem of unobservable factors in mode choice for work trips that are able to provide insights into the individual’s decision making and to help to set priorities in governmental policy and decision making. In the empirical literature on travel mode choice. Traditional choice models do not consider latent modal attributes. To recognize the latent variables which affect mode choice from the previous literature 2. In their applications. Travellers’ attitudinal behavioural factors and latent modal factors are important while choosing a mode. The study is limited to works trip in Thiruvananthapuram city. The construction of safety is based on behavioural indicator variables and the construction of comfort. flexibility.2 Need for the Study 1. how much urban space is devoted to transportation functions as well as the range of alternatives available to the traveller.3 Objectives and Scope of the study The objectives of the study are. the latent variables are measured through attitudes towards the chosen travel mode. 1. 2 . The data collected were analysed by conducting a factor analysis by principal component method. transportation planners must increase their understanding of the hierarchy of preferences that drive individuals’ choice of transportation.

Chapter 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. The data contain revealed choices between rail and auto for an intercity trip. preferences in mode choice models. fitting them in the discrete choice models through a latent variables approach. researchers and clerical officers from a university. were identified through exploratory factor analysis. In addition to revealed choices. (2002) presents the incorporation of the latent variables of convenience and comfort in a mode choice model. affect.2 Review of literature Some of the previous studies conducted on effect of latent factors on mode choice are given below. which were contacted and interviewed in their working place with respect to their morning trip to work. Individual specific variables are also often included to control for individual differences in preferences and unobservable modal attributes. the data also include subjective evaluation of trip attributes for both the chosen and unchosen modes. Camila et al. The papers reviewed below specifically addresses the problem of unobservable. (2010) explored the role of psychological factors on mode choice models using a latent variables approach. and two latent variables. Respondents were lectures. A total sample of 409 records 3 . It is presumed that relatively few latent variables may underlie the resulting ratings data. The resulting subjective ratings are used as indicators for latent attributes. This theory states that observed behaviour corresponds to an intention which is mediated by habit and facilitating conditions. 2. Morikawa et al. most of the choice models use modal attributes to explain choice. using path analysis.1 General In the literature review. Data come from a survey designed and collected in 2007 and 2008. ride comfort and convenience. intention being depending on three factors: attitude. The model uses data collected in 1987 for the Netherlands Railways to assess factors that influence the choice between rail and car for intercity travel. by Triandis. which were obtained by asking questions from questionnaire. Modes’ level of service and cost attributes. or latent. The aim of this work is to study the role of psychological factors on the mode choice process. and social aspects. and users’ socioeconomic and psychometric data were gathered as well. was used as the theoretical framework. The Theory of the Interpersonal Behaviour. Measurement of these factors was made by mean of psychometric tools.

lifestyle. They used several latent variables distilled from a number of attitudinal indicator variables as explanatory in a discrete vehicle type choice model. and to understand the role of level of service and cost attributes on the decision process. The dependent variable. convenience and flexibility. convenience and flexibility. lifestyle. Then a multinomial model for vehicle type choice was estimated. mid-sized. large. to attract individuals to the desirable public modes of transport. comfort. and demographic variables and found that both attitude towards flexibility and comfort influence the individuals’ choice of mode. preferences for safety. (2006) studied people’s attitudes and personality traits to attribute the varying importance of environmental consideration. compact. The results will provide useful information to policy-makers and transportation planners developing sustainable transportation systems. convenience and flexibility need to be considered. is classified into nine vehicle type categories: small. Although modal time and cost still are important. travel liking. travel liking. sports.904 residents in three neighbourhoods in the San Francisco Bay Area: Concord and Pleasant Hill represent two different kinds of suburban neighbourhoods comprising about half the sample. Choo et al. relative desired mobility. the latent modal attributes such as safety. Maria et al. (2004) used attitudes to explain vehicle type choice.was initially available for the estimation process. personality. personality. and sport utility vehicle (SUV). pickup. and demographic characteristics. 2. attitudes toward travel. The data for this research comes from a 1998 mail-out/mail-back survey of 1. and an area defined as North San Francisco represents an urban neighbourhood comprising the remainder. luxury. The explanatory variables used in the vehicle type choice model are travel-related attitudes. safety. mobility and demographic variables individually using ANOVA and chi-squared test. Vehicle types was related to latent variables factors like attitudes. comfort. lifestyle. minivan/van. make and model of the vehicle the respondent drives most often. 4 . comfort. mobility. personality.3 Summary of literature Based on the previous literatures ‘‘latent variables enriched’’ choice model outperforms a traditional choice model and provides insights into the importance of unobservable individual specific variables in mode choice such as environmental preferences. Inclusion of psychological factors through a latent variables approach indeed helped to improve the fitness level of revealed preference models. The survey contained questions about objective and perceived mobility.

