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EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42

Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L.

A Review on Vitex negundo L. – A Medicinally Important Plant
A. S. Vishwanathan* and R. Basavaraju2 Department of Biosciences, Sri Sathya Sai University, Prasanthi Nilayam, Puttaparthi, Andhra Pradesh – 515 134 (India) *Corresponding author: A. S. Vishwanathan Tel: +91 8555 287235; Fax: +91 8555 86919 E-mail address: 2 E-mail address: ABSTRACT Vitex negundo L. (Verbenaceae) is a hardy plant, flourishing mainly in the Indian subcontinent. All parts of the plant, from root to fruit, possess a multitude of phytochemical secondary metabolites which impart an unprecedented variety of medicinal uses to the plant. It is interesting to note that a single plant species finds use for treatment of a wide spectrum of health disorders in traditional and folk medicine; some of which have been experimentally validated. The plant is a component of a number of commercially available herbal formulations and has also shown potential as an effective bio-control agent. Employment of techniques such as cell and tissue culture would provide means of rapid propagation and conservation of the plant species and, from the point of view of phytochemistry, give scope for enhancement of the quality and quantity of the bioactive secondary metabolites occurring in the plant. Key words: phytochemical; pharmacological; bio-control; herbal formulations; in vitro culture Abbreviations: BA: 6-Benzyl Amino Purine CH: Casein Hydrolysate GA3: Gibberellic Acid IAA: Indole-3-Acetic Acid IBA: Indole-3-Butyric Acid Kn: Kinetin MS: Murashige and Skoog NAA: α-Naphthoxy Acetic Acid Vn: Vitex negundo 1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. Medicinal Plants Morgenstern [1] defines ethnobotany as the study of the indigenous uses of plants and the relationship between people and plants. Folk medicines of almost all civilizations of the world abound in herbal remedies. Majority of the traditional medicines used in healthcare are obtained from plants [2]. In spite of several advancements in the field of synthetic drug chemistry and antibiotics, plants continue to be one of the major raw materials for drugs treating various ailments of humans. Clinical and pharmaceutical investigations have in fact elevated the status of medicinal plants by identifying the role of active principles present in them and elaborating on their mode of action in human and animal systems [3]. The world is gradually turning to herbal formulations which are known to be effective against a large repertoire of diseases and ailments. More importantly, they are not known to cause any notable derogatory effects [4]; and are readily availabile at affordable prices [5]. Prajapati et al. [6], however, add a note of caution stating that plant remedies are effective and without side-effects, provided they are selected properly and taken under proper medical supervision. The active component, most often a secondary metabolite, varies in quality and quantity for a given plant species growing in different locations. The market value of such plants depends on their active content rather than merely their luxuriant growth. Purohit and Vyas [7] reckon that close to 70,000 species of the plant kingdom have been used as herbal medicine at one time or other. 1.2. Vitex negundo Linn. Vitex negundo Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a woody, aromatic shrub growing to a small tree. It commonly bears tri- or penta-foliate leaves on quadrangular branches, which give rise to bluish-purple coloured flowers in branched tomentose cymes. It thrives in humid places or along water courses in wastelands and mixed open forests and has been reported to occur in Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Malaysia, eastern Africa and


