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Universitt Stuttgart

Fakultt fr Bau und-

Umweltingenieurwissenschaften

Baustatik und Baudynamik

Modeling of Shells with

Three-dimensional Finite Elements

Manfred Bischoff

Institute of Structural Mechanics

University of Stuttgart

bischoff@ibb.uni-stuttgart.de

2

Universitt Stuttgart

Fakultt fr Bau und-

Umweltingenieurwissenschaften

Baustatik und Baudynamik

acknowledgements

Ekkehard Ramm

Kai-Uwe

Bletzinger

Thomas Cichosz

Michael Gee

Stefan Hartmann

Wolfgang A. Wall

3

Universitt Stuttgart

Fakultt fr Bau und-

Umweltingenieurwissenschaften

Baustatik und Baudynamik

outline

evolution of shell models

solid-like shell or shell-like solid element?

locking and finite element technology

how three-dimensional are

3d-shells / continuum shells / solid shells?

4

History

early attempts

Shell Theories / Shell Models

Leonhard Euler 1707 - 1783

ring models (Euler 1766)

lattice models (J . Bernoulli 1789)

continuous models (Germain,

Navier, Kirchhoff, 19th century)

Gustav Robert Kirchhoff

1824 - 1887

5

History

August E.H. Love, 1888

membrane and bending action

inextensional deformations

first shell theory = Kirchhoff-Love theory

This paper is really an attempt to construct a theory

of the vibrations of bells

Lord Rayleigh (J ohn W. Strutt)

Shell Theories / Shell Models

6

All you need is Love?

August E.H. Love, 1888

first shell theory = Kirchhoff-Love theory

This paper is really an attempt to construct a theory

of the vibrations of bells

Shell Theories / Shell Models

7

Evolution of Shell Models

fundamental assumptions

cross sections remain

- straight

- unstretched

- normal to midsurface

( ) 0 , 0 = =

zz zz

contradiction

requires modification

of material law

0

0

=

=

yz

xz

Kirchhoff-Love

8

Evolution of Shell Models

fundamental assumptions

cross sections remain

- straight

- unstretched

- normal to midsurface

( ) 0 , 0 = =

zz zz

contradiction

requires modification

of material law

0

0

yz

xz

Reissner-Mindlin, Naghdi

9

Evolution of Shell Models

fundamental assumptions

cross sections remain

- straight

- unstretched

- normal to midsurface

0 , 0

zz zz

contradiction

requires modification

of material law

0

0

yz

xz

7-parameter formulation

10

Evolution of Shell Models

fundamental assumptions

cross sections remain

- straight

- unstretched

- normal to midsurface

0 , 0

zz zz

contradiction

requires modification

of material law

0

0

yz

xz

multi-layer, multi-director

11

Evolution of Shell Models

from classical thin shell theories to 3d-shell models

1888: Kirchhoff-Love theory

membrane and bending effects

middle of 20

th

century: Reissner/Mindlin/Naghdi

+ transverse shear strains

1968: degenerated solid approach (Ahmad, Irons, Zienkiewicz)

shell theory = semi-discretization of 3d-continuum

1990+: 3d-shell finite elements, solid shells,

surface oriented (continuum shell) elements

Schoop, Simo et al, Bchter and Ramm, Bischoff and Ramm,

Krtzig, Sansour, Betsch, Gruttmann and Stein, Miehe and Seifert,

Hauptmann and Schweizerhof, Brank et al., Wriggers and Eberlein,

Klinkel, Gruttmann and Wagner, and many, many others

since ~40 years parallel development of theories and finite elements

Shell Theories / Shell Models

12

Evolution of Shell Models

the degenerated solid approach

Ahmad, Irons and Zienkiewicz

(1968)

Shell Theories / Shell Models

1. take a three-dimensional finite element (brick)

2. assign a mid surface and a thickness direction

3. introduce shell assumptions and

refer all variables to mid surface quantities

(displacements, rotations, curvatures, stress resultants)

