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Algebra univers.

37 (1997) 257276
00025240/97/03025720 \$ 1.50+0.20/0
Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1997
Quantales andcontinuity spaces
R. C. FLAGG
1
0. Introduction
The theory of metric spaces provides an elementary introduction to topology
and unies many branches of classical analysis. Using it, the intuitive notions of
continuity, limit and Cauchy sequence can be developed in a very general setting.
Moreover, since metric techniques are frequently much more powerful than topo-
logical ones, they make possible simpler and more elegant solutions to many
problems. Unfortunately, not all topological spaces aremetrizable, so thesepower-
ful techniques havelimited applicability. This fact has led to a number of attempts
to generalize the notion of metric space in order to extend the range of problems
that can betreated with metric techniques. Someexamples are: probabilistic metric
spaces (Schweizer and Sklar ), Boolean metric spaces (Blumenthal , Chapter
15), Mengers metrics for groups , and the structure spaces of Henriksen and
Kopperman . Themany common properties shared by theseexamples and their
similar underlying structures suggest the possibility of a general theory of metric
spaces, which would include them, as well as ordinary metric spaces, as special
cases. Koppermans theory of continuity spaces  and the work of Trillas and
Alsina  are two notable efforts to provide such a theory.
The natural starting point of any general theory of metric spaces is the choice
of what aretheessential properties of thestructure([0, ], , +) fromthis point
of view. These will certainly include the following:
(1) ([0, ], ) is a partially ordered set;
(2) ([0, ], +, 0) is a commutative monoid; and
(3) for all x, y, z- [0, ], if xy, then x+zy+z.
I f theseweretheonly conditions considered essential, a very general theory would
result. However, many arguments in the theory of metric spaces depend on the
Presented by G. Gratzer.
Received J uly 8, 1991; accepted in nal formMay 30, 1995.
1
Theauthor would liketo thank Ralph Kopperman for numerouscritical commentsand suggestions
for improvement on an earlier version of this paper.
257
258 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
(4) ([0, ], ) is completely distributive;
(5) for any x - [0, ] and family {y
i
}
i - I
of elements of [0, ],
x+inf
i - I
y
i
=inf
i - I
(x+y
i
);
and
(6) for any
1
,
2
, if
1
.0 and
2
.0, then inf{
1
,
2
}.0.
The conditions (1)(5) say that ([0, ], , 0, +) is a completely distributive
quantale. To givea suitableabstract formulation of condition (6), wemust usethe
appropriategeneralization of thestrict inequality relation in an arbitrary complete
lattice. This is determined by thefollowing characterization of . in [0, ]: for all
x, y- [0, ],
x.y U for any subset A[0, ], if yinf A, then for some a- A, xa.
(h)
For elements x, y in an arbitrary complete lattice we say x is well abo6e y iff the
right hand side of (h) holds. Condition (6) then says that the set of elements well
above 0 forms a lter in ([0, ], , 0, +).
The above observations suggest that the appropriate abstract structure to play
the role of distances in a general theory of metric spaces is that of 6alue quantale;
that is, a completely distributivequantale
2
, in which theset of elements well above
0 is a lter. I n this paper we develop the rudiments of such a theory. Since our
approach renes that of Kopperman, we adopt his terminology  and call our
notion of a generalized metric space a continuity space. Some remarks comparing
the two theories are given in the last section of this paper.
A continuity space, as dened here, is just a category enriched in a value
quantale. Thus the entire machinery of enriched category theory (Kelly ) is
immediately available for the study of continuity spaces. I t turns out that this
aspect of thetheory of continuity spacesisavery direct generalization of thetheory
of ordinary posets and the essential facts allow very elementary proofs. Therefore
a completely self-contained development can be given of the elements of enriched
2
Theobservation that thestructureD=([0, ], , +) is a closed category and that a (quasi) metric
space corresponds exactly to the notion of a category enriched in D is due to Lawvere . I n that
remarkablepaper, Lawverealso showsthat thegeneral methodsof enriched category theory, which were
originally devised to deal with the elds of algebra and geometry, can be used to derive a number of