on their attitudinal and behavioural indicator and a series of Socio – demographics. The methodology of the study is shown below in figure 1. Those variables which are called the indicator variables are transferred to SPSS software to conduct factor analysis. Methodology of the study 5 .1 General A survey was conducted under the context of a commuter and data was collected based on their response. The raw data collected from the respondents are coded based on their ordinal value. From the results of factor analysis such as scores and factor loadings the exact Latent variables are identified. LITERATURE REVIEW Recognition of LATENT variables which affect mode choice from the previous literature SELECTION OF STUDY AREA DATA COLLECTION DATA ANALYSIS Factor analysis Principal component method Design of Questionnaire form Pilot survey Modification of questionnaire Final Survey IDENTIFYING THE LATENT MODEL ATTRIBUTES WHICH ARE AFFECTING THE MODE CHOICE Figure 1.Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY 3. Data were collected on respondent’s mode choice.

200 are males and 872.206 are females.490.3.687. As per provisional reports of Census India. population of Thiruvananthapuram in 2011 is 752. Although Thiruvananthapuram city has population of 752. of which male and female are 364. 6 .406 of which 815.833 respectively.2 Study area Figure 2. Child sex ratio of girls is 978 per 1000 boys. The sex ratio of Thiruvananthapuram city is 1064 per 1000 males. Map of Thiruvananthapuram City Thiruvananthapuram city is governed by Municipal Corporation which comes under Thiruvananthapuram Metropolitan Region.657 and 387. its urban / metropolitan population is 1.490.

Safety. or true scores are just a few of the terms that researchers used to refer to variables in the model that are not present in the data set.2 Latent modal attributes 1. Personality. The latent variables has a vital role in determining the mode choice. Convenience 7. unobserved variables.2. temperamental. constructs.CHAPTER 4 IDENTIFICATION OF LATENT VARIABLES FROM PREVIOUS LITERATURE 4. Environmental factors Personality The complex of all the attributes . Lifestyle. Lifestyle 4. Safety 2.1 Latent commuter attributes 1. Personality 2. Personality is the totality of qualities and traits. Flexibility 4. 7 . Flexibility. emotional and mental. Attitude 3. that characterize a unique individual. Attitude. Reliability 5. factors. as of character or behaviour that are peculiar to a specific person. 4. Comfort 3. Comfort.2 Latent variables identified from previous literatures The latent variables affecting the mode choice identified from previous literatures are listed below. Reliability. Convenience and Environmental factors. 4.1 General Unmeasured variables. Latent variables can be classified as Latent commuter attributes and Latent modal attributes. Latent variables which are affecting the mode choice were identified from the previous literatures. Protection 6.behavioural. The latent variables identified from previous literatures are.2.

