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POLITICAL MARKETING

Before learning the facts about political marketing it is mandatory to learn what marketing is and what its scope is. 1. Marketing Marketing is about identifying and meeting human and social needs. One of the shortest good definitions is ―meeting needs profitably‖. The American Marketing Association offers the following formal definition: ―Marketing is an organizational function and a set of process for creating, communicating, and delivering in ways value that to customers the and for managing and its

customer relationships

benefit

organization

stakeholders.‖Coping with these exchange process calls for a considerable amount of work and skill. The definition presented above reflects the managerial side of marketing. We can distinguish between a social and a managerial definition of marketing. A social definition shows the role marketing plays in society. Here is a social definition that serves our purpose: Marketing is a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. Aim of marketing is to make selling superfluous. The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well that the product or service fits him and sells itself. Now the question arises what all things can be marketed. Marketing people market several types of entities such as goods, services, events, experiences, persons, places, properties, organizations, information and ideas. Now days in various democratic countries, political parties have started adopting marketing
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concepts and strategies. Political parties try to market persons (contestants), organizations (their own parties) and ideas (their philosophies).Let us discuss what is political marketing, its scope, characteristics, relevance etc.

2.1 Political Marketing: a definition Harrop (1990) perceives political marketing as being not just about Political advertising, party political broadcasts and electoral speeches but covering the whole area of party positioning in the electoral market. Kavanagh (1995, 1996) sees political marketing as electioneering, i.e. as a set of strategies and tools to trace and study public opinion before and during an election campaign, to develop campaign communications and to assess their impact. A similar view is expressed by Scammell(1995). Maarek (1995), Conceptualizes political marketing as ―a complex process, the outcome of a more global effort implicating all the factors of the politician‘s political communication‖ and emphasizes that ―‗political marketing‘ is the general method of ‗political communication‘, one of its means‖. He considers the introduction of marketing in politics as an outcome of ―the elaboration of a policy of political communication…a global strategy of design, rationalization and conveyance of modern political communication‖

2.4 Political Communication: a definition In an overview of the field of political communication in the UK, Franklin (1995) points out the broadness of character, the range and the lack of clarity of what falls into the concept of political communication. Franklin, in an effort, to operational this vast field, provides the following, very comprehensive and detailed, definition:

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―The field of political communication studies the interactions between media and political systems, locally, nationally, and internationally‖. Franklin argues that political communication focuses on the analysis of: a) b) c) The political content of the media The actors and agencies involved in the production of that content The impact of political media content on the audience and/or on policy development d) e) The impact of the political system on the media system The impact of the media system on the political system

Commenting on that definition, Franklin (1995) emphasizes that it ―will need to accommodate even further diversity, expressing the varied analytical approaches, assumptions, and disciplinary backgrounds of communication scholars‖. These backgrounds range from political science to history, from cultural theory to sociology and to social psychology.

2.5 Political Marketing and Political Communication Scammell (1999) notes that ―the political communications literature tends to treat political marketing as only one aspect of broader processes‖. According to her, political communicators perceive political marketing as ―a response to developments in media and communication technologies‖ and tend to view modern politics as intertwined with the media. The emergence of non ideological ―catch all‖ parties and the role of the media as an autonomous major actor in the political process trouble political communication scholars who emphasize the potential consequences for civic engagement with politics and voice concerns over the quality of communication output and its influence on the democratic system as a whole.
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priorities. this new focus ―effectively reverses the perspective offered by campaign studies/political communications approaches. tools of promotion within the overall marketing mix‖. political communication. Political marketing is no longer a subset of broader processes: political communications becomes a subset of political marketing. At the same time. and product design and product promotion. Scammell (1995) notes though that political marketing should be discerned from propaganda as the former involves reciprocity which the latter lacks. 1999) view. Emphasis on strategy introduces a new focus. The incorporation of strategy in election campaigning influences goals.In Scammell‘s (1995. market intelligence. this ―strategy‖ element is a very serious threat to democratic processes. Lees-Marshment (2001) argues that political communication focuses on the role of long-term communication while political marketing is more comprehensive binding together campaigning. which shifts away from the use of promotional techniques and deals with the overall strategic objectives of parties and candidates. According to Scammell (1999). policies and party behavior. Butler and Collins (1994) present the structural characteristics of political marketing as follows (figure 2): 4 . marketing‘s unique contribution is the introduction of strategic concern regarding the electorate‘s wants and needs.

The aforementioned analysis shows quite clearly the ―shift‖ in the focus and range of the concept of political marketing.The Structural characteristics of political marketing Through the prism of the aforementioned arguments it can be claimed that political communication can offer guidance to political marketing on how to improve its negative perception. which has taken place in the past decade. 5 . on how to make its outcomes more substantial to voters. on how to improve its standards and on how to attract media attention.

6 . political communication is much wider in scope. Political communication scholars clearly have a much different perception of the field. focusing on the totality of communications and interactions taking place within the political process and is not just interested in voter behavior and campaign studies. Thus. According to political marketing theorist. 2. Like mainstream marketing each political party has to offer some product which they wanted to sell in the market. Product Function: In political marketing practice. there should be an exchange between political parties and electorate in the electoral market.From being a set of theoretical and practical tools for the successful conduct of election campaigns.requisites for successful political marketing management. Of course that is how political marketers perceive it. In USA.6 Functions of Political marketing Functions of political marketing are pre. political marketing has expanded to a permanent strategic element of governance. from being a subset of a party‘s electoral communication. According to them. it has now grown so much that it has―annexed‖ political communication as one of its components. the main product function of Democratic Party was to sell Obama Brand and good governance based on change. an ideology or certain specific foreign policies. there 8 generic functions of a successful political marketing which includes the following: 1. In some cases. Here party wants to market its product which is the promise of a good government. the product may be image of the candidate. Hence the entire marketing process is designed to market the product.

3. It is often seen as the heart of political marketing. The communication 7 .the electorate-with access to all relevant information about the political product. Distribution Function: The distribution function refers to the conditions regarding the availability of exchange offer to the exchange partner. it implies. The campaign delivery function provides the primary exchange partner. cost function refers to the management of attitudinal and behavioral barriers of voters through calculated campaign strategies. The communication function interacts with the campaign delivery aspects of the distribution function-the latter provides the medium while the former defines the content. In political marketing. This includes the dissemination of information regarding crucial party policies and programs. political ideas and future and sense making of a complex political world programs but also aiding the interpretation Often the communication function involves simplification of political messages. The function has two aspects campaign delivery and offering delivery. making sure that medium of distribution fit the ideology of the party etc. placing the candidates in right channels.2. Communication Function: Communication involves the function of informing the primary exchange partner of the offer and its availability. providing political content. concise political stand etc. For a political party. Cost Function: One of the main functions of main stream marketing is to sell a product which is cost effective compared to other products in the market so that customer gets greater monetary satisfaction. The voter should receive all the information regarding the product without spending money for it. 4.