important results in thetheory of metric spaces. This work of Lawveremotivates much of what wedo
here.
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 259
category theory as they apply to continuity spaces. Moreover, there are a number
of interestingconnections between theorder-theoretic and topological properties of
continuity spaces. We develop this aspect of the theory of continuity spaces
elsewhere .
1. Valuedistributivelattices
I n this section wegivethedenition of a valuedistributivelattice, record some
basic properties, and discuss a number of important examples.
Thebottomelement of a completelatticeL is denoted by 0and thetop element
by . For A a subset of L, theleast upper bound of A is denoted by supA and the
greatest lower bound of A by inf A.
There are many different characterizations of complete distributivity. We have
chosen one based on the auxiliary well abo6e relation since this relation is used in
many of the arguments below.
DEFI NI TI ON 1.1. Assume L is a complete lattice and x, y- L. Then x is well
abo6e y, denoted by x;y, iff for any subset AL, if yinf A, then for some
a- A, xa.
LEMMA 1.2. Assume L is a complete lattice. Then for all x, y, z- L,
(1) x;y implies xy;
(2) x;y and yz implies xz;
(3) xy and y;z implies x;z.
LEMMA 1.3. Assume L is a complete lattice, AL, and x-L. Then x;inf A
i for some a- A, x;a.
Proof. Assume a- A and x;a. Since ainf A, by Lemma 1.2(2), x;inf A.
Suppose for all a- A, x;/ a. For each a- A choose B
a
such that ainf B
a
and
for all b- B
a
, x/ b. Then inf Ainf(.
a- A
B
a
) and for all b- .
a- A
B
a
, x/ b. Thus
b;/ inf A. Q.E.D.
DEFI NI TI ON 1.4. Assume L is a complete lattice. Then L is completely
distributi6e iff for all y- L,
y=inf{x- L x;y}.
260 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
THEOREM 1.5. (Raney , , ) AssumeL is a completelattice. Thenthe
following conditions are equi6alent.
(1) L is completely distributi6e.
(2) For any family {x
i,k
j - J , k- K
j
} of elements of L,
inf
j - J
sup
k- K
j
x
j,k
=sup
f - M
inf
j - J
x
j, f (j)
,
where M=
j - J
K
j
.
(3) For any family {x
i,k
j - J , k- K
j
} of elements of L,
sup
j - J
inf
k- K
j
x
j,k
=inf
f - M
sup
j - J
x
j, f (j)
,
where M=
j - J
K
j
.
(4) For some set I , L is order isomorphic to a subset of [0, 1]
I
which is closed
under arbitrary infs and arbitrary sups.
(5) L is the homomorphic image of a complete ring of sets by a map which
preser6es arbitrary infs and arbitrary sups.
A fundamental result about completely distributive lattices is the following
I nterpolation Property.
THEOREM 1.6. Assme L is a completely distributi6e lattice and x, y- L. I f
x;y, then for some z- L, x;z and z;y.
Proof. Assume L is a completely distributive lattice and x;y. Then
y=inf{z- X z;y}.
By Lemma 1.3, for some z- {z- X z;y}, x;z. Hence for some z, x;z and
z;y. Q.E.D.
DEFI NI TI ON 1.7. A 6aluedistributi6elatticeis a completely distributivelattice
L satisfying the following two conditions:
(1) ;0.
(2) I f p;0 and q;0, then p.q;0.
As an immediate consequence of Theorem 1.5 (or by an elementary direct
argument) any completechain is completely distributive. Moreover, if thechain has
at least two elements, it will clearly be value distributive as well. Two particular
examples of such complete chains will be important below.
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 261
EXAMPLE 1.8. (TRUTH VALUES.) Let 2 be the two element set {0, },
where 0. Then 2is a value distributive lattice.
EXAMPLE 1.9. (DI STANCES.) Let D=[0, ] be the extended non-negative
real numbers with the usual ordering. Then D is a value distributive lattice.
We consider two other examples, since they illustrate a number of points and
provide important applications.
EXAMPLE 1.10. (DI STANCE DI STRI BUTI ON FUNCTI ON.) Let M be the
set of monotone maps from [0, ) to [0, 1], ordered pointwise. Then M is a
complete poset with sups and infs computed pointwise. We call F - M a distance
distribution function (d.d.f.) iff F is left-continuous:
for all x- [0, ), sup
yx
F(y)=F(x).
Let Z be the collection of all d.d.f.s with the opposite of the pointwise ordering.
SinceZ
op
is a sup-closed subset of M, it and henceZ is a completelattice. For
01 and 0l, let F
l,
be the d.d.f. dened by
F
l,
(x)=
!0
1
if 0xl,
if lx.
Then for any H - Z and all 01 and 0l,
(1) H(l).1 implies F
l,
;H; and
(2) HF
l,
iff for all x.l, H(x)1.
I t easily follows that
H=sup{F
l,
F
l,
;H, 01, 0l}.
Thus Z is completely distributive. Thezero element of Z is
0
=F
0,0
, which satises