p-hydroxybenzoic acid. 4dihydro-2-naphthaldehyde [19] β-sitosterol. ursolic acid [2β -hydroxyurs.12-dien-28-oic acid vitedoin-A. Namdeo [10] states that about a quarter of all prescribed pharmaceuticals in advanced countries contain compounds that are directly or indirectly.7-dienecaryophyllene epoxide. (E)-nerolidol.[24] oic acid. n-tritriacontane. 3-formyl-4.4′trimethoxyflavanone [16] viridiflorol. caryophyllene oxide. Phytochemicals or secondary metabolites usually occur in complex mixtures that differ among plant organs and stages of development [11. hexadecanoic acid.7. a phenylnaphthalene-type lignan alkaloid. vitexin and isovitexin negundin-A.3-b)furan Essential oil of δ-guaiene. sabinene. β-sitosterol. nhentriacontane. 3α-diacetoxyoleana-5. vitedoin-B.5-dimethyl-8.12-dien-28-oic acid. α-cedrene. this review deals only with the medicinal importance and other related attributes of the plant.3′-dihydroxy-6.3β -diacetoxy-18-hydroxyoleana-5. casticin. (+)-lyoniresinol. β-caryophyllene. 12]. negundo PLANT PART Leaves PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS REFERENCE Seeds [12] hydroxy-3. negundo (will henceforth be referred to as Vn for sake of convenience) also finds use as a food crop (Facciola.3α diacetoxyoleana-5. 21] 2β. flavonoids [19] angusid. sitosterol. 1-oceten-3-ol. nishindine.[17] 12-en-28-oic acid]. oleanolic acid. 2α.12-dien-28-oic acid. 5.4′-trimethoxyflavanone. negundin-B. flowers and dried germacrene D. n-pentatriacontane. gamma-terpinene. germacren-4-ol.oxo-5H-6. Table 1 gives the details of the different phytochemical constituents that have been reported from different parts of Vn. Knowledge of the phytochemical constituents is very essential to enable investigation of the actual effectiveness of the plant in medicine. North America and the West Indies [8]. [27] fresh leaves. 2′-p-hydroxybenzoyl mussaenosidic acid [13. caryophyllene epoxide. Phytochemical Constituents Higher plants are warehouses of assorted bioactive constituents or phytochemicals which find ample use in the pharmaceutical industry. p-hydroxybenzoic acid.7dihydronaphtho (2.EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L.12-dien-28. 2. p-cymene and valencene. 3α-dihydroxyoleana-5. Madagascar. [22] five other lignan derivatives [23] 6-hydroxy-4-(4-hydroxy-3.4′-pentamethoxyflavone 6′-p-hydroxybenzoyl mussaenosidic acid. 2α.12-dien-28-oic acid.3′. sitosterol 3β -acetoxyolean-12-en-27-oic acid. 4-terpineol. fruits 31 .7. gluco-nonitol. ethyl-hexadecenoate. 1990) and a source of timber [9]. vitedoamine-A. n-hentriacontanol. 2α. n-nonacosane Roots 2β. globulol betulinic acid [3β-hydroxylup-20-(29)-en-28-oic acid].3α-dihydroxyoleana-5. p-hydroxybenzoic acid [18] protocatechuic acid. 5-oxyisophthalic acid. vitamin-C.methoxy-phenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-7-methoxy-3. guaia-3. α-selinene. Table 1 – Phytochemical constituents of different plant parts of V. Europe. Though V. 14] [15] 5. 3′-dihydroxy-7. (+)-diasyringaresinol. vitrofolal-E and [25] vitrofolal-F [26] acetyl oleanolic acid. β-selinene. 2α. 3β-diacetoxy-18-hydroxyoleana5.6. It is grown commercially as a crop in parts of Asia. [20.8. derived from plants.12-dien-28-oic acid.

The phytochemical components of medicinal plants often act individually. especially those in rural and tribal areas.ray crystallography studies would bring to light more such biologically active phytochemicals in different parts of the plant. Up to 80% of the population in Africa uses traditional medicine to help meet their health care needs [30]. tubercular neck swellings and sinusitis.3. and puffy eyes. Patkar [34] refers to the formulations described in Anubhoga Vaidya Bhaga. Jadhav and Bhutani [33] report the Ayurvedic use of Vn in dysmenorrhea. EMR. Traditional medicine accounts for around 40% of all health care delivered in China. 3. 2. Crushed leaf poultice is applied to cure headaches. Myriad medicinal properties have been ascribed to Vn and the plant has also been extensively used in treatment of a plethora of ailments [6]. 32 . headache and arthritic joints [35]. Essential oil of the leaves is also effective in treatment of venereal diseases and other syphilitic skin disorders. Traditional medicine Traditional medicine mainly comprises of Indian Ayurveda. populations continue to use traditional medicine as a result of historical circumstances and cultural beliefs.1.1. The seeds are administered internally with sugarcane vinegar for removal of swellings. 3.EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L. After having analyzed the various chemical components present in different parts of Vn. and the details have been laid out in Table 2 and 3.1. it is imperative that focus shifts to the medicinal applications of the plant. commonly known as Nisinda in Unani medicine. These properties have been categorized under three heads – traditional medicine. 3. Eclipta alba. Ayurveda The plant finds mention in the verses of the Charaka Samhita which is unarguably the most ancient and authoritative textbook of Indian Ayurveda. Powdered seeds are used in spermatorrhoea and serve as an aphrodisiac when dispensed along with dry Zingiber officinale and milk. People sleep on pillows stuffed with Vn leaves to dispel catarrh and headache and smoke the leaves for relief. regardless of the advent of modern medicine [36]. 