In fact the success of other functions largely depends on fund raising function. In order to provide the political actor with appropriate resources. Furthermore. 8 . etc. donations. Coordinated and synergic use of managerial activities allows for a more efficient deployment of campaign resources. A political party depends to a varying extent on membership fee. But political marketing management cannot survive without fund raising. Fund Raising Function: In mainstream marketing fundraising is not an issue.function prescribes a dialogue with the exchange partners – a multidirectional flow of information and shared agenda setting. News Management Function: This function is closely linked to communication function. 5. the use of parallel campaigns and the endorsements by other organizations can increase the trustworthiness of the political messages. media management. But news management function is targeted to secondary exchange partners or intermediaries of which media is an important part. In other words it is the management of publicity of the candidate and party. Public relation activities. online advertising campaign management etc are news management functions. 7. Parallel Campaign Management Function: This function describes the requirement of co-coordinating the campaign management activities of a political party with those of parallel organizations. 6. In the era of communication revolution news management plays a vital role in success of political marketing. a distinct fund raising function needs to be addressed.

the uprising of petty nobility against John of England in the 13th century. Political campaigns also include organized efforts to alter policy within any institution or organization. The function is concerned with relationship with party members and activists as well as the spoke persons. Some examples of political campaigns are: the effort to execute or banish Socrates from Athens in the 5th century BC. Politics is as old as humankind and is not limited to democratic or governmental institutions. The internal marketing functions play a critical role in creating internal stability and therefore the credibility of the party regarding its outside image. 3.2 Techniques A campaign team (which may be as small as one inspired individual. or the 2005 push to remove Michael Eisner from the helm of The Walt Disney Company. political campaigns often refer to electoral campaigns. to develop their positioning strategy among different socioeconomic classes of Indian public. Internal Cohesion Management Functions: Besides the external management aspects. wherein representatives are chosen or referenda are decided.1 Political campaign A political campaign is an organized effort which seeks to influence the decision making process within a specific group. internal structure and functions of the political party also needs to be managed professionally. or a heavilyresourced group of professionals) must consider how to communicate the message 9 .8. 3. Parties started hiring political consultants and ad agencies. Before understanding the whole strategies and view point of political parties we must learn what political campaigning is and its various techniques. In democracies. During the past decade even the Indian political parties realized the importance of marketing and advertising in elections.

) to influence the decisions made for and by groups. • Modern technology and the internet The internet is now a core element of modern political campaigns. target audience. message. rallies and other similar public events (if enough people can be persuaded to come) may be a very effective campaign tool. rallies and protests Holding protests. Campaign advertising draws on techniques from commercial advertising and propaganda. lobbying. These Internet technologies are used for cause-related fundraising. These techniques are often combined into a formal strategy known as the campaign plan. and resources available. • Campaign advertising Campaign advertising is the use of paid media (newspapers. the support that the campaign has.of the campaign. The plan takes account of a campaign's goal. The avenues available to political campaigns when distributing their messages is limited by the law. • Mass meetings. through the number of people in attendance. Holding mass meetings with speakers is powerful as it shows visually. Communication technologies such as e-mail. radio. and the imagination of the campaigns' participants. and raise money. television. websites and pod casts for various forms of activism to enable faster communications by citizen movements and deliver a message to a large audience. available resources. 10 . volunteering. etc. recruit volunteers. • Media management The public media (in 'free media' or 'earned media')may run the story that someone is trying to get elected or to do something about such and such. The campaign will typically seek to identify supporters at the same time as getting its message across. These ads are designed by political consultants and the campaign's staff. and organizing. and community building.

 Vote-by-mail. campaigns in most states must have a strategy in place to impact early voting. by such techniques as counter-rallies. online communities. previously known as 'absentee ballots' have grown significantly in importance as an election tool. by volunteers)  By distributing leaflets or selling newspapers  Through websites. picketing of rival parties‘ meetings.a series of brief appearances in several small towns.Other techniques  Writing directly to members of the public (either via a professional marketing firm or. The political campaigns though have existed 11 .  Through a whistle stop tour . Parties want to reach to the maximum number of voters and earn largest share of their minds and hearts. particularly on a small scale. Today.  Organizing political house parties. with the exception of those parties self-identifying as activist).  Hampering the ability of political competitors to campaign. Political parties indulge themselves into political communication to influence masses. and solicited or unsolicited bulk email  Through a new technique known as Micro targeting that helps identify and target small demographic slices of voters. or overwhelming rival candidates‘ offices with mischievous phone calls (most political parties in representative democracies publicly distance themselves from such disruptive and morale-affecting tactics.  Remaining close to or at home to make speeches to supporters who come to visit as part of a front porch campaign.  Using endorsements of other celebrated party members to boost support.

The various innovative techniques would be dealt in latter sections. 1984 when she was assassinated by her personal bodyguard. 12 . During the election campaign. a sympathy wave swept the country and the Congress returned to power with P V Narasimha Rao (Rao) as PM. The BJP consolidated its position in the 1989 elections and won86 seats. Morarji Desai(Desai) became the first noncongress PM of India. Indira was the daughter of India's first PM. In 1989. Indira remained as PM till October 31. History of Indian politics Since the first elections held in 1952. the party won by a huge margin. the Congress was defeated by the Janata Party. In 1984. Jawaharlal Lal Nehru. Following her death.The Congress has been a major political party and had formed the government maximum number of times. Again. However. In 1977. The new government served its full term. which had won 142 seats. after which mid-term elections were announced. his government did not last long and the Congress regained power in 1980 under the leadership of Indira Gandhi (Indira). the Congress fielded Indira's son Rajiv Gandhi (Rajiv) as the Prime Ministerial candidate. formed the government with the support of the BJP. the BJP got only two seats in the Lok Sabha. Riding on the sympathy wave generated by Indira's assassination. winning 120 seats. the Janata Dal. though the Congress was the single largest party with 197 seats. bagging 415 of the 542 seats in the 1984 elections. The coalition government lasted for 15 months.Tamil Nadu. Rajiv was assassinated at an election rally in Sriperumbudur. However. there had been 14 Lok Sabha elections in India.since post independence era but it is only the recent times when parties have adopted modern techniques to reach maximum number of people . the BJP had emerged stronger. 4. including that held in 2004.

It discusses in depth the political advertising strategy of the erstwhile NDA government and examines how the campaign was aimed as a tool to win votes. The announcement of early dissolution did not surprise political analysts in the country.Congress that mainly targeted the masses. the former Prime Minister (PM) of India -Atal Bihari Vajpayee (Vajpayee) announced plans to dissolve the 13th Lok Sabha and go for early elections in April-May2004. Analysts felt that the decision to go for early elections was maiden view of the booming Indian economy. They felt the popularity of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) led National Democratic Alliance (NDA) was at its peak. The term of the Vajpayee government was scheduled to end in October 2004. The 'India Shining' campaign that marked the beginning of a new age of political advertising in India. "The popularity of the National Democratic Alliance and the standing of the PM himself have never been as high as they are currently. A leading newspaper of India reported. peaceful relationship with India's neighboring countries and the major opposition party – the Indian National Congress (Congress) being in a demoralized state. 5. encouraging state assembly election results. and explores reasons why the' India Shining' campaign was unsuccessful. Emergence of political advertising in India In India the major credit of introducing political advertising on large and programmed way goes to BJP which had launched an ad campaign on television. The case also discusses the political advertising campaign of the present ruling party .1 Introduction In mid January 2004. The case ends with a debate on the efficacy of political advertising campaign in general.5." 13 .

the BJP spent close to Rs 5 billion on the campaign. bagged the contract. As the polls neared. Finally. Grey Worldwide-India (GWI).The NDA government approached 20 advertising agencies in its efforts to get an advertisement campaign developed that would highlight India as a fast developing country. It then approached 11 other agencies in October 2003. Party leaders expressed the opinion that the maximum they could win was 135 seats. The campaign was aimed at highlighting India's achievements under the NDA government. Reportedly. almost all leading television channels. the Congress hoped it would win more than the 112 seats it had won in the last elections.' By the end of January 2004. 5. On the other hand. The government reviewed all the proposals submitted by the agencies but was not satisfied. a part of the Grey Global Group. the BJP gained more confidence.The BJP decided to leverage its popularity and initiated a major poll campaign with the slogan 'India Shining. 14 .' The campaign was aimed at highlighting the progress India had made during the tenure of Vajpayee as PM. The BJP's President. Several opinion polls conducted before the elections and exit polls on election days predicted that the NDA was coming back to power. newspapers and magazines in India had carried advertisements as part of the campaign. The campaign was supported by another catch phrase 'Feel Good Factor.2 The Campaign and its Response The genesis of the 'India Shining' campaign began in July 2003. Venkaiah Naidu (Naidu) claimed the alliance would get more than 300 Lok Sabha seats.