0
(x)=
!0
1
if x=0,
otherwise.
For G- Z, G;
0
iff for some such that 01, GF
,
. Oneeasily shows that
conditions (1) and (2) of Denition 1.7 hold. Thus Z is a valuedistributivelattice.
262 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
EXAMPLE 1.1. (FREE LOCALES.) Let R be a set. We write F
f
R to
indicate that F is a nite subset of R. Let P
f
(R) be the collection of nite subsets
of R. A subset p of P
f
(R) is called a lower set iff for all F, G- P
f
(R), if F - p and
GF, then G- p. We will denote the family of lower sets of nite subsets of R,
ordered by reverse inclusion, by d(R) (d(R)
op
is the free locale on the set R; c.f.,
, p. 40). Since d(R) is closed under arbitrary unions and intersections, it is a
complete ring of sets, and so a completely distributive lattice. For p- d(R), p;0
iff for somenitesubset F of R, pi(F)={G- P
f
(R) GF}. Conditions (1) and
(2) of Denition 1.7 follow at once. Thus d(R) is a value distributive lattice. The
following two observations are useful below.
(1) 0
d(R)
=P
f
(R).
(2) For {p
i
}
i - I
a family of elements of d(R),
inf
i - I
p
i
=.
i - I
p
i
.
2. Valuequantales
Thenotion of valuedistributivelatticecaptures what weregard as theessential
lattice theoretic properties of the nonnegative real number system. To capture the
essential properties of the operation of addition, we use the notion of a quantale.
DEFI NI TI ON 2.1. A quantale V=V, , + consists of a complete lattice
V, and an associative and commutative binary operation + on V satisfying:
(q1) the bottomelement of V, 0, is a unit for +: for all p- V,
p+0=p;
(q2) for all p- V and all families {q
i
}
i - I
of elements of V,
p+inf
i - I
q
i
=inf
i - I
(p+q
i
).
AssumeV=V, , + is a quantale. Werecord several simplebut important
consequences of the innite distributive law (q2).
(q3) The top element of V, , is an absorbing element: for all p- V,
p+=.
(q4) For all p, q, r, s- V,
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 263
pq and rs implies p+rq+s.
For any p, q- V, let
qp=inf{r - V p+rq}.
(q5) For any p- V the map

p: VV is left adjoint to the map

+p:
VV: for any q, r - V,
p+rq U rq; p.
THEOREM 2.2. AssumeV=V, , + is a quantale. Then for all p, q, r - V,
(1) qp=0 iff pq;
(2) p+(qp)q;
(3) q(p+q)p;
(4) ((rq)p)=(r(q+p))=((rp)q);
(5) (qr)+(rp)(qp).
THEOREM 2.3. Assume V=V, , + is a quantale. Then for p- V and
{q
i
}
i - I
a family of elements of V,
pinf
i - I
q
i
=sup
i - I
(pq
i
) and

