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You are on page 1of 26

TEN SIMPLE RULES FOR MATHEMATICAL WRITING

Dimitri Bertsekas M.I.T. APRIL 2002

Ten Simple Rules, D. P. Bertsekas

2

ON WRITING

• “Easy reading is damn hard writing” (Hawthorne) • “Word-smithing is a much greater percentage of what I am supposed to be doing in life than I would ever have thought” (Knuth) • “I think I can tell someone how to write but I canʼt think who would want to listen” (Halmos)

Ten Simple Rules, D. P. Bertsekas

deduction. ﬁnance. physics. • Examples that are: – Math papers and textbooks – Analysis of mathematical models in engineering. D. or problem solving. economics. P. letters. essays. etc – Experimental/nonmathematical papers and reports Ten Simple Rules.3 WHAT IS MATH WRITING? • Writing where mathematics is used as a primary means for expression. Bertsekas . etc • Examples that are not: – Novels.

Bertsekas . D. P.4 WHAT IS DIFFERENT ABOUT MATH WRITING? • Math writing blends two languages (natural and math) – Natural language is rich and allows for ambiguity – Math language is concise and must be unambiguous • Math writing requires slow reading – – – – Often expresses complex ideas Often must be read and pondered several times Often is used as reference Usually must be read selectively and in pieces Ten Simple Rules.

There is no useful recipe …” Halmos) Controversial (where do proofs start and end? … I am not sure what the assumptions are … I canʼt ﬁnd what I need … etc) – – – • Instead we will advocate a structured style – Offers speciﬁc veriﬁable rules that students can follow and thesis advisors can check Ten Simple Rules. D. P. Bertsekas .5 WHY THIS TALK? • • Experience is something you get only after you need it … One current model: The conversational style – “Mathematics should be written so that it reads like a conversation between two mathematicians on a walk in the woods” (Halmos) “Talk to your readers as you write” (Strang) Very hard to teach to others (“Effective exposition is not a teachable art.

“Handbook of Writing for the Mathematical Sciences” • Alley. D. “A Guide for the Young Economist” Ten Simple Rules. “Mathematical Writing” (www) • Kleiman. “The Craft of Scientiﬁc Writing” • Thomson.” MIT (www) • Krantz. “A Primer of Mathematical Writing” • Higham. “Writing a Math Phase Two Paper. et al. “How to Write Mathematics” • Knuth. “Write Right!” • Halmos.6 SOURCES • General style books – Strunk and White. “The Elements of Style” (www) – Fowler and Aaron. Bertsekas . P. “The Little Brown Handbook” – Venolia.

etc) • Broad rules: – Apply to the entire document – General style and writing strategy rules – Are non-veriﬁable (e.g.7 RULES OF THE GAME • Small rules: – Apply to a single sentence (e. organize. etc) • Composition rules (our focus in this talk): – Relate to how parts of the document connect – Apply to multiple sentences – Are veriﬁable Ten Simple Rules.. mathspeak rules. D.. sentence structure rules. be clear and concise. comma rules. P.g. Bertsekas .

– GOOD: Proposition: The function f is continuous. Bertsekas . D. – GOOD: Let k be a positive integer or Consider an integer k>0. – BAD: Let x ∈ Rn be a vector. – GOOD: Let x be a vector in Rn or Consider a vector x ∈ Rn.8 SOME EXAMPLES OF SMALL RULES I • Break up long sentences into simple ones • Mathspeak should be “readable” – BAD: Let k>0 be an integer. • Donʼt start a sentence with mathspeak – BAD: Proposition: f is continuous. P. Ten Simple Rules.

D.9 SOME EXAMPLES OF SMALL RULES II • Use active voice (“we” is better than “one”) • Minimize “strange” symbols within text • Make proper use of “very.” “easy.. i..e. cf. P. Bertsekas .” etc • Use abbreviations correctly (e.) • Comma rules • “Which” and “that” rules • … ETC Ten Simple Rules..” “fundamental.” “nice.g.” “trivial. etc.

rhythm • Organizational rules (how to structure your work. clarity. P.10 SOME EXAMPLES OF BROAD RULES • Language rules/goals to strive for: precision. forthrightness. etc) • “Honesty is the best policy” in describing the relation of your work with others (Halmos) • “Down with the irrelevant and the trivial” focus on the essential (Halmos) • … ETC Ten Simple Rules. rewrite. ﬂuidity. proofread. familiarity. how to edit. conciseness. D. Bertsekas .

D.11 THE TEN COMPOSITION RULES • Structure rules (break it into digestible pieces) – Organize in segments – Write segments linearly – Consider a hierarchical development • Consistency rules (be boring creatively) – Use consistent notation and nomenclature – State results consistently – Donʼt underexplain . Bertsekas . P.donʼt overexplain • Readability rules (make it easy for the reader) – – – – Tell them what youʼll tell them Use suggestive references Consider examples and counterexamples Use visualization when possible Ten Simple Rules.

not too short to lack content and unity Ten Simple Rules. P.e.. Bertsekas .12 1. i. D. an entity intended to be read comfortably from beginning to end • Must be not too long to be tiring. ORGANIZE IN SEGMENTS • “Composition is the strongest way of seeing” (Weston) • Extended forms of composition have a fundamental unit: – – – – Novel " " " Film " " " Slide presentation"" Evening news program " Paragraph Scene Slide News report • Key Question: What is the fundamental unit of composition in math documents? • Answer: A segment.

13 SEGMENTATION PROCESS • Examples of segments: – – – – A mathematical result and its proof An example Several related results/examples with discussion An appendix – A long abstract – A conclusions section • A segment should “stand alone” (identiﬁable start and end. D. Bertsekas . P. transition material) • Length: 1/2 page to 2-3 pages Ten Simple Rules.