India Rising takes you back to the Independence era when we were just formulating an identity. India Alive carries with it the implication of death or sickness.' The party leaders said that in reality. compared to the third quarter 15 . The 'India Shining' slogan was created by Prathap Suthan (Suthan). Suthan also considered some other lines such as 'India Alive.' 'India Rising' and 'India Dazzling. the wife of the late Rajiv. Congress opposed the campaign by terming it as 'India Cheated.4% growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of India in the third quarter of the fiscal year 2003-04. the Indian economy was not booming and there was no reason for the country to feel good. India Dazzling was an over-claim.' The campaign showed 10. In the initial days of the campaign. Further.' Suthan said.' However. a search was done on the Internet to gather useful information. The Ministry of Finance also provided the company with some relevant facts and figures to use in the campaign. GWI Before selecting this slogan. the government told GWI that the campaign should focus on the improving economic conditions and the rapid progress made by India in recent years. vehemently opposed the claims made in the 'India Shining' campaign. After finalizing the slogan. "Each of them were wrong in certain ways. 'India Shining' conveyed a sense of health. 5. It also ridiculed Advani's catch phrase by terming it as' Fail Good." According to him. he felt that none of these were as appropriate as 'India Shining. prosperity and radiance. GWI's planning department gathered preliminary information including key statistics and information on Indian economy. national creative director.During the conceptualization stage of the campaign.3 The Debate The Congress. under the leadership of Sonia Gandhi (Sonia).

poor man. However. Jairam Ramesh (Ramesh). which asked 'Aam Aadmi Ko Kya Mila?' (What did the common man get?).. a senior leader of the Congress commented. The company structured its campaign in the form of a question.‖ 16 .7%. Think! "The hand of Congress is with the poor. the Indian economy had grown only by 5.based advertising company..insisted that the increase in GDP was largely due to better monsoon. One advertisement showed anold. the Vajpayee era could have been written off.Gareeb ke Saath" ("What is a use of that government which cannot bring peace and prosperity in the lives of the poor.in the fiscal year 2002-03. a US." The Congress also said that the GDP growth for 2003-04 was high as it had been compared with a dismal growth of 4. Most advertisements by the Congress did not use colors and concentrated more on the poor.4 million new jobs were created every year. the Congress.2% during 2002-03. "Woh hukumat kis kaam ki jisme gareeb ki zindgi mein sukh chain nahi hai? Sochiye! Congress ka haath.The 'India Shining' campaign claimed that 8. The Campaign of the Congress The Congress also took professional help to counter the "India Shining" campaign. "The large picture looks good only because the monsoon has been good in 2003. Otherwise. an Indian subsidiary of Leo Burnett. The campaign argued that the masses were not benefited by the' feel good' factor that the NDA was stressing. It hired Orchard Advertising.The punch line said. Orchard's advertisement strategy was to counter the mood set by the "India Shining" campaign. It also claimed that during the five years of the NDA government.

The defeat of the NDA in the Lok Sabha elections ignited a debate not only among its leaders but also among psychologists and other experts. 17 .5.4 The Result Various opinion polls and exit polls too suggested that the NDA government would be re-elected. The defeat of the NDA's major allies the TDP and the AIADMK. A few analysts felt that the "India Shining" campaign made false claims since the whole of India was not shining. and the government has fallen into that chasm. political parties have to follow a certain code of conduct during the whole election campaign. The Congress and its allies got 219seats of which the Congress on its own bagged 145 seats. They tried to draw conclusions on why the NDA had lost despite a major advertising campaign. a well-known writer in India. who bagged 53 seats. The NDA managed to get only 188 seats with the leading party -the BJP getting 138 seats. commented." In India. meant that the NDA did not have any support to draw on. However. They said that the campaign alienated the common man for whom India was not shining at all. the Congress formed the next government. the election results stunned all political parties in India as well as leading psychologists and political experts. "The gulf between India's rich and poor has never looked wider than it does today. Salman Rushdie. With the support of the Left parties.

such as bribing of voters. (3) There shall be no appeal to caste or communal feelings for securing votes. (2) Criticism of other political parties. intimidation of voters. religious or linguistic. shall be confined to their policies and program. not connected with the public activities of the leaders or workers of other parties. General Conduct (1) No party or candidate shall include in any activity which may aggravate existing differences or create mutual hatred or cause tension between different castes and communities. Temples or other places of worship shall not be used as forum for election propaganda. Mosques. Churches. Parties and Candidates shall refrain from criticism of all aspects of private life. impersonation of voters.6. MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT FOR THE GUIDANCE OF POLITICAL PARTIES AND CANDIDATES 1. (4) All parties and candidates shall avoid scrupulously all activities which are ―corrupt practices‖ and offences under the election law. Criticism of other parties or their workers based on unverified allegations or distortion shall be avoided. past record and work. canvassing within 100 meters of polling stations. when made. holding public meetings during the period of 18 .

suspending banners. compound wall etc. and the transport and conveyance of voters to and from polling station. (6) No political party or candidate shall permit its or his followers to make use of any individual‘s land. pasting notices. Processions shall not be taken out by one party along places at which meetings are held by another party. (2) A Party or candidate shall ascertain in advance if there is any restrictive or prohibitory order in force in the place proposed for the meeting if such 19 . writing slogans etc. (7) Political parties and candidates shall ensure that their supporters do not create obstructions in or break up meetings and processions organized by other parties.48hours ending with the hour fixed for the close of the poll. Posters issued by one party shall not be removed by workers of another party. Organizing demonstrations or picketing before the houses of individuals by way of protesting against their opinions or activities shall not be resorted to under any circumstances. (5) The right of every individual for peaceful and undisturbed home-life shall be respected. Meetings (1) The party or candidate shall inform the local police authorities of the venue and time any proposed meeting well in time so as to enable the police to make necessary arrangements for controlling traffic and maintaining peace and order. Workers or sympathizers of one political party shall not create disturbances at public meetings organized by another political party by putting questions orally or in writing or by distributing leaflets of their own party. building. II. without his permission for erecting flag-staffs.. however much the political parties or candidates may resent his political opinions or activities.