3. The entries regarding the multifarious applications of Vn in folk medicine have been grouped regionally to emphasize the ethnobotanical diversity and ubiquity of the plant. Use of in silico tools to evaluate the efficacy of these phytochemical moieties as drugs would endow an added value to such a study.1. 3. painful. additively or synergistically in improvement of health [29]. Arabic Unani medicine and traditional Chinese medicine. A leaf decoction with Piper nigrum is used in catarrhal fever with heaviness of head and dull hearing.1. Medicinal Importance Herbal medicine. Vn has been designated as an anthelminthic (verse Su:4-15) and is prescribed as a vermifuge (verse Vi:7-21) in the exposition on the Charaka Samhita by Sharma [31]. A tincture of the root-bark provides relief from irritability of bladder and rheumatism. Other Ayurvedic uses of Vn are described by Tirtha [32]. Summary Extensive biochemical analyses have resulted in the detection and isolation of a wide variety of the phytochemical constituents from different parts of the plant. Sphaeranthus indicus and Carum copticum in a notable rejuvenation treatment known as Kayakalpa. a compendium of formulations in cosmetology. In Asia and Latin America. folk medicine and pharmacological evidence. Unani medicine Khare [19] outlines the applications of Vn. 3. Application of advanced spectroscopy tools such as NMR.1. Chinese medicine The Chinese Pharmacopoeia prescribes the fruit of Vn in the treatment of reddened. rather than merely curing a particular disease. Folk medicine Folklore systems of medicine continue to serve a large segment of population. aims at returning the body back to its natural state of health [28].2. FTIR along with X. in outlining the use of Vn leaves along with those of Azadirachta indica. neck gland sores.2.

Carbuncles. NO. negundo in folk medicine outside India 3.1. carminative and vermifuge Table 3 – Uses of V.3. Rheumatism Nilnikka Used as a tonic. [59] and Jana et al. [60] established anti-inflammatory properties of Vn extracts in acute and subacute inflammation. Headache. Eczema Liver disorders Sambhaalu Kwashiorkor Bana Wounds. Body ache Lakki. membrane stabilising and antioxidant activities [62]. negundo in folk medicine in India S. catarrhal and rheumatic afflictions Nekki Migraine Lingur Rheumatism Samhalu Encephalitis Nirgundi Expectorant Joint pain Languni Jaundice Notchi Used as antidote for snake bite Respiratory disorders. COUNTRY REGION NO. Taking cue from these traditional and folk systems of medicine. scientific studies have been designed and conducted in order to pharmacologically validate these claims. Whooping cough Chest-pain. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity Yunos et al. Fever. Headache Somi Mala Eye pain Used as refrigerant for cattle 48 types of ailments [37] Unpublished [38] [39] [40] [4] [41] [42] [4] [43] [4] [44] [4] [36] [45] [46] [47] [48] [49] [50] [51] [2] 8 Uttar Pradesh S. Flu and Cough Sinusitis. LOCAL NAME Buging′iab Simali Marvandaey Nirgud Kalgari - USED IN TREATMENT OF Weakness. STATE Andhra Pradesh REGION Puttaparthi LOCAL NAME Tella Vaavili USED IN TREATMENT OF REFERENCES 1 2 3 4 Assam Himachal Pradesh Karnataka Garwahl Parvati valley Dharwad Mysore Uttara Kanada Konkan Amravati Chota Nagpur Satpuda Malkangiri Southern parts Madurai Kancheepuram Salem and Tirucchirappalli Jaunsar-Bawar hills Moradabad Uttaranchal 5 6 Maharashtra Orissa Tamil Nadu 7 Asthma. Anti-inflammatory and pain suppressing activities of fresh leaves of Vn are attributed to prostaglandin synthesis inhibition [61].EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L.3. Pharmacological evidence Demands of the scientific community have necessitated experimental evidence to further underline the medicinal importance of Vn described above. Cellulitis. Vomiting. Toothache. Cancer Used as bath for women in puerperal state and for new born children Jaundice Pochatia Urticaria. Table 2 – Uses of V. Karilakki Toothache Bilenekki Febrile. antihistamine. Black fever Common cold. 3. Backache Used as toothbrush Used as anti-allergenic agent REFERENCES 1 2 3 Bangladesh China Nepal Chittagong Guangdong Kali Gandaki Buner [52] [53] [54] [55] [56] [9] [57] [58] [4] 4 Pakistan Kot Manzaray Baba valley Margallah hills Siran valley 5 6 Philippines Sri Lanka Gum and skin diseases Used as medicine for buffaloes in colic Cancer Eye disease. Malaria. Abcesses. 33 .