sup
i - I
q
i

p=sup
i - I
(q
i
p).
DEFI NI TI ON 2.4. A 6alue quantale is a quantale V=V, , + such that
V, is a value quantale.
EXAMPLE 2.5. (TRUTH VALUES.) The binary operation of join, , makes
the value distributive lattice of truth values, 2, a value quantale.
EXAMPLE 2.6. (DI STANCES.) Theordinary operation of addition makes the
value distributive lattice of distances, D, a value quantale.
EXAMPLE 2.7. (DI STANCE DI STRI BUTI ON FUNCTI ONS.) An associative
and commutativebinary function : ZZZ which satises conditions (q1) and
(q4) is called a triangle function (, p. 97). Many of the triangle functions
discussed in Schweizer and Sklar  also satisfy condition (q2). We therefore
obtain many examples of value quantales consisting of distance distribution func-
tions.
264 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
EXAMPLE 2.8. (FREE LOCALES.) For R any set, the binary operation .
makes the value distributive lattice d(R) a value quantale
3
.
The next three results are elementary but important.
THEOREM 2.9. AssumeV=V, , + is a 6aluequantaleand - V. I f ;0,
then for some l, l;0 and ;2l.
Proof. From(q2) and condition (2) of Denition 1.7, we get
inf
l;0
(l+l) inf
l
1
;0,l
2
;0
(l
1
+l
2
)= inf
l
1
;0
l
1
+ inf
l
2
;0
l
2
=0+0=0,
so inf
l;0
(l+l)=0. Consequently, since ;0, by Lemma 1.3, for some l, l;0
and ;2l. Q.E.D.
THEOREM 2.10. Assume V=V, , + is a 6alue quantale and p- V. Then
p=inf{p+ ;0}.
Proof. Since V, is completely distributive, 0=inf{ ;0}.
Then
p=p+0=p+inf{ ;0}=inf{p+ ;0}. Q.E.D.
THEOREM 2.11. Assume V=V, , + is a 6alue quantale and p, q- V. I f
p;q, then there is an r and an such that ;0, p;(r+) and r;q.
Proof. Assume p;q. By the I nterpolation Property, choose r such that p;r
and r;q. FromLemma 1.3 and Theorem2.10, there is an such that ;0 and
p;r+. Q.E.D.
3. Continuity spaces
With thepreliminary latticetheoretic work out of theway, wearenowready to
develop our approach to the theory of continuity spaces.
3
Any localeis, of course, a quantale; however, sincewerequirecompletedistributivity and that the
elements well-above 0 forma lter, not all (co-)locales are value quantales.
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 265
We assume for the remainder of this section that V=V, , + is a value
quantale.
DEFI NI TI ON 3.1. A V-continuity space is a pair X=X, d consisting of a
set X and a function d: XXV which is reexi6e:
d(x, x)=0, for all x- X,
and transiti6e:
d(x, y)d(x, z)+d(z, y), for all x, y, z- X.
DEFI NI TI ON 3.2. Assume X=X, d
X
and Y=Y, d
Y
are V-continuity
spaces, and f: XY.
(1) f is nonexpansi6e iff for all x
1
, x
2
- X,
d
X
(x
1
, x
2
)d
Y
( f(x
1
), f(x
2
)).
(2) f is an isometry iff for all x
1
, x
2
- X,
d
X
(x
1
, x
2
)=d
Y
( f(x
1
), f(x
2
)).
DEFI NI TI ON 3.3. Assume X=X, d is a V-continuity space.
(1) X is separated iff
d(x, y)=0 and d(y, x)=0 implies x=y, for all x, y- X.
(2) X is symmetric iff
d(x, y)=d(y, x), for all x, y- X.
EXAMPLE 3.4. (POSETS.) Since a function d: XX2 can be identied
with a binary relation
d
on X, a 2-continuity space X=(X, d), where 2 is the
value quantale of truth values, consists of a set X and a binary relation
d
on X
satisfying
x
d
x, for all x- X
and
266 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
x
d
z and z
d
y, implies x
d
y, for all x, y, z- X.
Thus (X,
d
) is just a preordered set. X is separated iff
x
d
y and y
d
x implies x=y, for all x, y- X;
that is, iff (X,
d
) is a poset. Moreover, a map between 2-continuity spaces is
nonexpansive iff it is monotone.
EXAMPLE 3.5. (METRI C SPACES.) A D-continuity spaceX=(X, d), where
D is thevaluequantaleof distances, consists of a set X and a function d: XX
[0, ] satisfying:
d(x, x)=0, for all x- X,
and
d(x, y)d(x, z)+d(z, y), for all x, y, z- X.
X is separated iff
d(x, y)=0 and d(y, x)=0 implies x=y, for all x, y- X;
that is, iff (X, d) is a quasimetric space
4
. X is symmetric iff (X, d) is a pseudometric
space. X is symmetric and separated iff (X, d) is a metric space. Moreover, a map
between D-continuity spaces is nonexpansiveiff it is a nonexpansivemap of metric
spaces.
EXAMPLE 3.6. (PROBABI LI STI C METRI C SPACES, .) Let : Z
ZZ makeV=(Z, , ) a valuequantaleof distancedistribution functions. A
V-continuity space X=(X, z) consists of a set X and a function z: XXZ
satisfying:
z(x, x)=
0
, for all x- X,
and
z(x, y)z(x, z)z(z, y), for all x, y, z- X.
4
The terminology here is not standard.
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 267
X is separated iff
z(x, y)= and z(y, x)= implies x=y, for all x, y- X;
that is, iff X is a probabilistic quasimetric space. X is symmetric iff X is a
probabilistic pseudometric space. Finally, X is symmetric and separated iff it is a
probabilistic metric space.
EXAMPLE 3.7. (STRUCTURE SPACES.) Generalizingthedenition of Hen-
riksen and Kopperman , we dene a structure space to be an d(R)-continuity
space for some set R.
EXAMPLE 3.8. V can itself be made a V-continuity space by dening
d
V
: VVV as
d
V
(p, q)=(qp), for all p, q- V.
Reexivity and transivity follow fromTheorem2.2(1) and Theorem2.2(5), respec-
tively. Moreover, fromTheorem2.2(1) it follows that (V, d
V
) is separated.
DEFI NI TI ON 3.9. Assume X=X, d is a V-continuity space.
(1) The dual of X is the pair X*=(X, d*), where for all x, y- X,
d*(x, y)=d(y, x).
(2) The symmetrization of X is the pair X
s
=(X, d
s
), where for all x, y- X
d
s
(x, y)=d(x, y)+d(y, x).
I t easily follows that X* and X
s
are V-continuity spaces.
DEFI NI TI ON 3.10. Assume X=X, d
X
and Y=Y, d
Y
are V-continuity
spaces. Then the space of nonexpansi6e maps from X to Y is the pair [XY]=
([XY ], d
[XY]
), where [XY ] is the set of all nonexpansive maps fromX to Y
and for f, g- [XY ],
d
[XY]
(f, g)=sup
x- X
d
Y
( f(x), g(x)).
Again it easily follows that [XY] is a V-continuity space.
268 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
4. Theinducedtopology
Thereis a natural topology on any continuity space, which is dened in a way
completely analogous to the denition of the metric topology on a metric space.
We again assume that V=V, , + is a value quantale.
DEFI NI TI ON 4.1. Assume X=(X, d) is a V-continuity space.
(1) Assume x- X, and ;0. Then the open ball of radius about x is the set
B