risk. Comfort A state of being relaxed and feeling no pain. the word has proved durable and useful. "he enjoyed the flexibility of his working arrangement". freedom from danger. Flexibility The quality of being adaptable or variable. Nonetheless. For example. For example. or injury. "he holds a position of great responsibility". Lifestyle When lifestyle became popular a generation ago. The trait of being answerable to someone for something or being responsible for one's conduct. "he is a man who enjoys his comfort". "she longed for the comfortableness of her armchair". a number of critics objected to it as voguish and superficial. "the witnesses demanded for police protection”. or needs. and recreation to categories in a system of social classification. purposes. Protection The activity of protecting someone or something.Attitude A complex mental state involving beliefs and feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways. perhaps because it appeared to elevate habits of consumption. dress. For example. 8 . For example. Reliability A form of trustworthiness. Convenience The quality of being suitable to one's comfort. if only because such categories do in fact figure importantly in the schemes that Americans commonly invoke when explaining social values and behaviour Safety The condition of being safe.

The loading variables used are “vehicle with foldable and cushioned seat”. educational background. Then. “Walking to the bus stop” and “Travelling on the bus”. The model attributes that are identified from previous literatures are comfort. comfort and flexibility of the chosen mode and a series of demographic questions. the final survey was conducted. number of vehicles.2.1 Latent variables Safety The questionnaire survey contains 5 statements expressing safety on various issues related to travel and residential location. convenience.2 Questionnaire See page 10 5. convenience. Information obtained includes gender. occupation. “choose a mode with AC” etc. a pilot survey was conducted by distributing the questionnaire among 60 commuters and before the final preparation of the questionnaire. Firstly. Flexibility 9 . modifications were done. The loading variables used are “unsafe while switching from one mode to another”. The questions were set and given to 234 commuters in Thiruvananthapuram city. Comfort The Comfort section of the survey asks “how well each of 8 phrases describes your mode”. on a five-point scale from “very important” to “very unimportant”. cost of commute and personal use of specific modes for work trips.3 Survey The data collected in this study comes from a 2-page self-descriptive questionnaire survey containing questions about safety. age. The question regarding the latent variables were developed from the identified latent variables from previous literatures. and personal income. Respondents were asked to rate each statement using a five-point likert type scale from “Don’t agree” to “strongly agree” or “No effect” to “Very strong effect”.1 General The data collection was conducted by distributing the questionnaire to the commuters of Thiruvananthapuram City. 5. employment status. questions related to commute time/distance. flexibility and safety. 5.CHAPTER 5 DATA COLLECTION 5.

The loading variables used are “to reach the destination on time” and “to avoid queues and congestion”. Convenience The convenience section of the survey asks “the accessibility of the particular mode” on a five point likert scale from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. 11 .The Flexibility section of the survey asks “how you utilize the mode other than travelling” on a five point likert scale from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. “to pick or drop children or wife” etc. The loading variables used are “to shop”.

The output from the SPSS software were interpreted to give the final results. Age 3. 1. Gender 2.CHAPTER 6 DATA ANALYSIS 6.2 Sample stratification The sample was classified based on. Vehicle ownership 4. Income 5. The indicator variables were initially highlighted and given to the software. and their values were imported into SPSS software. The questions were reduced into indicator variables. 6.1 General The questions distributed among the commuters were fed into the computer for analysis.1 Classification based on Gender Total number of work trips (Gender wise) female 40% male 60% male female Figure 3 Gender-wise classification of total work trips 12 . Mode 6.2. The responses to each questions were coded based on their ordinal values. Distance travelled 6.

Age stratification of total number of work trips 6.2 Classification based on Age Total number of female commuters 50 – 65 7% 65 – 80 0% 2% < 20 1% Total number of male commuters 50 – 65 65 – 80 < 20 1% 2% 14% 20 – 35 45% 35 – 50 42% 20 – 35 48% 35 – 50 38% Figure 4.6.2.2.3 Classification based on Income Females > 60000 45000 – 17% 60000 11% < 5000 5000 5% 15000 8% > 60000 45000 – 18% 60000 13% Males 5000 < 5000 15000 6% 9% 15000 – 30000 38% 30000 – 45000 21% 30000 – 45000 22% 15000 – 30000 32% Figure 5. Income stratification of total number of work trips 13 .