It must however be noted that these findings are in sharp contrast with the traditional use of Vn as aphrodisiac [19]. A comprehensive exploration in this regard could bring forth other medicinal applications of Vn hitherto unknown.EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L. commonly used tubercular drugs [83] and carbon tetrachloride [84. Summary Traditional medicine systems have also been developed throughout history by Asian. Such surveys have been conducted and reported from different regions of the Indian subcontinent. 3. 3. Methanolic root extracts of Vn showed antagonization of the lethal activity induced by venom of Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia [88].3. Villasenor and Lamadrid [86] have provided an account of the anti-hyperglycemic activity of Vn leaf extracts. [76] found the chloroform extracts of Vn leaves to be toxic to a human cancer cell line panel while on the other. Enzyme-inhibitory activity Root extracts of Vn showed inhibitory activity against enzymes such as lipoxygenase and butyryl-cholinesterase [25]. analgesics such as meperidine. Similar expeditions in other parts of India and countries where the plant is known to occur would bring to light the unknown aspects regarding this plant and other such plants that continue to remain obscure to the scientific community of the world at large. liver and lung tissues. The listing of Vn in each of them has a novel account in terms of its medicinal use. anti-convulsive agents such diphenylhydantoin and valporic acid [81]. On one hand. [59] reported that Vn extracts were non-cytotoxic on mammary and genito-urinary cells of mice.7. Other attributes In addition to the above mentioned activities Vn extracts have also been tested for a range of other systemic effects. Hu et al. [73] determined that ethanolic extracts of Vn showed estrogen-like activity and propounded its use in hormone replacement therapy. on entering the pipeline of pharmacological research. Central and South American and other cultures. vitamin C and carotene [65]. while dose-dependent changes were observed in the heart. 34 . Native American. Yunos et al. Arabic.3. 3.6. 3. Rooban et al. [66] evaluated the antioxidant and therapeutic potential of Vn flavonoids in modulating solenoid-induced cataract and found it to be effective. Drug potentiating ability Administration of Vn extracts potentiated the effect of commonly used anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen and phenylbutazone [77].4. African. Such applications of Vn. Leaf extracts of Vn were found to possess hepato-protective activity against liver damage induced by dgalactosamine [82]. 3. Laxative activity of Vn leaf extracts was exhibited in rats by Adnaik et al. 85]. Ethnobotanical studies open many doors to knowledge that has rarely been cataloged.3. catalase and glutathione peroxidase in Freund’s adjuvant induced arthritic-rats [64]. Effect on oxidative stress Leaf extracts of Vn were determined to possess anti-oxidant potential by [63]. xanthine-oxidase [68] and tyrosinase [69]. Oceanic. Histomorphological and cytotoxic effects Tandon and Gupta [74] studied the histomorphological effect of Vn extracts in rats and found the stomach tissue to be unaffected even by toxic doses. The lessons learnt from the traditional wisdom of the older generations combined with the modern scientific approach can provide the key to many of the unresolved issues of present-day medicine and open new vistas for the biotechnology industry. 3. Cytotoxic effect of leaf extracts of Vn was tested and affirmed using COLO-320 tumour cells [75]. diazepam [79] and chlorpromazine [80]. Effect on reproductive potential The flavonoid rich fraction of seeds of Vn caused disruption of the latter stages of spermatogenesis in dogs [71] and interfered with male reproductive function in rats [72].3.3. Various other medicinal properties of Vn listed in the above sub-sections need to be established by systematic experimental studies before they can actually find their way to the market in the form of herbal-based medication for common ailments and afflictions.3. sedative-hypnotic drugs like pentobarbitone. morphine and pethidine.3. α-chymotrypsin [67]. 3. [70] reported the HIV type 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity of the water extract of the aerial parts of Vn. The extracts were useful in decreasing levels of superoxide dismutase. Immunomodulatory effect of Vn extracts has been reported by Ravishankar and Shukla [89].4.5. Diaz et al. The extracts also possess the ability to combat oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation owing to the presence of flavones. could be taken up by the industry for Research and Development of drugs. [87]. aspirin [78].2. Woradulayapinij et al.