Organizers themselves shall not take action against such persons. and shall comply with the restrictions unless exempted specially by the competent authority. (3) The organizers shall ascertain if any restrictive orders are in force in the localities through which the procession has to pass. (4) The organizers shall take steps in advance to arrange for passage of the procession so that there is no block or hindrance to traffic. they shall be followed strictly. There shall ordinary be on deviation from the program. (3) If permission or license is to be obtained for the use of loudspeakers or any other facility in connection with any proposed meeting. so that at convenient intervals. (2) The organizers shall give advance intimation to the local police authorities of the program so as to enable the letter to make necessary arrangement. Procession (1) A Party or candidate organizing a procession shall decide before hand the time and place of the starting of the procession. the party or candidate shall apply to the authority concerned well in advance and obtain such permission or license. Any traffic regulations or restrictions shall also be carefully adhered to. If the procession is very long. it shall be organized in segments of suitable lengths. III.orders exist. (4) Organizers of a meeting shall invariably seek the assistance of the police on duty for dealing with persons disturbing a meeting or otherwise attempting to create disorder. especially at points where the procession has to pass 20 . If any exemption is required from such orders. the route to be followed and the time and place at which the procession will terminate. it shall be applied for and obtained well in time.

(5) Processions shall be so regulated as to keep as much to the right of the road as possible and the direction and advice of the police on duty shall be strictly complied with. (ii) (iii) Supply to their authorized workers suitable badges or identity cards. The assistance of the local police shall be availed of for arriving at a satisfactory arrangement. (8) The carrying of effigies purporting to represent member of other political parties or their leaders. burning such effigies in public and such other forms demonstration shall not be countenanced by any political party or candidate. Agree that the identity slip supplied by them to voter shall be on plain (white) paper and shall not contain any symbol. 21 .road junctions. (7) The political parties or candidates shall exercise control to the maximum extent possible in the matter of precisionists carrying articles which may be put to misuse by undesirable elements especially in moments of excitement. name of the candidate or the name of the party. For this purpose the parties shall contact the police at the earliest opportunity. the organizers shall establish contact well in advance and decide upon the measures to be taken to see that the processions do not clash or cause hindrance to traffic. IV. Polling Day All Political parties and candidates shall – (i) Co-operate with the officers on election duty to ensure peaceful and orderly polling and complete freedom to the voters to exercise their franchise without being subjected to any annoyance or obstruction. the passage of held up traffic could be allowed by stages thus avoiding heavy traffic congestion. (6) If two or more political parties or candidates propose to take processions over the same route or parts thereof at about the same time.

VI. Ensure that the candidate‘s camps shall be simple . symbols or any other propaganda material. If the candidates or their agents have any specific complaint or problem regarding the conduct of elections they may bring the same to the notice of the Observer. flags. Observers The Election Commission is appointing Observers. VII. shall ensure that no cause is given for any complaint that it has used its official position for the purposes of its election campaign and in particular – (i) (a) The Ministers shall not combine their official visit with electioneering work and shall not also make use of official machinery or personnel during the electioneering work.The shall not display any posters. No eatable shall be served or crowd allowed at the camps and (vi) (vii) Co-operate with the authorities in complying with the restrictions to be imposed on the plying of vehicles on the polling day and obtain permits for them which should be displayed prominently on those vehicles.(iv) Refrain from serving or distributing liquor on polling day and during the forty eight hours preceding it (v) Not allow unnecessary crowd to be collected near the camps set up by the political parties and candidates near the polling booths so as to avoid Confrontation and tension among workers and sympathizers of the parties and the candidate. 22 . Party in Power The party in power whether at the Centre or in the State or States concerned.

vehicles. for holding election meetings. or 23 . (iv) Issue of advertisement at the cost of public exchequer in the newspapers and other media and the misuse of official mass media during the election period for partisan coverage of political news and publicity regarding achievements with a view to furthering the prospects of the party in power shall be scrupulously avoided.(b) Government transport including official air-crafts.. Other parties and candidates shall be allowed the use of such places and facilities on the same terms and conditions on which they are used by the party in power. (ii) Public places such as maidans etc. machinery and personnel shall not be used for furtherance of the interest of the party in power. (iii) Rest houses. and use of helipads for air-flights in connection with elections shall not be monopolized by itself. (v) Ministers and other authorities shall not sanction grants/payments out of discretionary funds from the time elections are announced by the Commission. dark bungalows or other Government accommodation shall not be monopolized by the party in power or its candidates and such accommodation shall be allowed to be used by other parties and candidates in a fair manner but no party or candidate shall use or be allowed to use such accommodation (including premises appertaining thereto) as a campaign office or for holding any public meeting for the purposes of election propaganda. Ministers and other authorities shall not – (a) announce any financial grants in any form or promises there of. and (vi) From the time elections are announced by Commission.

or (c) make any promise of construction of roads. The agency. or (d) make any ad-hoc appointments in Government. Different media strategies used for advertisements in recent elections. planned a framework and laid aggressive ad campaigns. During the recent assembly elections and ongoing Lok sabha elections many conventional and non-conventional mediaare used by various political parties. provision of drinking water facilities etc.(b) (except civil servants) lay foundation stones etc. The biggest difference in recent and past elections is that all the parties hired their consultant ad agencies.. 24 . that tasted success with its campaigns for Pepsi and Nike. all kinds of advertising agencies. of projects or schemes of any kind. which may have the effect of influencing the voters in favor of the party in power. 7. advertising in the political arena is a first. Let us discuss all those media types and their advantages. big and small. For some like the JWT. now has the challenge of selling a party as old and as varied as the Congress to as complex a market as Electorate India. shoved and pushed for a slice of the pie. Note: The Commission shall announce the date of any election which shall be a date ordinarily not more than three weeks prior to the date on which the notification is likely to be issued in respect of such elections. With political advertising crossing over Rs 600 crore in ad spends this year. Public Undertakings etc.(vii) Ministers of Central or State Government shall not enter any polling station or place of counting except in their capacity as a candidate or voter or authorized agent.

Public is India. 5. ―Especially the BJP ads that featured politicians using the attacks in Mumbai to gain votes on TV and print was atrocious and will make them lose supporters. National Creative Director. 1. ―And spending so much on a political campaign like the BJP did with the India Shining campaign last elections. can actually backfire and work against the party. the quality of political campaigns on TV remains poor and reflects badly on the industry‖.‖ ―At a time when Indian advertising has become so creative and has set standards internationally.‖ However with 400-Plus TV channels.000 on a regional language channel to at least Rs. the media does hold potential —if used intelligently.5 lakh on a popular channel during prime time. while other platforms such as radio and outdoor are as effective and cheaper. meetings and mobile vans reach out to more potential voters than a TV ad which costs 10 times the amount.‖ Adds Emmanuel Upputuru. says a senior advertising agency executive who didn't want to be named. founder of Mumbai-based advertising agency Postscript. but at the end of the day.‖ says Sumira Roy. so maybe product is bad. the advertising will be just as good or bad as the product. Advertising experts believe it is because TV does not give political parties enough bang for the buck. 25 . so at least now they look like an advertisement as the production has improved after advertising agencies were hired.1 Television Only 15% of the total campaign budgets are spent on TV ads. ―Voter banks are not in big cities but in rural areas where posters. ―Earlier. political ads on TV looked like an A/V (audio-visual).7. 60-70% of which are regional language channels. A 10 second spot can sell for anywhere between Rs. say media buyers.

says Sumira Roy of Postscript.2 Outdoor advertisements While door-to-door campaigning and political rallies continue to be the mainstay of election campaigns. streets and parks in cities and villages across the country are filled with banners and hoardings of politicians. especially in urban areas. is the most obvious choice in political campaigns. and communication campaigns are going beyond reinforcing the party symbol. 20% of the Rs. According to a media buyers. while 15% was spent on television. 400 crore advertising budget was spent on outdoor. Political parties are now more focused in their marketing strategies. with print ads a close second. Hoarding. 26 . The proportion of poll budgets allocated to advertising has gone up and professional advertising agencies are being used. For advertising agencies. mobile vans and floats have proved to be most effective forms of communication and are used extensively by political parties. the outdoor medium gets a higher budget than television. bus stands.7. Outdoor media. The digital media has gained significance because of its ability to interact with urban voters. hoardings and pamphlets. it has been a learning curve—the target group is diffused and most ads take the regional language route. radio ads made their debut in the ongoing assembly elections. despite its potential. mainly due to the poor quality of the ads. has failed to click with parties and voters alike.―Outdoor advertising is the first indication that elections are coming up because all of a sudden. too. In fact. with its banners. political parties‘ in India are looking at advertising campaigns across media platforms to reach the elusive voter. Campaign looks at how political parties are using these mediums to spread the word-and how effective each is. Television.