5 Classification based on Distance travelled % of Commuter 25 – 30 0% 20 – 25 9% <5 10% 30 – 35 1% 15 – 20 19% 10 – 15 9% 5 – 10 52% Figure 7.6.4 Classification based on Vehicle ownership percentage of vehicles Auto rickshaw 3% Bus / Lorry Cycle 2% 2% Car 48% Two wheeler 45% Figure 6.2.2. Distance travelled stratification of total number of work trips 14 . Vehicle ownership stratification of total number of work trips 6.

whereas principal components analysis aims to summarise observed variability by a smaller number of components. Factor analysis aims to find underlying latent factors. Procedure for Factor analysis Factor Analysis and Principal Components Analysis are both used to reduce a large set of items to a smaller number of dimensions and components. There are three stages in factor analysis: 1. These techniques are commonly used when developing a questionnaire to see the relationship between the items in the questionnaire and underlying dimensions.3 Factor Analysis Analysis of data was done by Factor analysis with Principal Component method. First. a correlation matrix was generated for all the variables. The procedure for Factor analysis is shown in the Figure 8.6. 15 . A correlation matrix was a rectangular array of the correlation coefficients of the variables with each other. FACTOR ANALYSIS PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS: UNITIES IN DIAGONAL OF CORRELATION MATRIX FACTOR ROTATION HOW MANY FACTORS TO BE RETAINED? RESULTS FROM FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR LOADINGS FACTOR SCORES INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS Figure 8. Specifically. It is also used in general to reduce a larger set of variables to a smaller set of variables that explain the important dimensions of variability.

6. From the menu bar select ANALYSE and choose DATA REDUCTION and then click on FACTOR. Figure 9. The Factor Analysis: Extraction dialogue box is completed as sown below in Figure 10 16 . Select the check box for Scree Plot.4 Steps involved in Factor Analysis 1. and Significance level.2. From the Factor Analysis dialogue box click on the EXTRACTION button and its dialogue box will be loaded on the screen. The Figure 9 shown below shows the factor analysis dialogue box. 3. Second. Coefficients. Within this dialogue box select the following check boxes Initial solution. Click on Continue to return to the Factor Analysis dialogue box. Third. Factor analysis: Dialogue box 2. factors are extracted from the correlation matrix based on the correlation coefficients of the variables. the factors are rotated in order to maximize the relationship between the variables and some of the factors. Click on Continue to return to the Factor Analysis dialogue box. Click on the DESCRIPTIVES button and its dialogue box will be loaded on the screen. 3. Highlight related variables and send them to variables lists. The Factor Analysis: Descriptives dialogue box is completed.

Factor analysis: Extraction Dialogue box 4. From the Factor Analysis dialogue box click on the ROTATION button and its dialogue box will be loaded on the screen. Click on display factor score coefficient matrix to select it. Factor analysis: Scores Dialogue box 17 .Figure 10. Click on Continue to return to the Factor Analysis dialogue box. Click on the radio button next to VARIMAX to select it. The Factor Analysis: Rotation dialogue box is completed. Click on the radio button next to REGRESSION method to select it. The Factor Analysis: scores dialogue box is completed as shown below in Figure 11 Figure 11. 5. From the Factor Analysis dialogue box click on the SCORES button and its dialogue box will be loaded on the screen.

Click on OK to run the procedure. Click on the check box of Suppress absolute values less than to select it.50 in the text box. From the Factor Analysis dialogue box click on the OPTIONS button and its dialogue box will be loaded on the screen. The Factor Analysis: Options dialogue box should be completed as shown below in Figure 12 Figure 12. Click on Continue to return to the Factor Analysis dialogue box.6. Type 0. Factor analysis: Options Dialogue box 18 .