Vn has shown promise as an effective bio-control agent. Table 4 provides details of such products available in the market which have supporting evidence in the form of scientific publications. negundo MANUFACTURER Himalaya Drug Co. Arthrill Capsules and Arthritis. 100] [101] 5. Cervicitis Liver ailments Eye ailments REFERENCE [90] [91] [92] [93. deterrent or lethal activity on biological agents that cause disease and damage to other organisms. Kolkata. India Massage oil Cervical spondylitis Table 4 .Commercial herbal formulations containing V. Bangalore NAME OF PRODUCT Acne-n-Pimple Cream JointCare B cream Muscle and Joint Rub Pilex tablet and cream Rumalaya gel and tablets V-Gel Hamdard Laboratories. Joint pain. Biological activity Plants are known to produce a variety of compounds which have evolved as defence compounds against microbes and herbivores [11]. Stiff back Rheumatic Pain. Burns. Chandigarh. Sprain Osteoarthritis. Ltd.. MANUFACTURER Himalaya Drug Co. Table 5 lists selected herbal products which contain Vn extracts.. India Surya Herbal Ltd.Commercial herbal formulations containing V. musculoskeletal disorders Haemorrhoids (Piles) Inflammatory musculoskeletal disorders Vaginitis. The extracts of Vn possess inhibitory. India Jigrine Itone Eye Drops USED IN Acne and skin eruptions Rheumatic disorders Muscle strains. India IndSwift Ltd. Noida. 94] [95-97] [98] [99. 35 . New Delhi. 4..EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L. Bangalore. India Dey’s Medical. Table 6 summarizes the effect of Vn on different pathogens and pests. Fungal skin infections Tooth ache. India NAME OF PRODUCT Antiseptic Cream Dental Cream Himcolin Gel Relieef Cream Rheumanaad Tablet and Cream Ostranil Gel Amgesic Arthritis Tablets USED IN Wounds. New Delhi. Frozen shoulder. The elaboration on the biochemically active ingredients and the medicinal properties of Vn elicits queries on the effect of the plant extracts on other biological organisms. Bleeding gums Erectile dysfunction Joint and Muscle pain. Commercial products The pharmacological potential of Vn has been exploited effectively in formulating commercial products for treatment of health disorders. negundo Table 5 . but do not have a backing in the form of readily available research literature. Gout.. Lumbago Ambica Research & Arthritis Development Pvt.

1. Additionally. tissue culture technology has assumed importance as an alternative method for rapid conservation and propagation of this economically important plant species. 6. negundo extracts on biological pathogens and pests ACTIVITY Anti-bacterial Anti-feedant Anti-filarial Anti-fungal ACTION AGAINST Escherichia coli. has assumed importance in the last two decades because the structural complexity of naturally occurring metabolites forms the basis for the chemical synthesis of novel and more potent analogues. Table 6 – Activity of V. Shoot initiation and proliferation 6-Benzyl Amino Purine (BA) in combination with α-Naphthoxy Acetic Acid (NAA) was found to be the most efficient in initiation of shoot primordial and formation of multiple shoots. and Pseudomonas aerogenes (Bacteria) Spodoptera litura (Asian army-worm) Achoea janata (Castor semi-looper) Brugia malayi (Microfilarial parasite) Alternaria alternata. Klebsiella aerogenes. Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Mosquitoes) Culex quinquefasciatus (Mosquito) [113] [114] [115] Larvicidal [116] [117-121] Anopheles stephensi (Mosquitoes) Plutella xylostella (Diamond-back moth) Mosquito repellant Mosquito repellant Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Mosquito) Aedes aegypti (Mosquito) [121] [122] [123] [124] 6. Aphis gossypii (Melon or Cotton aphid). 112] Phthorimaea operculella (Potato-tuber moth) Sitotroga cerealella (Angoumois grain moth) Aphis citricola (Spirea aphid). Curvularia lunata Trichophyton mentagrophytes. involving investigations on the response of explants to different phytohormones and growth supplements on MS medium. Cryptococcus neoformans Aspergillus niger. Proteus vulgaris. 103] [104. by in vitro cell culture methods. production of plant secondary metabolites de novo.EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L. Candida albicans Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Rice leaf-folder) Plasmodium falciparum (Virus) Callosobruchus maculatus (Pulse beetle) REFERENCE [102] [17. In vitro studies conducted to date have been preliminary. Due to poor viability of seeds of Vn [126] and slow rate of conventional propagation [127]. Nodal explants of Vn were found to be most effective for in vitro studies using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium [128]. In vitro culture In vitro culture techniques offer viable means of mass multiplication and germplasm conservation of a multitude of plant species [125] and enhancement of the production of secondary metabolites. Myzus persicae (Green peach aphid) Anopheles subpictus. 105] [106-108] Anti-larval Anti-viral Insecticidal [109] [110] [111. Biotin and Casein Hydrolysate (CH) 36 .