13

Derivation from 3d-continuum (Naghdi)

geometry of shell-like body

3d-shell Models

14

Derivation from 3d-continuum (Naghdi)

deformation of shell-like body

3d-shell Models

15

7-parameter Shell Model

displacements

+ 7

th

parameter for linear transverse normal strain distribution

geometry of shell-like body

3d-shell Models

16

7-parameter Shell Model

linearized

strain tensor in three-dimensional space

approximation (semi-discretization)

strain components

+ linear part via 7

th

parameter

3d-shell Models

17

7-parameter Shell Model

in-plane

strain

components

membrane

bending

higher order effects

3d-shell Models

18

Semi-discretization of Shell Continuum

straight cross sections: inherent to theory or discretization?

equivalence of shell theory and degenerated solid approach, Bchter and Ramm (1992)

discretization

(3-dim.)

linear shape functions

+ additional assumptions

discretization

(2-dim.)

dimensional reduction

Solid-like Shell or Shell-like Solid?

19

Large Strains

metal forming, using 3d-shell elements (7-parameter model)

Solid-like Shell or Shell-like Solid?

20

Large Strains

metal forming, using 3d-shell elements (7-parameter model)

3d stress state

contact

Solid-like Shell or Shell-like Solid?

21

Large Strains

very thin shell (membrane), 3d-shell elements

Solid-like Shell or Shell-like Solid?

22

Motivation

three-dimensional data from CAD

complex structures with stiffeners and intersections

connection of thin and thick regions,

layered shells, damage and fracture,

why solid elements instead of 3d-shell elements?

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

23

Shell Analysis with Standard Solid Elements

a nave approach: take a commercial code and go!

maximum

displacement

pressure load

element formulation

include extra displacements

exclude extra displacements

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

clamped

24

Shell Analysis with Standard Solid Elements

a nave approach: take a commercial code and go!

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

0 100000 200000 300000

exclude extra displacements

= standard Galerkin elements

include extra displacements

= method of incompatible modes

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

d.o.f.

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

25

Shell Analysis with Standard Solid Elements

one layer of standard Galerkin

elements yields wrong results

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

0 100000 200000 300000

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

exclude extra displacements

= standard Galerkin elements

include extra displacements

= method of incompatible modes

d.o.f.

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

shell elements

26

Shell Analysis with Standard Solid Elements

refinement in transverse direction helps (but is too expensive!)

0.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

0 100000 200000 300000

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

2 layers of

standard Galerkin elements

d.o.f.

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

shell elements

Poisson thickness locking

(volumetric locking)

7

th

parameter in 3d-shell model = incompatible mode

27

Three-dimensional Analysis of Shells

3d-shell (e.g. 7-parameter formulation)

two-dimensional mesh

director + difference vector

6 (+1) d.o.f. per node

stress resultants

continuum shell (solid shell)

three-dimensional mesh

3 d.o.f. per node (+ internal d.o.f.)

stress resultants

3d-solid (brick)

three-dimensional mesh

3 d.o.f. per node (+ internal d.o.f.)

3d stresses

there are (at least) three different strategies

3d-shell (e.g. 7-parameter formulation)

two-dimensional mesh

director + difference vector

6 (+1) d.o.f. per node

stress resultants

continuum shell (solid shell)

three-dimensional mesh

3 d.o.f. per node (+ internal d.o.f.)

stress resultants

3d-solid (brick)

three-dimensional mesh

3 d.o.f. per node (+ internal d.o.f.)

3d stresses

Three-dimensional FEM for Shells

28

Surface Oriented Formulation

nodal displacements instead of difference vector

+ 7

th

parameter for linear transverse normal strain distribution

nodes on upper and lower shell surface

3d-shell Models

29

Surface Oriented Formulation

membrane

and bending

strains

membrane

bending

higher order

effects

continuum shell formulation

3d-shell Models

30

Requirements

what we expect from finite elements for 3d-modeling of shells

Requirements

asymptotically correct (thickness 0)

numerically efficient for thin shells (locking-free)

consistent (patch test)

competitive to usual 3d-elements for 3d-problems

required for both 3d-shell elements and solid elements for shells

31

A Hierarchy of Models

thin shell theory (Kirchhoff-Love, Koiter)

3-parameter model

Asymptotic Analysis

modification of material law required

32

A Hierarchy of Models

first order shear deformation theory (Reissner/Mindlin, Naghdi)