.7 crore a day. with a total circulation 27 . 000 and Rs. 1.80. the agency handling the Congress account.―This platform connects with the rural populations on the best because it talks to them in the language they understand and is effective in delivering results.5 lakh for a 10second TV spot ad during prime time on a general entertainment channel or a fullpage advertisement across all editions of a national newspaper that can cost up to Rs. Compare this to approximately Rs. President of Crayons Advertising Ltd. loyalties have not shifted yet. 50. outdoor media is more cost-effective than advertising in the main stream media.000 a month in smaller towns.5 lakh for digital print banners.2. 1. Apart from effectiveness and recall. or RNI. ―We know the leaders of political parties such as Sonia Gandhi or Manmohan Singh but how many of us know the other politicians standing for elections in the states? So outdoor advertising helps spread awareness and educate people on who is who‖. The cost of advertising in bus shelters for a month can be between Rs.‖ Adds Gullu Sen of Dentsu India.400 crore budget in the latest assembly elections. According to the latest figures of the Registrar of Newspapers in India. 1.―Newspapers account for 50% of our spends because it reaches out to the masses. According to a leading outdoor advertising agency in Delhi.‖ says Ranjan Bargotra. and even though platforms such as digital and radio have gained significance. 7. print accounts for 40–50% of the Rs. India had 64.5-5 lakh for a month depending on the location and can be as low as Rs. According to a media buying agency.998 registered newspapers as of March 2007.3 Print The lion‘s share has traditionally gone to newspapers. hoardings in a city such as Delhi cost political parties Rs. yet it is a very localized form of advertising that gets the message across to the lowest loca denominator.

28 . party symbol and mug shots of the politicians‖. where there are time and space restrictions.of 190 million. All it needs is some script. ―They are bad leaflets. Aqua Communications. ―The Quality of print Advertisements is still very tacky and seem like a big sham to me. 45 lakh for one full-page advertisement in a newspaper. depending on the reach it has. A political party can pay anywhere between Rs.―Yes. From the very next day. India. ―Radio is a localized medium that reaches out to19 crore listeners (above the age of 12) and unlike print and TV. radio stations in Delhi and other states going to the polls aired political advertisements. not advertisements-all it does is familiarize voters to their faces. says Gullu Sen. print is a localized from of advertising but the main reason for using so much of this media is because these political campaigns are all developed (at the) last minute and print is the fastest way to do it.4 Radio On 21 November. ―says Anil Madan. Print ads also allow parties to respond to unexpected situations. says a senior media buyer who did not want to be identified. Adds Sen. Executive Vice Chairman and Creative Director of advertising agency Dentsu. so when someone does go to the poll booth. they might just recall the face and make a connection. Despite all this. 5 lakh andRs. experts believe the entire efforts may be a waste. founder and creative director. mainly from the BJP and Congress. Ltd. Managing Director at Radio Business Consultancy Big River Radio (India) Pvt. The Election Commission allowed political campaigns on airwaves." 7. radio allows parties to actually communicate to listeners in their language‖ says Sunil Kumar. Analysts say the speed with which parties integrated radio into their campaigns is indicative of the potential it has to reach out locally.

Reaching out to 23% of the population. But in Rajasthan. The ads ranged from 10–50 seconds and cost the parties between Rs.‖ says BJP spokesperson RajivPratap Rudy. the BJP took three. radio accounted for Rs. So the ads were probably developed in a span of two days and were all set to air as soon as the government gave the green light.20 crore of the Rs. ―The commercials were ready.200. 400 crore political advertising budget. Executive Vice President of Radio city91. 1. where the Congress is in the opposition. Similarly. It isnatural for political parties to use radio channels which are popular among youngsters. 250 and Rs. According to a senior executive from a media buying agency.1FM. ―These ads were not fancy and did not need much production work as they basically had voice-overs communicating to voters. the ads looked at the inefficiency of the government and pointed out what could have been done better." says Prathap Suthan. The Congress took six radio spots. the ads were aired on our station. Creative Director of Cheil Communications. We were waiting for the Election Commission For the broadcast certificate and as soon as the formality was met. In Delhi where Congress is the ruling party. who did not want to be identified. Confirms Ashit Kukian. parties are looking at less expensive outlets. radio may be a more effective and cheaper medium.―With the poll panel putting restrictions on the expenditure for campaigns. but experts say political parties will have to learn how to use it to debate and discus opposing viewpoints instead of using it as a platform for mud-slinging. BJP's campaign warned voters about the shortcomings of the government and rhetorically asked voters if they would make the same mistake. radio ads highlighted the work done so far—no promises were made.‖ 29 .

Crayons and James Walter Thompson (JWT) . Congress. There is no debating that the radio is the best local media available to connect with people even in far-flung areas. the BJP has hired the services of Frank Simoes-Tag and Utopia Consulting.16. the country's radio industry is set to grow at 14.3 billion by 30 . Prior to this.8. told IANS. most major parties like the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). While the Congress has roped in three known ad agencies -Percept. Taking advantage of the new development. Broadcasting of political ads was not allowed on private radio stations until 2005 when the second phase of FM radio privatization was rolled out. who is also senior vice president of the Association of Radio Operators for India (AROI). it cuts across all literacy levels. bringing in welcome revenue to the Rs. According to report compiled jointly by global consultancy KPMG and the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI).2 percent per annum and reach the size of Rs. SamajwadiParty and Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) as well as a few regional parties are already making use of the facility. And it makes more sense to campaign through it rather than print because it is cost effective and is a mass medium. ―Many political parties realize the reach of the radio and the play that the ads would get and are warming up to the idea of broadcasting their ads on radio.3 billion/$165 million radio industry in the country. Nisheeth Sharan of Utopia Consulting told IANS: "We have placed BJP campaigns on all private FM channels as well as on All India Radio because any means of communication during the elections only helps.The growing reach of private FM radio is expected to find political expression for the first time in India as parties tap it for their campaigns. This is the first time general elections will be held after that." Panday. only stations like the All India Radio (AIR) or BBC's Hindi station used to air such campaigns.to prepare the party's campaign strategy.

the entertainment. Ignite India Pvt. they may not be interested or inclined to vote.8. so these digital initiatives aim at interacting with them and getting the message out‖ The BJP and congress have tracked US President-elect Barack Obama‘s successful online campaign-social networking sites such as Facebook. the agency handling digital advertising for the Congress. for instance. On Facebook.‖ says Atul Hegde. ―While they are involved in political affairs.2013.3 billion/$165 million radio industry in the country.5 Internet ―In 2004 the Internet accounted for less than 1% of the advertising budget of political parties. Today however. Ltd. ―The focus on digital and mobile media is to engage the urban youth in India who make up a large voters base. while Congress Leader Sonia Gandhi and Prime 31 . Add to that the fact that 100 million youngsters. half of whom live in urban India are expected to cast their voters for the first time in the Lok Sabha polls next Year. and the Internet emerges as very useful tool to engage with young people. a BJP group has 275members who engage in discussions and post information on important dates and events related to the elections.. Chief Executive. managing partner of GroupM ESP.‖ says HirenPandit. 7. Orkut and MySpace have communities built around the two parties and individual politicians. With 40 million Internet users and Internet penetration in urban India at around 9% the importance of digital media in political campaigns cannot be ignored.NEW DELHI: The growing reach of private FM radio is expected to find political expression for the first time in India as parties tap it for their campaigns. the digital media makes up at least 10% of the budget. sports and partnerships division of media buyer GroupM. bringing in welcome revenue to theRs.