(x)={y- X ;d(x, y)},

and the closed ball of radius m about x is the set
B(

(x)={y- X d(x, y)}.

(2) Assume UX. Then U is open in X iff for all x- U there is an ;0 such
that B

(x)U.
We write ~(X) for the collection of all open subsets of the V-continuity space
X=(X, d).
THEOREM 4.2. AssumeX=(X, d) isaV-continuity space. Then~(X) isclosed
under nite intersections and arbitrary unions.
Proof. Clearly and X arein ~(X) and ~(X) is closed under arbitrary unions.
Assume U
1
, U
2
- ~(X) and x- U
1
.U
2
. Choose
1
;0 and
2
;0 so that B

1
(x)
U
1
and B

2
(x)U
2
. Let =inf{
1
,
2
}. Then ;0 and B

(x)U
1
.U
2
. Thus
U
1
.U
2
- ~(X). Q.E.D.
Thus for a V-continuity spaceX=(X, d), ~(X) is thecollection of open sets of
a topology on X. This is called the induced topology on X.
REMARK 4.3. Assume X=(X, d) is a V-continuity space.
(1) The induced topology is T
0
iff X is separated.
(2) The induced topology is T
1
iff for all x, y- X, d(x, y)=0 implies x=y.
THEOREM 4.4. Assume X=(X, d) is a V-continuity space.
(1) For all x- X and ;0, the open ball B

(x) is open in the induced topology

and the closed ball B(*

(x) is closed in the induced topology.

Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 269
(2) A subset U of X is open in theinduced topology iff for e6ery x- U thereis an
;0 such that B(

(x)U.
The following characterization of closed sets in the induced topology is useful.
DEFI NI TI ON 4.5. Assuming X=(X, d) is a V-continuity space, x- X, and
AX. Then the distance fromx to A, denoted by d(x, A), is given by
d(x, A)=inf
a- A
d(x, a).
THEOREM 4.6. AssumeX=(X, d) is a V-continuity spaceand AX. Then A
is closed in X iff for all x- X, if d(x, A)=0, then x- A.
Proof. Assume A is closed in the induced topology and d(x, A)=0. Let ;0.
Then for some a- A, ;d(x, a). Thus for all ;0, B

(x)/ (XA). Since XA

is open, it follows that x- A.
Assumefor all x- X, if d(x, A)=0, then x- A. Assumex] A. Then d(x, A)0.
Let ;0 be such that / d(x, A). Then B

(x)(XA). I t follows that XA is

open. Q.E.D.
Therearetwo other natural topologies on a continuity space, determined by the
induced topologies on its dual and symmetrization.
DEFI NI TI ON 4.7. Assume X=(X, d) is a V-continuity space. We call the
induced topology on X* the dual topology on X and the induced topology on X
s
the symmetric topology on X.
THEOREM 4.8. AssumeX=(X, d) is a V-continuity space. Then thesymmet-
ric topology on X is the join of the induced and the dual topologies on X.
Proof. I t is clear that thesymmetric topology contains both theinduced and the
dual topologies. Assume A is closed in the symmetric topology. Assume x] A.
Choose ;0 such that / d*(x, A). Let
1
and
2
be such that
1
;0,
2
;0 and