Bertsekas . Illustrations Transition Material Ten Simple Rules.14 SEGMENT STRUCTURE Title (optional) Transition Material Definitions. D. Examples Arguments. P.

D.5 page) (0.Axioms " Discrete models " " " Continuous models " " Properties of probability laws " Models and reality " History of probability " " " See Sec.75 page) (1.2 of Bertsekas and Tsitsiklis probability book Ten Simple Rules.25 page) (2 pages) (1 page) (2 pages) (1. MODELS • • • • • • • • • Sample space . Bertsekas .25 page) (1 page) Choosing a sample space " Sequential models " " Probability laws .15 EXAMPLE OF SEGMENTATION: A SECTION ON PROB.Events " " (1 page) " (0. 1. P.

lemmas). Depthﬁrst order is usually better. Ten Simple Rules. lemmas. etc.16 2. lemmas) so as to minimize the total number of “crossings” over other arguments (deﬁnitions. subject to the dependency constraints. deﬁnitions. Bertsekas . should be placed close to where they are used • View ordering as an optimization problem • A linear/optimal order is one that positions arguments (deﬁnitions. D. P. WRITE SEGMENTS LINEARLY • Question: What is a good way to order the ﬂow of deduction and dependency? • General rule: Arguments should be placed close to where they are used (minimize thinking strain) • Similarly.

P. Bertsekas .17 EXAMPLES OF ORDERING 1 2 Level 1 Arguments Level 2 Arguments Dependency Graph of Arguments 1 3 4 T 1 2 3 3 Nonlinear Linear 2 4 4 T T Ten Simple Rules. D.

CONSIDER A HIERARCHICAL DEVELOPMENT • Arguments/results used repeatedly may be placed in special segments for efﬁciency Lemmas 1.g. 2. Bertsekas .18 3. math background. etc) • Analogy to subroutines in computer programs Ten Simple Rules. P. 3 Level 1 Hierarchy Analysis using Lemmas 3 & 1 Level 2 Hierarchy Analysis using Lemmas 1 & 2 Analysis using Lemmas 2 & 3 • Possibly create special segments for special material (e. notation. D..

19 4. Ten Simple Rules. B for ball. f for function. Bertsekas .n) vs xmn • Avoid unnecessary notation: – BAD: Let X be a compact subset of a space Y. it attains a minimum over X. Examples: S for set. etc • Use simple notation. superscripts for components • Use suggestive/mnemonic notation. lower case for values – Use subscripts for sequences. USE CONSISTENT NOTATION • Choose a notational style and stick with it • Examples: – Use capitals for random variables. P. D. Example: Try to avoid parenthesized indexes: x(m. – GOOD: A continuous real-valued function attains a minimum over a compact set. If f is a continuous real-valued function over X.

20 5. D. Bertsekas . P. then C and D hold. – Proposition 2: Cʼ and Dʼ hold. assuming that Aʼ and Bʼ are true. • Good example: – Proposition 1: If A and B hold. then Cʼ and Dʼ hold. make the interesting content stand out • Use similar format in similar situations • Bad example: – Proposition 1: If A and B hold. Ten Simple Rules. then C and D hold. – Proposition 2: If Aʼ and Bʼ hold. STATE RESULTS CONSISTENTLY • Keep your language/format simple and consistent (even boring) • Keep distractions to a minimum.

donʼt go much over or under • Explain potentially unfamiliar material in separate segment(s) • Consider the use of appendixes for background or difﬁcult/specialized material Ten Simple Rules.g. research specialist. undergraduate. Bertsekas . etc) • Aim your math to that level. DONʼT OVEREXPLAIN DONʼT UNDEREXPLAIN • Choose a target audience level of expertise/ background (e.21 6. 1st year graduate. P.. D.

“It turns out that so-and-so is true.g. P.. TELL THEM WHAT YOUʼLL TELL THEM • Keep the reader informed about where you are and where you are going • Start each segment with a short introduction and perhaps a road map • Donʼt string together seemingly aimless statements and surprise the reader with “we have thus proved so and so” • Announce your intentions/results. note …” • Tell them what you told them Ten Simple Rules. e.22 7. To see this. Bertsekas . D.

g. P. USE SUGGESTIVE REFERENCES • Frequent numbered equation/proposition referencing is a cardinal sin • It causes page ﬂipping.23 8. and earlier analysis • Dare to be repetitive (but donʼt overdo it) Ten Simple Rules. weak duality theorem. e. Bellmanʼs equation. etc • Repeat simple math expressions • Remind the reader of unusual notation. Bertsekas . and breaks concentration • Refer to equations/results/assumptions by content/name (in addition to number). wastes the readerʼs time. D..

P. D. and the need for the assumptions Ten Simple Rules.e.24 9.. CONSIDER EXAMPLES AND COUNTEREXAMPLES • “Even a simple example will get three-quarters of an idea across” (Ullman) • Examples should have some spark. Bertsekas . aim at something the reader may have missed • Illustrate deﬁnitions/results with examples that clarify the boundaries of applicability • Use counterexamples to clarify the limitations of the analysis. i.

P.25 10. D. not repeat it • Use a ﬁgure to illustrate the main idea of a proof/argument with no constraint of math formality • Prefer graphs over tables Ten Simple Rules. Bertsekas . USE VISUALIZATION WHEN POSSIBLE • • • • “A picture is worth a thousand words” Keep ﬁgures simple and uncluttered Use substantial captions Captions should reinforce and augment the text.

Bertsekas .26 THE END “Bad thinking never produces good writing” " " " " " " (Lamport) Good writing promotes good thinking … Ten Simple Rules. P. D.

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