19968 1. Typically.9870 3.07568 1.5043 3. Deviation 1.9087 3. Descriptive Statistics Mean DESTINATIONTIME DISLIKELATE SWITCHMODE WALKTOBUSSTOP WAITINGFORBUS TRAVELLINGONBUS FOLDABLESEAT ACMODE ADJUSTABLELEWINDOW MORESPACE HEARINGMUSIC CALM SPACIOUSVEHICLE TRAVELLINGWITHLUGGAGES DIRECTTODESTINATION SHOPWHILETRAVEL VARIATIONTIME PICKORDROP 4.8783 3.90267 .9565 3.13130 1.1.52568 1.82190 Analysis N 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 230 19 .43185 1. standard deviation and number of respondents (N) who had participated in the survey are given in Table 1.21696 1.45 Table 1. it can be concluded that Time to reach the destination in stipulated time is the most important variable that influence the commuters’ mode choice.1739 3.Chapter 7 Results and Discussions 7.1 Results 7.3000 3.2217 3.8130 4.7217 3.4522 4.2696 4.7217 3. From the mean.1 Descriptive Statistics The first output from the analysis is a table of descriptive statistics for all the variables under investigation. It has the highest mean of 4.18266 1.90916 .97058 .52088 1.95663 1.10371 1.5391 3.9391 3.8087 3. the mean.0348 4.16760 .3043 Std.22598 1.44044 1.10371 .

000 Extraction .000 1.732 .000 1.000 1.830 .000 1.000 1.000 1.000 1.856 .836 . Communalities Initial DESTINATIONTIME DISLIKELATE SWITCHMODE WALKTOBUSSTOP WAITINGFORBUS TRAVELLINGONBUS FOLDABLESEAT ACMODE ADJUSTABLELEWINDOW MORESPACE HEARINGMUSIC CALM SPACIOUSVEHICLE TRAVELLINGWITHLUGGAGES DIRECTTODESTINATION SHOPWHILETRAVEL VARIATIONTIME PICKORDROP 1.000 1.000 1.806 .823 .000 1.715 .691 .723 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.767 .647 .1.000 1.000 1. 20 .000 1.570 .000 1. Table 2.000 1.000 1.695 .2 Communalities The next item from the output is a Table of communalities which was shown in Table 2 how much of the variance in the variables has been accounted for by the extracted factors.666 .000 1.628 .7.728 .827 . For instance over 86% of the variance in safety while switching the mode is accounted for while 57% of the variance in Time to reach the destination in stipulated time is accounted for.704 .

213 1.388 13.747 15.000 Extraction Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 8.132 96.578 87. Table 3.747 15.065 .464 2.163 .495 .122 .571 21 .107 .361 24.077 89.621 93.818 .374 2.041 45.741 .679 98.816 .184 95.597 4.978 97.303 2.176 .256 78.234 .303 2.135 22.3 Total Variance Explained The Table 3 shows all the factors extractable from the analysis along with their eigenvalues.041 2. and the cumulative variance of the factor and the previous factors.612 99.613 . the percent of variance attribute to each factor.107 45.268 73.232 1.571 Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings Total % of Variance Cumulative % 4.7.571 .946 5.639 .532 99.096 .204 1.262 60.226 50.974 73.289 94.041 45. Total Variance Explained Component 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Initial Eigenvalues Total % of Variance Cumulative % 8.1.371 4.495 2.361 100.414 .323 1.262 60.041 2.747 26.522 .794 91.371 26.110 .292 1.827 .586 82.646 3.838 .388 13.706 .268 73.107 45.749 85.

1. Note also that factor 4 has an eigenvalue of less than 1. Figure 13. The point of interest is where the curve starts to flatten.7. It can be seen that the curve begins to flatten between factors 3 and 4.4 Scree Plot The scree plot is a graph of the eigenvalues against all the factors. Scree plot 22 . The graph shown in Figure 13 is useful for determining how many factors to retain. so only three factors have been retained.