1
+
2
. Dene
B={b- X
1
;/ d(x, b)} and C={c- X
2
;/ d(c, x)}.
Then AB.C and x] B.C. Suppose d(y, B)=0 and y] B. Then
1
;d(x, y).
Let % and l be such that
1
;d(x, y)+l, l;0 and % ;d(x, y). Choose b- B so
that ld(y, b). Then
270 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.

1
;% +ld(x, y)+d(y, b)d(x, b).
Consequently
1
;d(x, b), which is absurd. Hence B is closed in the induced
topology. Similarly C is closed in the dual topology. I t follows that
A=-{B.C B is closed in X, C is closed in X
op
, and AB.C}.
Hencethesymmetric topology is contained in thejoin of theinduced and thedual
topologies. Q.E.D.
EXAMPLE 4.9. (POSETS.) Let P=(P, ) bea poset. Then, as wehaveseen,
P can be identied with the 2-continuity space (P, d

), where 2 is the value

quantale of truth values and for all x, y- P,
d

(x, y)=
!0,
,
if xy,
otherwise.
For AP and x- P, d(x, A)=0iff for somea- A, xa. Thus A is closed iff A is
a lower set and the induced topology on the 2-continuity space (P, d

) is just the
Alexandrov topology on the poset (P, ).
EXAMPLE 4.10. (METRI C SPACES.) Let (X, d) be a metric space. Then
X=(X, d) is a D-continuity space, whereD is thevaluequantaleof distances. The
induced topology on theD-continuity space(X, d) is thestandard metric topology
on (X, d).
EXAMPLE 4.11. (PROBABI LI STI C METRI C SPACES.) Let : ZZZ
make V=(Z, , ) a value quantale of distance distribution functions and let
X=(X, d) be a V-continuity space. Then, as we have seen in Example 3.6,
(X, d, ) is a probabilistic metric space. For x- X and t.0, let N
t
(x)=
{y- X d(x, y)(t).1t}. Then UX is open in the strong topology on X iff for
all x- U thereis a t.0such that N
t
(x)U (, p. 191). To showthat thestrong
topology agrees with theinduced topology weneed thefollowingelementary result.
CLAI M: Assume {F
i
}
i - I
is a family of distance distribution functions. Then
sup
i - I
F
i
=
0
iff for all t.0 there is an i - I such that F
i
(t).1t.
Consequently, for x- X and AX,
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 271
d(x, A)=
0
U sup
y- A
d(x, y)=
0
,
U for all t.0, for some y- A, d(x, y)(t).1t,
U for all t.0, for some y- A, y- N
t
(x).
I t follows that the strong topology and the induced topology on X are the same.
Weconsider two examples of structurespaces, which areobtained by adapting
constructions from Henriksen and Kopperman  and Lawson  to the present
formalism. Two simple observations will make the discussion more intelligible.
REMARK 4.12. Let R bea set and let X=(X, d) bean d(R)-continuity space.
Recall that for p- d(R), p;0 iff for some nite subset F of R, pi (F)=
{G- P
f
(R) GF}. For x- X and F
f
R, we write B
F
(x) for B
i(F)
(x), where we
again writeF
f
R to indicatethat F is a nitesubset of R and let P
f
(R) denotethe
collection of nite subsets of R.
(1) For each x- X, the family
{B
F
(x)}
F
f
R
is a neighborhood base at x.
(2) For x, y- X and F
f
R,
y- B
F
(x) iff F - d(x, y).
(3) For x- X and AX,
d(x, A)=0 iff for all F
f
R there is an a- A such that F - d(x, a).
EXAMPLE 4.13. Assume R is a commutative ring with identity and let X be
the set of prime ideals on R. Dene d
X
: XXd(R) by
d
d(R)
(P, Q)={F F
f
R and F.QP}, for all P, Q- X.
Then (X, d
X
) is an d(R)-continuity space. For a- R, let
h(a)={I - X a- I } and h
c
(a)=Xh(a).
Recall that thehull-kernel topology on X is thetopology with basis {h
c
(a) a- R}.
272 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
Assume a- R, P - X, and
d
d(R)
(P, h(a))=0.
Assume P - h
c
(a). Choose Q- h(a) such that
{a}.QP.
Then a] Q, which is absurd. Thus P - h(a), h(a) is closed in theinduced topology,
and so h
c
(a) is open in theinduced topology. I t follows that theinduced topology
on the structure space X contains the hull-kernel topology on X.
Now assume A is closed in the induced topology and P ] A. Let F=
{a
1
, . . . , a
n
}R be such that F ] d
d(R)
(P, A). Then for all Q- A, F.Q/ P.
Without loss of generality, we can assume that a
i
] P for i =1, 2, . . . , n. I t follows
that
P - h
c
(a
1
).h
c
(a
2
). .h
c
(a
n
)XA.
Thus XA is open in the hull-kernel topology. I t follows that the hull-kernel
topology on X contains the induced topology on the structure space X.
Therefore the induced topology on the d(R)-continuity space X=(X, d