These groups could motivate people to shed both their cynicism and lethargy to actually go to the polling stations. 32 . too.Minister Manmohan Singh have their own communities built on the site with 358 and 1. ―It's the success of Obama's campaign we are trying to replicate here. 7. In addition. During these Lok sabha elections all the parties have used this medium but definitely BJP raced much ahead. This way of targeting people has all the advantages of Direct marketing.K Malhotra. for V. MSN and Rediff.‖ says Hegde. the two parties have engaged voters through video-sharing sites such as YouTube and video ads on popular websites such as MSN and Rediffmail. ―40% of a typical advertising campaign goes towards contextual search and advertising networking and 60% is spent on popular websites such as Yahoo. The approximate cost for an extensive online campaign can be Rs. The BJP has launched a website for its prime-ministerial candidate L.K Advani. Therefore political parties are targeting these voters through SMS and tele-calling voters directly. chief Executive and cofounder of Web chutney.310 supporters respectively. The attempt to reach voters who usually do not turn up at polling booths is driven by an estimate that many of them might share BJP‘s vision for a strong Centre and a "nationalist" approach to security that includes "hard" views on anti-terror laws and illegal infiltration.‖ says Sidharth Rao. its chief ministerial candidate for Delhi. It had one. a leading digital marketing company. The Congress opted for a dedicated Internet campaign for the Rajasthan assembly elections. among others.6 Mobiles Around 29 crore Indians use mobile phones.1 crore over a month.

Vajpaye led NDA government had lost elections due to bad media planning. A sound communications strategy could backfire without astute media planning. 2. including the recorded telephonic voice of its election candidates. The saffron party BJP used state-of-the-art campaigning. Most experts also agreed that the campaign was generally good and effective before the election results were out. BJP managers claim that with close to half the voting population connected by mobiles. The devil did lie in the media planning. Probably the segmentation was also done meticulously. In fact there was nothing wrong with the communication strategy of India Shining campaign. this campaign is now a must. From political marketing viewpoint 33 .Party sources said this would be accompanied by a massive SMS campaign which hopes to ultimately reach 10 crore voters. They agreed that the party was looking forward to a sustained effort by Sangh organizations to reach and motive both the faithful and sympathizers. The party managers had faltered on establishing a correct level of advertising spend believing that if they spend more on communication the result would be in their favor. How could one assume that when most research indicate otherwise. India shining campaign has been considered a flop show as the party lost elections. Political Marketing strategies in India. A closer study would reveal that there was real merit in the communication strategy adopted as election theme.

In USA you have candidate centered. It was that core Akali voters who for the first time polled votes in favor of BJP that made the difference to the unprecedented BJP victory in the state. The overkill in media cost them elections. The credit 34 . The Samajwadi party in Uttar Pradesh used the most powerful brand endorser in India combined with messages that had top grade production values. longer duration. If congress party in Punjab assembly elections 2007 had succeeded in reminding the loyal voters of Shromani Akal Dal in towns about thei r ‗differences‘ with hardcore Hindutva forces then the election results outcome would have been different. and single shot advertisements. Did the political advertising campaign worked in this case? There are major differences between the American and European way of conducting advertising campaigns. river waters. and attitude towards religions etc. repetitive. The hardcore Akali and RSS/BJP do not seem to have resolved their ideological differences over major issues like Punjabi language.no one tried to look at the desired level of media reach for an incumbent party. but that was not enough to keep the party in power. Therefore Congress party in Punjab had a cut out task of reminding the core voters in both camps about their past. Chandigarh. If the media experts in congress party had targeted advertisements on the basic differences within the loyal cadres and voters of SAD and BJP it may have continued to rule Punjab. and short advertising messages as against the European way that features party centric. Why can‘t political parties in India learn from their experience and seek professional help in place of some in house experts who could be susceptible to the phenomenon of tunnel vision. If the Labor party in UK could use professional help and successfully re-brand itself as New Labor and go on to win successive elections.

These media divisions within parties generally consist of current and former journalists and a smattering of political communications experts. Most political parties realizing the importance of political communications have created in house teams. news management and a more organized campaign management to get the voters out to vote. concepts and techniques is on the rise in India with every new election.went to the young leadership of SAD for engineering a shift in the voting behavior of traditional Akali voter by very successfully mobilizing and convincing them to cast the votes in favor of Akali BJP combine. maintain and improve the image of their party and advise the party on professional political communications. to establish. Use of marketing instruments. 35 . Punjab elections in 2007 featured high decibel advertising campaigns. SAD & BJP are parties with a strong core. road shows. public election broadcasts. Well-planned political marketing helps to influence the election outcome by convincing the electorate about real effective issues. In the last Punjab elections there were other strong reasons for the victory of SAD BJP alliance. The war room mentality remains the favorite style for leveraging the political marketing process in developed world. It is very important for these parties to appeal to the floating voters to vote in their favor. Elections and political management remains under tight control of the in-party specialists who claim to understand the political scenario better than the marketing expert who generally gets involved in elections during election time only. The politicians and parties in India have yet to get onto the perpetual political marketing mode as undertaken in democracies in western world and the ASEAN countries. exit polls. These kinds of parties can win an election on the basis of a strong wave only. The reverberations continue to be felt in the form of daily dose of news coverage about the arrest & trial of high profile previous chief minister and his associates. often named as media cell.

a Baba from the neighboring state of Haryana took out series of advertisements impressing upon his followers to vote in favor of a Congress party. Media in Punjab. This cocktail of religion and politics seem to work all over India and has produced enormous aftershocks long after the polls have gone. Since vast majority of Indians are religious and God fearing therefore it has become a general practice amongst politicians of every hue to be seen to be seeking blessings from religious leaders more during the time of elections so as to impress upon their followers to vote in favor of their party and candidate. Success in politics is measured by the ability of a party to move the public opinion in a direction it wants it to move. But for the first time in Punjab. as we know it today. It has been considered as an instrument with the potential to usher in a socio-political change in society. Can we conclude that astute media handling and overall use of marketing tools has become a necessary feature for the success of a political party? The application of marketing techniques and strategies to the political marketplace is a paradigm shift that will continue to change politics. Therefore news management has become a full time activity for the political players. has long been associated with social and political movements. The intensity of the competition could be gauged from the fact that socio36 . India too. political. Till recently.The role of media and the media advisors have never had attracted such attention in election campaigns in particular and managing a political party in general. major media in India could have been identified with distinct religious. social and economic interest groups having a definite agenda to promote without regard to the overall health of our democratic nation. A professional approach in handling such communications could reduce the unsavory aftershocks in the country. In the current democratic set up media openly seems to side with political parties and other vested interest groups to sway the public opinion in a particular direction.