5-parameter model

Asymptotic Analysis

modification of material law required

33

A Hierarchy of Models

shear deformable shell + thickness change

6-parameter model

Asymptotic Analysis

asymptotically correct for membrane state

34

A Hierarchy of Models

shear deformable shell + linear thickness change

7-parameter model

Asymptotic Analysis

asymptotically correct for membrane +bending

35

Asymptotic Analysis

Numerical Experiment (Two-dimensional)

a two-dimensional example: discretization of a beam with 2d-solids

36

Numerical Experiment (Two-dimensional)

a two-dimensional example: discretization of a beam with 2d-solids

Asymptotic Analysis

37

Requirements

what we expect from finite elements for 3d-modeling of shells

Requirements

asymptotically correct (thickness 0)

numerically efficient for thin shells (locking-free)

consistent (patch test)

competitive to usual 3d-elements for 3d-problems

required for both 3d-shell elements and solid elements for shells

38

Locking Phenomena

3d-shell/continuum shell vs. solid

3d-shell / continuum shell 3d-solid

in-plane shear locking

transverse shear locking

membrane locking

Poisson thickness locking

curvature thickness locking

shear locking

(membrane locking)

volumetric locking

trapezoidal locking

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

39

Comparison: Continuum Shell vs. 3d-solid

continuum shell 3d-solid

stress resultants

distinct thickness direction

linear in

3

stresses

all directions are equal

quadratic in

3

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

differences with respect to finite element technology

and underlying shell theory

40

Trapezoidal Locking

(Curvature Thickness locking)

numerical example: pinched ring

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

41

1,0E-01

1,0E+00

1,0E+01

1,0E+02

1,0E+03

1,0E+04

1 10 100 1000

1,0E-01

1,0E+00

1,0E+01

1,0E+02

1,0E+03

1,0E+04

1 10 100 1000

1,0E-01

1,0E+00

1,0E+01

1,0E+02

1,0E+03

1,0E+04

1 10 100 1000

Trapezoidal Locking

(Curvature Thickness locking)

numerical example: pinched ring

3d-solid

(standard Galerkin)

3d-solid with EAS

continuum shell, DSG method

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

d.o.f.

d

i

s

p

l

a

c

e

m

e

n

t

42

Trapezoidal Locking

(Curvature Thickness locking)

origin of locking-phenomenon explained geometrically

pure bending of an initially curved element

leads to artificial transverse normal strains and stresses

trapezoidal locking distortion sensitivity

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

43

Cylindrical Shell Subject to External Pressure

slenderness

shell

elements

3d-solid elements

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

44

Cylindrical Shell Subject to External Pressure

slenderness

shell

elements

3d-solid elements

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

fine mesh, 18816 d.o.f.

fine mesh, 18816 d.o.f.

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

45

Cylindrical Shell Subject to External Pressure

slenderness

shell

elements

3d-solid elements

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

coarse mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

fine mesh, 18816 d.o.f.

fine mesh, 4608 d.o.f.

still 70% error!

factor 13!

due to trapezoidal locking

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

46

Finite Element Technology: Summary

3d-shell, continuum shell, solid shell,

3d-solid (brick)

stress resultants allow separate treatment

of membrane and bending terms

anisotropic element technology

(trapezoidal locking)

no transverse direction

no distinction of membrane / bending

(usually) suffer from trapezoidal locking

general

effective methods for transverse shear locking available

membrane locking mild when (bi-) linear shape functions are used

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

47

Finite Element Technology: Summary

triangles, tetrahedrons and wedges

tetrahedrons: hopeless

wedges: may be o.k.

in transverse direction

problem: meshing with hexahedrons

extremely demanding

A triangle!!

Numerical Efficiency and Locking

48

Requirements

what we expect from finite elements for 3d-modeling of shells

Requirements

asymptotically correct (thickness 0)

numerically efficient for thin shells (locking-free)

consistent (patch test)

competitive to usual 3d-elements for 3d-problems

required for both 3d-shell elements and solid elements for shells

49

Fundamental Requirement: The Patch Test

Consistency and the Patch Test

one layer of 3d-elements,

x

= const.