547 -.540 .726 .731 .729 .656 2 3 .668 . The gap on the Table represent loadings that are less than 0.5.545 . Rotation does not actually change anything but makes the interpretation of 23 . Component Matrix Component 1 DESTINATIONTIME DISLIKELATE SWITCHMODE WALKTOBUSSTOP WAITINGFORBUS TRAVELLINGONBUS FOLDABLESEAT ACMODE ADJUSTABLELEWINDOW MORESPACE HEARINGMUSIC CALM SPACIOUSVEHICLE TRAVELLINGWITHLUGGAGE S DIRECTTODESTINATION SHOPWHILETRAVEL VARIATIONTIME PICKORDROP .656 .513 -.6 Component score coefficient Matrix The idea of rotation is to reduce the number factors on which the variables under investigation have high loadings.631 . 3 components extracted. this makes reading the Table easier.522 .5 Component (Factor) Matrix The Table 4 below shows the loadings of the eight variables on the three factors extracted.681 .634 . the more the factor contributes to the variable.770 .747 .582 . The higher the absolute value of the loading.5.765 .636 . a. We suppressed all loadings less than 0.7.511 -.1. Table 4. 7.564 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.777 .1.717 -.

012 .217 .183 . and cost of product are substantially loaded on Factor (Component) 3 while experience with product. Component Scores.the analysis easier.005 -.206 .106 -.149 .025 -.152 -.221 .057 -.063 -. 24 .249 .010 .031 .060 -. Component Score Coefficient Matrix Component 2 .049 -.227 . These factors can be used as variables for further analysis. popularity of product.036 -. and quantity of product are substantially loaded on Factor 2.035 3 .021 .042 -.041 .047 .163 .050 -.185 -.149 -.062 -.090 -. The Table 5 below.209 .233 .036 .056 -.005 .218 .161 .216 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.099 -.033 -.172 . we can see that availability of product.014 .085 -.020 .143 . All the remaining variables are substantially loaded on Factor 1.112 -.220 .042 -. Table 5. Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.074 -.017 1 DESTINATIONTIME DISLIKELATE SWITCHMODE WALKTOBUSSTOP WAITINGFORBUS TRAVELLINGONBUS FOLDABLESEAT ACMODE ADJUSTABLELEWINDOW MORESPACE HEARINGMUSIC CALM SPACIOUSVEHICLE TRAVELLINGWITHLUGGA GES DIRECTTODESTINATION SHOPWHILETRAVEL VARIATIONTIME PICKORDROP -.090 .265 .071 .018 -.

2 Latent variables obtained from factor analysis The Figure 141 shows the final latent variables obtained from Factor loading and indicator variables Figure 14. Flexibility 25 .7. Convenience 3. Safety 2. 1. Final latent variables obtained The latent identified from factor analysis are.

The latent variables identified from previous literatures 2. The latent modal attributes identified for work trips in Trivandrum city are Safety.Chapter 8 CONCLUSION 1. Comfort was less significant due to :    Due to individual heterogeneity Higher travel cost due to high fuel cost. Convenience. Commuters give less importance to A/C. 9. spaciousness and calm environment 26 . Commuters expresses the lack of SAFETY at waiting stops. Commuter giving greater importance to facilities provided at bus stops. 4. walking to mode and travelling with public in stage carriers. 8. FOLDABLE SEAT. Private mode are more flexible than public mode. Commuter give more importance to unexpected congestion that causes DELAY 6. Commuters are less reluctant to SWITCH mode and prefers to reach the DESTINATION DIRECTLY by a single mode 5. “pick or drop children during work trips” and prefers “less variation to travel time”. and Flexibility 3. The importance of “SPACIOUSness in vehicle” are also expressed by the commuters 7. and HEARING MUSIC etc. ADJUSTABLELE WINDOWS. helps the commuters to “shop while travel”.