But 37 . Some of the advertisements do have advocacy tone also. These surveys provide new debating points to the media and do seem to color their own news analysis also. The political parties also resort to use of market research to fine-tune their campaign strategy. The parties have generally ignored the need for marketing research to list the issues facing the public. instead they claim to know what people must expect from them. A positive survey finding motivates the party worker to get out work to get all the votes polled on the Election Day.religious leaders are prompted to appeal to their followers to influence voting. It is not the media companies alone who take recourse to the pre poll surveys to assess the mood of the voters and pump up their TRP. The cap on election expenditure also restricts the political parties from involving professional advertising organizations to execute a political campaign on their behalf. Because the political party would not want to disclose their actual advertising spend to the election commission. Persuasion remains the main objective of the political players. The parties stop short of finding out what the electorate wants from them. There has been an extensive use of negative advertising during the election campaigning. Music videos and election songs have become a major tool of communicating a political message to the rural audience. A pre poll survey predicting a negative outcome could de motivate the party rank & file and also convince the floating undecided voter to form a negative opinion about the projected looser party. The Parties employed below the line media to reach out to the rural voter. Since these surveys make catchy headlines therefore their impact on the voters and the party workers is powerful. Terrestrial television in the form of state owned Doordarshan has an extensive reach in the rural areas and therefore used for the purpose of public election broadcast to disseminate the message to the people who otherwise depend upon vernacular print media.

nothing that could be called a creative advertising campaign capable of producing measurable effects. But the results may not have been turned out in their favour. may be better for producing a positive effect for an incumbent party. There has been plethora of research suggesting that incumbent party does not gain from higher share of voice. Particularly for the incumbent party it has been generally accepted that low level of spending. Therefore. While most political parties use sophisticated technology to get across their message to the voters. When would these media experts accept that we live in times when creating credibility of the messages is a challenge. the quantity and quality of communication is way off the mark. Some political 38 . most of the times. than the challenger. The media cells in parties continue to believe that voters would buy everything that they have to tell them. Though it gains remarkably from share of mind and share of heart. This would require limited use advertising and leveraging the other promotion vehicles. It is believed by many that there are no upper limits to the quantity of communication to strengthen the appeal of a political party. Professional advice in election management is still not a very popular way. More the merrier. they still rely on party old timers. journalists and bureaucrats to work out a communications strategy. Several studies in political marketing have established beyond doubt that there is a non-linear relationship between the spending and net marginal benefit to the advertiser. But most incumbent parties do not seem to take lessons and keep on wasting resources on government advertising. but that‘s certainly not true. But several parties have tried to deploy sophisticated political marketing tools to convince the voter to elect them to power. Most political pundits seem to have concluded that advertising and other marketing devices have almost negligible effective role to play in Indian elections.

Definitely they see wisdom in using marketing for victory in the elections though political pundits may not agree with the effectiveness of the political marketing process. 39 . plan communications /advertising.parties in India have recently begun consulting outside professional marketing experts to understand the mood of the electorate. & manage news media in order to mobilize public opinion in its favor.

and its ability to change the opinions and sway the allegiance of the public.OBJECTIVES OF STUDY  To study about the different strategies use by Political parties to win elections.  To explore the role of political marketing in usage of marketing tools.  To explore the political marketing strategies in India. regional and national level to combat the game of coalitions and mid-term crisis. 40 .  The need of political marketing is inevitable in Indian democracy given the political competition at local. techniques and methods in political process.  To examine the role of political marketing strategies upon the voting public.

Research Methodology Instrumentation Primary: Primary data has been collected from questionnaire. Once can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. The research methodology enumerates the description of the sampling plan. recording and analyzing data about the problems and ordered to get a justify solution for the problems. research instruments used for the collection of data. Interviews. protesting questionnaire. Secondary: the secondary data has been collected from following modes:  Newspapers  Articles  Books  Through internet sources  Journals 41 .RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. research is an art of scientific investigation. In fact. Observation. The Advanced Learner‘s Dictionary of Current English lays down the meaning of research as ―a careful investigation or inquiry especially through search for new facts in any branch of knowledge.‖ Research is regarded as systematic process of Identifying market problems and then gathering. analysis of records and case studies. the use of statistical tools and techniques for the analysis of collective‘s data.

Observation. Sampling plan : A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Field work: I have collected data through questionnaire.Research plan : For completing my study. It refers to the technique or the procedure that researcher would adopt in selecting items from sample. Sampling plan is determined before data are collected. the size of sample. Interviews. case studies. recent marketing strategies used by political parties. newspapers and articles. Most of the respondent and people involve in political world were aware of this type of surveys. So I didn‘t face any type of difficulty during my project. Internet sources. Interviews with people related in political world. I have used case studies. 42 . various political marketing books and political websites. Sampling plan may as well lay down the member of items to the inched in the sample i.e. I started my project at very first educating the voters about my entire project and some interviews. ( as mentioned in the reference section ).

2. Have to rely upon the information given by respondents. 43 .LIMITATIONS 1. 3. Lack of professional approach. which may not be fully true. as the subject of the study is on political marketing strategy. It cannot be accepted as a piece of excellence and is limited to knowledge and experience of student.

The first part includes a loyalty and a time of voting decision making question. In addition the time of voting decision making question was asked in order that the respondents‘ groups would be further divided in: 1) those voters who decide which party to vote before the beginning of the election period. The loyalty question was asked in order to classify the respondents in the following four categories: 1) hard loyalists. 2) soft loyalists. 2) those who decide during the election period and 3) those that make their voting decision at the last minute. 3) swingers or floating voters and 4) non voters. 44 .DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION The data that was delivered to and collected by the respondents had included four parts relevant to this research study.

1. of Respondents 25 20 5 %age 50% 40% 10% Hard-loyalists Soft-loyalists Swingers Loyalty 10% 50% 40% Hard-loyalists Soft-loyalists Swingers Interpretation: In regard with the loyalty question. since they vote the same party in every election. 45 . 40% are the soft loyalists. 50% of the total sample consider themselves as hard loyalists. which are people who vote for different party in every election. The respondents have been asked to answer if they vote every time for the same party and when is the time that they decide in favor of which party to vote? Loyalty No. while 10% are the swingers.

What time do you decide your voting decision making? Voting decision Before election period During election period Last moment No.2. 46 . 60% of the sample make their voting decision before the beginning of the election period. 30% during it and 10% at the last moments before voting. of Respondents 30 15 5 %age 60% 30% 10% Time of voting decision making 10% Before election period 30% 60% During election period Last moment Interpretation: In regard with the time of voting decision making.

I during H.I last minute Swingers before Swingers during Swingers last-min 30% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 2% 4% No.I last minute S. Analyzing.3.loyalists. the final segment of voters criteria. Therefore. the intention of this research is to separate each loyalty group according to the time of voting decision making and to analyze their voting behavior. 47 . soft-loyalists and floating voters were divided in three segments each one.I during S.I before H. Voters criteria H.I before S. hard. of Respondents 15 1 2 9 4 3 6 7 3 %age 30% 2% 4% 18% 8% 6% 12% 14% 6% 18% 12% 8% 6% 14% 6% Interpretation As it is mentioned above.