d
) is
equal to the hull-kernel topology on X. A similar argument shows that the dual
topology on X is the dual hull-kernel topology. By Theorem 4.8, the symmetric
topology is thepatch topology on X. Theseresults can begeneralized considerably
(cf. Henriksen and Kopperman ).
EXAMPLE 4.14. Assume P is a continuous CPO and d
p
: PPd(P) is
dened by
d
P
(x, y)={F F
f
P and for all a- F, if ax, then ay}, for all x, y- P.
Since P is continuous, the family {J.(x)}
x- P
, where
J.(x)={y- P xy},
is a basis for the Scott topology on P.
Assume F
f
P and x- P. Then
B
F
(x)={y for all a- F, if ax, then ay},
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 273
=-{J.(a) a- F and ax}.
HenceB
F
(x) isopen in theScott topology and so theinduced topology iscontained
in the Scott topology.
NowassumeU is open in theScott topology and x- U. Choosez- U such that
zx. Let F={z}. Then
B
F
(x)=J.(z)U.
HenceU is open in theinduced topology and so theScott topology is contained in
the induced topology.
I t follows that theinduced topology on thestructurespaceX=(X, d
P
) is equal
to the Scott topology on P.
We see that many important familiar topologies arise in a natural way as the
induced topology on a continuity space. By adapting theargument of Kopperman
 we now show that all topologies arise in this way.
THEOREM 4.15. Assume (X, ~) is a topological space. Then there is a 6alue
quantaleV
~
anda V
~
-continuity spaceX=(X, d
~
) suchthat ~ is theinducedtopology
on X.
Proof. Let V
~
=d(~). Dene l
~
: XXd(~) by
d~(x, y)={F
f
~ for all U - F, x- U implies y- U}.
One easily shows that X=(X, d
~
) is a V
~
-continuity space.
For F
f
~ and x- X,
B
F
(x)=-{U - F x- U}.
The result now follows at once fromRemark 4.12. Q.E.D.
5. Valuequantales andvaluesemigroups
The theory of continuity spaces presented here replaces Koppermans 6alue
semigroups  by value quantales. This relates the theory of continuity spaces to
enriched category theory, simplies the theory of completeness, and makes the
notion of positive element an intrinsic one. Moreover, this approach seems to be
274 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
necessary for a reasonabletheory of hyperspaces of continuity spaces. By Theorem
4.15, all topologies are still metrizable under our denition of continuity space.
However, thetwo key classes of examples of valuesemigroups: P(K) with . as +;
and [0, 1]
K
with + dened by
(x+y)(k)=min{x(k)+y(k), 1};
arenot valuequantales in theselattices theelements well-above0 do not forma
lter. We end the paper by showing how to capture these examples as value
quantales.
Our rst construction is a simple variant of that given in Example 2.8. The
present version is more satisfactory when considering xed-point theorems for
continuity spaces. AssumeK is a nonempty set. Let P
cf
(K) denotethecollection of
conite subsets of K. We call pP
cf
(K) an order lter if K - p and for all
A, B- P
cf
(K), A - pand BA impliesB- p. Let \(K) denotethecollection of order
lters on P
cf
(K) partially ordered by reverse inclusion. Since the union of a
nonempty family of elements of \(K) is again an order lter and
\(K)
={K}is an
order lter contained in all others, \(K) is a completelattice. For each A - P
cf
(K),
let A.={BK BA}. Then A. - \(K) and for any p- \(K), p=.
A - p
A..
LEMMA 5.1. Assumep, q- \(K) and q
\(K)
. Then p;q iff for someA - q,
pA..
Proof. Clearly, if A - q, then A.;q, since inf=. in \(K). Sufciency then
follows fromLemma 1.2(3). Necessity follows at once fromthe observation above
that q=.
A - q
A.. Q.E.D.
THEOREM 5.2. (\(K), , .) is a 6alue quantale.
Proof. FromLemma5.1, it at oncefollows that \(K) is completely distributive.
Clearly P
cf
(K) - \(K), so 0
\(K
=P
cf
(K). SinceK,
\(K)
0
\(K)
. Assumep;0
and q;0. Let A - P
cf
(K) be such that pA. and B- P
cf
(K) be such that qB..
Then A.B- P
cf
(K) and p.qA.B, so p.q;0. Thus (\(K), ) is a value
distributivelattice. Sincep./
i - I
q
i
=p..
i - I
q
i
=.
i - I
(p.q
i
)=/
i - I
(p.q
i
), .
makes \(K) a value quantale. Q.E.D.
Thereis a simpleconnection between \(K) and d(K), thedual of freelocaleon
K constructed in Example 2.8. d(K)
op
is obtained from \(K)
op
bottomelement. Thus d(K)
op
is the lift of \(K)
op
, d(K)
op
\(K)
op