Mokhtarian (2004) “What type of vehicle do people drive? The role of attitude and lifestyle in influencing vehicle type choice”. and demographic variables” University of California. and Juan Antonio Carrasco (2010) “Exploring the role of psychological factors on mode choice models using a latent variables approach” Department of Civil Engineering. Per Johansson (2006) “The effects of attitude and personality traits on mode choice”. 27 . L. Tobias Heldt. Maria Vredin Johansson. Bilge Atasoy. Sangho Choo.epfl. Alejandro Tudela. Transport and Mobility Laboratory Ecole Polytechnique Fe´de´rale de Lausanne transp-or. 5. P. Report TRANSP-OR 110502. Choo et al. Transportation Research Part A 40 (2006) 507 – 525. Aur´elie Glerum.ch 4. Transportation Research Part A 38 (2004) 201 – 222. Camila Galdames. Universidad de Concepción.REFERENCES 1. attitudinal. 3. California. and Michel Bierlaire (2012) “Attitudes towards mode choice in Switzerland”. Davis. (2002) “The relationship of vehicle type choice to personality. 2. lifestyle.

7. Walking to the bus stop or from the bus stop No effect Some effect neutral Strong effect Very strong effect Very strong effect Very strong effect Very important b. Distance to Work place: 11.COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. no 1 2 3 4 Is it important for you to arrive at your destination before the stipulated time of work I dislike services that cause me to be late to my destination I felt unsafe while switching from one mode to another during work trips Not at all important Quite important Neutral Important Very important Strongly agree Strongly agree Don’t agree Slightly agree Neutral Agree Don’t agree Slightly agree Neutral Agree Please indicate the one stage in which you feel the least safe : a. 8. Gender: M / F 2. Age: 3. TRIVANDRUM Department of Civil Engineering STATED PREFERENCE SURVEY 1. What is the cost you usually pay for the trip: 13. Travelling on the bus No effect Some effect neutral Strong effect Somewhat important Very unimportant Somewhat unimportant Neutral 5 6 7 8 9 Is the vehicle with foldable and cushioned seat important for you Is it important for you to choose a mode with AC Mode having proper adjustable windows that make me sightseeing without any hurdle is important for me Vehicle with more space is important for me Hearing music and watching videos is important for me while travelling . Which is the usual mode you are choosing for your Shopping trips : Car / Two Wheeler / Public Transport / Auto Rickshaw / Walk / Train Si. Waiting at the bus stops No effect Some effect neutral Strong effect c. Travelling Time to Work place: 12. 6. 4. 5. Marital status: Married / Unmarried / Widowed Employment Status: Govt sector / Private Sector / Self-employed or Business / Student / Unemployed or Retired Monthly Income (Rs.): < 5000 / 5000 – 15000 / 15000 – 30000 / 30000 – 45000 / 45000 – 60000 / >60000 Driver Licence Status: 4-Wheeler / 2-Wheeler / Auto Rickshaw / Heavy vehicle Education: SSLC / Plus two / Degree / PG Vehicle Ownership No: Car/Jeep/Van Two Wheeler Auto rickshaw Cycle Bus / Lorry 9. Which is the usual mode you are choosing for your work trips : Car / Two Wheelers / Public Transport / Auto Rickshaw / Walk / Train 10.

non – noisy environment Vehicle’s spaciousness is important for me I must be comfortable while travelling with bags and luggages Strongly agree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly agree 13 14 15 16 17 18 It important for me to reach the destination directly rather than switching several modes It is important for me to shop on the way to / from work It is important for me to drop / pick children / wife in my way to / from work It is important for me to avoid queues and congestion while travelling It is important for me having little or no variation in my daily travel time It is important for me to travel in safer mode .Very unimportant Somewhat unimportant Neutral Somewhat important Very important 10 11 12 It is important for me to travel in a calm .