453-469. [133] made use of activated charcoal for rooting of in vitro plantlets. Vadawale et al. India. (2004) 'Medicinal plant cultivation: A scientific approach'. Other nutrient media which have been shown to be useful for tissue culture of similar woody type of plants need to be tested. 2004. 37 . 131]. [7] Purohit. 1. [134] used full strength MS medium with IBA. Biodiversity and Conservation. A. 132]. 1st February. however there many gaps which need to be filled by concurrent researchers in different disciplines.. T. C. and Dhar. 1973.R. combination of NAA and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IAA) [126. One must make the best use of the naturally available resources which provide valuable raw material for advanced research. B. 130. Moreover. Thidiaruzon [130. L. Purohit. M. New Delhi. Shanker. [4] Kirtikar.. Usha et al. Sharma. The plant holds great promise as a commonly available medicinal plant and it is indeed no surprise that the plant is referred to in the Indian traditional circles as ‘sarvaroganivarini’ – the remedy for all diseases. [5] Sharma. Dehradun. Singh. 131] and coconut water [131] gave positive results as growth supplements for shoot proliferation and multiple shoot formation. S.S. in this case Vn.A. (2001) 'What is ethnobotany?'. [129] observed in vitro flowering with a combination treatment of BA and NAA.P. sodium sulphate [129]. Jodhpur. Root formation and elongation Root formation and elongation was commonly observed with MS medium fortified with Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) [129. C. Nature has many lessons to teach and the onus is on us to get attuned and grasp whatever is within our reach. S. It is much simpler to manipulate and monitor the conditions essential for plant growth and development under laboratory conditions... 7. and Vyas. Sharief and Jagadishchandra [126] obtained shoots from stem callus using Kn and NAA in combination. Agrobios. 133].C. (2008) 'Herbal medicine for market potential in India: An overview'. before it is too late.K. REFERENCES [1] Morgenstern.K.. NAA (Afroz et al. Application of established protocols using Agrobacterium rhizogenes (for hairy root cultures) and optimal elicitors needs to be investigated for enhancement of the yield of secondary metabolites in Vn. in vitro methods can also be exploited to standardize the secondary metabolite content in a given amount of plant material which in turn would provided an added advantage in industrial applications of the plant.3. S. (1984) Indian Medicinal Plants. 6. Handique [132] reported the use of Woody Plant medium but however found better response of explants in MS medium. 13. National Council for Education Research and Training. N. K. its export of phytochemical derivatives is insignificant in relation to developed countries of the world [135]. [126]. Additionally. Although India ranks among the top nations of the world medicinal plant exports. (2004) A Handbook of medicinal plants. A. D.D. and Basu. U. Adhatoda vasica and Acorus calamus are found‖. Current approaches to in vitro propagation have shown encouraging results only utilizing MS medium as the substrate. K. 1984. and Rao. Considerable amount of literature is available on various aspects of the plant – traditional to biochemical and ethnobotanical to pharmacological. It is well-established that plants growing under stress conditions evolve to synthesize variants of commonly produced secondary metabolites. 6. 2008). Chandramu et al. (2004) 'Prioritization of medicinal plants on the basis of available knowledge. [136] reiterates a popular local quote of the Bhangalis in the Western Himalayan region of India which translates as –―A man cannot die of disease in an area where Vitex negundo.2.S.EJBS 3 (1) ● April-June 2010: 30-42 Vishwanathan & Basavaraju ● A review on Vitex negundo L. combination of IAA and IBA [127. and Kumar. existing practices and use value status in Uttaranchal. (1973) Medicinal Plants. Tyagi.. Academic Journal of Plant Sciences. [2] Kala. Cell culture provides means of bioconversion of low value compounds into high value products and enhancement of rate of production of these compounds.. CONCLUSION Uniyal et al. 624. Summary The prospects of rapid multiplication and propagation coupled with enhanced secondary metabolite production bring out with greater emphasis the need for establishment of standardized protocols for in vitro culture of medicinal plants. India'. Farooquee. S. [6] Prajapati. (provided that he knows how to use them). as also the role of other plant growth regulators and supplements. Agrobios India. Gibberellic Acid (GA3) [127].V. [3] Dutta. In contrast to other reports using half strength MS medium to induce rooting. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. C. in vitro technology can potentially overcome common problems such as crop failure due to erratic weather conditions or mineral deficiencies in the soil. 26-36. Micropropagation also the advantage of rapid clonal multiplication of desired genotypes. 2009.

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