.
To capture [0, 1]
K
as a value quantale, we give a fuzzy version of the above
construction. A function f: K(0, 1] has conite support if the set S
f
=
Vol. 37, 1997 Quantales and continuity spaces 275
{k- K f(k)1}is nite. Let I
cf
(K)={f: K(0, 1] f has a conitesupport}with
the pointwise partial ordering. Note that I
cf
(K) is a semilattice with top element,
, dened by (k)=1 for all k and for f, g- I
cf
(K), f.g dened by ( f.g)(k)=
f(k).g(k). Moreover, thereis an associativeand commutativeaddition operation
on I
cf
(K) also dened pointwise: for f, g- I
cf
(K), ( f+g)(k)=min{f(k)+
g(k), 1}.
For f, g- I
cf
(K), f is way abo6eg, denoted by fg, if for all k- S
f
, f(k).g(k).
This is just the way below relation on the continuous poset (I
cf
(K), ). By
standard results from the theory of continuous posets or by an elementary direct
argument, we get the following basic properties of the relation .
LEMMA 5.3. For f, g, f %, g% - I
cf
(K),
(1) fg implies fg.
(2) f % fgg% implies f % g%.
(3) f.
(4) fg and f % g implies f.f % g.
(5) fg implies for some h, fhg.
DEFI NI TI ON 5.4. A subset pI
cf
(K) is a round order lter if the following
conditions are satised:
(1) - p;
(2) for all f, g- I
cf
(K), f - p and gf implies g- p; and
(3) for all f - p there is a g- p such that fg.
Let Y(K) denotethecollection of round order lters on I
cf
(K) partially ordered
by reverseinclusion. Sincetheunion of a nonempty family of elements of Y(K) is
again a round order lter and
Y(K)
={} is a round order lter contained in all
others, Y(K) is a complete lattice. For each f - I
cf
(K), let f.={g- I
cf
(K) gf}.
Then f.- Y(K) and for any p- Y(K), p=.
f - p
f.. The proof of Lemma 5.1 carries
over to the present situation.
LEMMA 5.5. Assume p, q- Y(K) and q
Y(K)
. Then p;q iff for some
f - q, pf..
I t follows at once from this lemma that (Y(K), ) is completely distributive.
Clearly I
cf
(K) - Y(K), so 0
Y(K)
=I
cf
(K). SinceK,
Y(K)
0
Y(K)
. Assumep;0
and q;0. Let f - I
cf
(K) besuch that pf.and g- I
cf
(K) besuch that qg/. Then
f.g- I
cf
(K) and p.qf.g, so p.q;0. Thus (Y(K), ) is a valuedistributive
lattice. For p, q- Y(K), let p+q={f+g f - p and g- q}. I t is easy to show that
if p, q- Y(K), then p+q- Y(K). This operation is clearly associative and
276 R. C. FLAGG ALGEBRA UNI VERS.
commutative. Since p+/
i - I
q
i
=p+.
i - I
q
i
=.
i - I
(p+q
i
)=/
i - I
(p+q
i
), +
makes Y(K) a value quantale. We thus obtain the following theorem.
THEOREM 5.6. (Y(K), , +) is a 6alue quantale.
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Department of Mathematics and Statistics
Uni6ersity of Southern Maine
Portland, ME 04103
U.S.A.
e-mail: agg@usm.maine.edu