48 .68%) tend to make their voting decision before the beginning of the election period. Hard loyalist H-I before H-I during H-I last minute No. That means that the big majority of the hard loyalists do not change their mind because of the election campaign of the political parties.48% the last minute of it. most of the hard loyalists (80. of Respondents 35 10 5 Figure 4 – Hard loyalists’ segments %age 70% 20% 10% 10% 20% H-I before H-I during H-I last minute 70% Interpretation: As it is shown below (Figure 4).84% during and 5. Analyzing the Hard loyalist’s voters Segments. while only 13.4.

5. Analyzing the Soft-loyalist’s Segments. Soft loyalist S-I before S-I during S-I last minute No. of Respondents 25 18 7 %age 50% 36% 14%

Self-loyalist's Segment
14% 50% 36% S-I before S-I during S-I last minute

Interpretation

Furthermore, more than 50% of the soft loyalists tend to make their voting decision before the election period. However, the important to mention here is the increase of the people who decide during the election period for which party to vote, who reach 36%. Finally, only a 14% of the soft loyalists wait until the last minute of the election campaign in order to decide which party to vote for figure.

49

6. Analyzing the structure of swinging voters segment.

Swingers segments Swingers before Swingers during Swinger last-min

No. of Respondents 20 25 5

%age 40% 50% 10%

Swingers' segment
10%

40%

Swingers before Swingers during Swinger last-min

50%

Interpretation: On the other hand, swingers are split in two big segments; those who make their voting decision before the election period 40% and those who decide the last minute 50%. The people who make their voting decision during the election period represent only the 10% of the swingers.

50

7. Criteria for voting decision making.

Interpretation

The criteria used by respondents appear to fall into two categories. The first one includes those criteria that are considered to be of medium or high importance and the second category those that have low importance. The most important criteria are: the program of the parties about socio economic and national issues; ideology; and the personality of the party‘s leader.
51

Trust of information provided by the sources for elections. the respondents in general seem not to trust the information they receive by most of them. In this question also the soft loyalists who make their voting decision during the election period seem generally to show more trust on the information they get by the sources than all the other segments. 52 . Interpretation: In regard with the sources that provide information to the electorate during the election period.8.

In the first question its influence by political marketing is ranked with 3. 53 . What is the political marketing influence on the electorate segment? Interpretation: The analysis of the responses in the relevant. has shown that there is one market segment that is by far the most influenced of all by political marketing. to the research objective 1 questions.9.7/6 while the second most influential segment is ranked. This group is the one which includes the people that are soft loyalists and make their voting decision during the election campaign.

given the general findings of the study. Of course. but if candidates can remain truthful. speak directly to. political science. namely as a decision making process to engage in a certain action (voting. Both the voter and the consumer are viewed as individuals receiving information. the benefit(s) they want the elected official to deliver. inspiring passion and strong opinions in the majority of individuals. or someone who is considering a potential political campaign. either on a local. and interact with their potential voters. They overcome the effect of media bias when they connect with. Overall.SUGGESTIONS AND CONCLUSION In conclusion. the study presented the collective opinions of several experts in applicable fields and a review of literature of political marketing. and possibly 54 . They change the voter‘s behavior and therefore win elections when they connect emotionally with the voting public. and journalism professionals who are interested in political marketing and the role of the media. communications. Political campaigns are notorious for their sweeping claims and bold promises. their chances to become the elected official vastly improve. there should be several actions taken by political candidates and political parties to maintain a positive message and to foster connections with the voting public. voters are ―buying‖ confidence that the candidate will deliver what they want essentially. Voter behavior has been studied much in the same manner as consumer behavior. The study serves as a guide and educational tool for classical marketing. and make strong positive impressions on people and emotional connections. or even national level. purchasing). Consumers buy benefits. political marketing is a treacherous field. including processes which proceed and follow that act.

Consequently.seeking out information. Accordingly. in applying the general approach of consumer behavior models to voter behavior. and finally responding toward the product and the candidate in question. 55 . the principles of well known models and frameworks of consumer behavior can be effectively applied to voter behavior and vice versa. one can point out the following components that are part of the decision process. processing this information to reach predispositions to respond.

Mohali ) Emergence of political Marketing.by Jennifer Lees-Marshment 56 . Omkar Deshpande & Anurag Thakurta. Regal Publications (2009).BIBLIOGRAPHY Arun Kumar.‖ Political Marketing – The Indian Experience. Sarwate Political Marketing in India.an article by Vijaykaran Political marketing game . Gurinder Singh Ahluwalia (GJIMT. an article by Prof. from NMIMS Mumbai. Introduction to political Marketing . by Dilip M. .-‖ Political Marketing in India. an article by Anand Tajpuria.

QUESTIONARE Name: ._____________ Age .Below 20 20 – 30 20 – 40 40 above Q1. Do you vote every time for the same party? I am a Swinger I am a Hard Loyalist I am a Soft Loyalist Q2. What time do you decide your voting decision making? Last Moment Before Election Period During Election Period 57 .

Q3. What are your Criteria of voting decision making (Importance)? Socioeconomic Program Leader personality National Issues Program Ideology Regional Program MP Personality Party Image Personal Benefits Election Campaign Win Possibilities Q4. What sources of information do you trust for elections? Newspapers Articles Friends Opinion Poll Results Parties‘ Program‘s TV News TV Talk Shows Politician Statements Radio Shows TV Ad‘s Post Ad‘s 58 .

6 Any Suggestions on Political Marketing used by Political parties? Thank you By Kangan Bhandari 59 . Do you think Political Marketing affects your voting decision making? Yes NO Q.Q5.

O.D. Submitted by: Kangan Bhandari BBA (3rd year) Pupin No.PROJECT REPORT ON “MARKETING STRATEGIES USED BY POLITICAL PARTIES TO WIN ELECTIONS” In partial fulfillment of requirement for the degree of BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (SESSION: 2012-13) Submitted to: Ms.14310000443 KHALSA COLLEGE FOR WOMEN LUDHIANA 60 . Pooja Chatley H.

My project could not have been fruitful without the able guidance of Ms. ability and strength in me to complete this project. I extend my deepest gratitude to all the persons who gave full support during the project. Pooja Chatley (Project Guide). Above.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT It gives me tremendous pleasure in acknowledging the valuable assistant extended to me by various personalities in the successful completion of this project. I render my gratitude from core of my heart to the almighty God who bestowed confidence. I am also thankful to all the employees of AMCO Groups who cooperated with me every time. Kangan Bhandari 61 .

B. 62 .O. Ludhiana (Punjab university).D.A.CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the project work on “Marketing Strategies used by Political Parties to Win Elections” is based on the views of the students. Final Year of Khalsa College for Women. Pooja Chatley H. The data sources have been duly acknowledged. Ms. a student of B. under the supervision of Ms. It is further certified that this is bonafide work the candidate and matter embedded in this project has not been submitted to any other university earlier for the award of any degree to the best of my knowledge. This project id submitted by KANGAN BHANDARI. Pooja Chatley.

student of Bachelor of Business Administration from Khalsa College for Women. Ludhiana hereby declare that I have completed my project on “Marketing Strategies used by Political Parties to Win Elections” as a part of the course requirement. I further declare that the information presented in this project is true and original to the best of my knowledge.DECLARATION I. Kangan Bhandari 63 . Kangan Bhandari.

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER CONTENTS PAGE NO. INTRODUCTION OBJECTIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY LIMITATION DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION SUGGESTION AND CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURES 1-39 40 41-42 43 44-53 54-55 56 57-59 64 . 5. 1. 3. 6. 4. 2.

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