3d-solid continuum shell, DSG

50

Fundamental Requirement: The Patch Test

one layer of 3d-elements,

x

= const., directors skewed

3d-solid continuum shell, DSG

Consistency and the Patch Test

51

Two-dimensional Model Problem

the fundamental dilemma of finite element technology

modeling constant stresses

Consistency and the Patch Test

52

Two-dimensional Model Problem

the fundamental dilemma of finite element technology

or pure bending?

Consistency and the Patch Test

53

Fundamental Requirement: The Patch Test

one layer of 3d-elements,

x

= const., directors skewed

continuum shell, no DSG

(trapezoidal locking in bending)

3d-solid continuum shell, DSG

Consistency and the Patch Test

54

Fundamental Requirement: The Patch Test

same computational results, different scales for visualization

continuum shell, DSG continuum shell, no DSG

(trapezoidal locking in bending)

avoiding trapezoidal locking

contradicts satisfaction of

patch test

(known since long,

e.g. R. McNeal text book)

much smaller error

originates from

shell assumptions!?

Consistency and the Patch Test

55

Fundamental Requirement: The Patch Test

curvilinear components of strain tensor

consistency: exactly represent

Consistency and the Patch Test

56

Convergence

mesh refinement by subdivision

Consistency and the Patch Test

57

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Convergence

mesh refinement

continuum shell, DSG

continuum shell, no DSG

3d-solid (reference)

Consistency and the Patch Test

58

850

900

950

1000

1050

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

Convergence

mesh refinement

effect from element technology

diminishes with mesh refinement

effect from theory

remains

Consistency and the Patch Test

59

Convergence

mesh refinement

850

900

950

1000

1050

0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000

effect from element technology

diminishes with mesh refinement

effect from theory

remains

quadratic terms ought to be included unless directors are normal

non-satisfaction of patch test harmless when subdivision is used

Consistency and the Patch Test

60

Requirements

what we expect from finite elements for 3d-modeling of shells

Requirements

asymptotically correct (thickness 0)

numerically efficient for thin shells (locking-free)

consistent (patch test)

competitive to usual 3d-elements for 3d-problems

required for both 3d-shell elements and solid elements for shells

61

Panel with Skew Hole

3d-problems

distorted elements, skew directors

62

Panel with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

63

Panel with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

64

Panel with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

65

Panel with Skew Hole

comparison to brick elements

continuum shell

DSG

3d-solid (brick)

3d-problems

66

Cylinder with Skew Hole

distorted and curved elements, skew directors

3d-problems

67

Cylinder with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

68

Cylinder with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

69

Cylinder with Skew Hole

continuum shell elements

continuum shell

no DSG

continuum shell

DSG

3d-problems

70

Cylinder with Skew Hole

comparison to brick elements

continuum shell

DSG

3d-solid elements

(bricks)

3d-problems

71

Cylinder with Skew Hole

comparison to brick elements

continuum shell

standard Galerkin

3d-solid elements

(bricks)

3d-problems

72

spectral condition norm

thin shells worse than thick shells

3d-shell elements ( ) worse than standard shell elements ( )

The Conditioning Problem

The Conditioning Problem

condition numbers for classical shell and 3d-shell elements

Wall, Gee and Ramm (2000)

classical shell:

3d-shell:

73

Significance of Condition Number

The Conditioning Problem

error evolution in iterative solvers

error of solution vector x after k

th

iteration

estimated number of iterations (CG solver)

comparison of three different concepts

Wall, Gee, Ramm, The challenge of a three-dimensional shell formulation the conditioning

problem, Proc. IASS-IACM, Chania, Crete (2000)

74

Eigenvalue Spectrum

The Conditioning Problem

shell, 3d-shell and brick

75

Eigenvectors (Deformation Modes)

The Conditioning Problem

76

Scaled Director Conditioning

The Conditioning Problem

scaling of director

d a =

3

2 1

,a a

*

3

d a = c

2 1

,a a

77

Scaled Director Conditioning

The Conditioning Problem

scaling of director

linear scaling of w

does not influence results

acts like a preconditioner

78

Scaled Director Conditioning

The Conditioning Problem

reference configuration

current configuration

79

Improved Eigenvalue

Spectrum

The Conditioning Problem

numerical example

5116 d.o.f.

BiCGstab solver

ILUT preconditioning

(fill-in 30%)

400 load steps

no scaling

scaled director

80

Improved Eigenvalue

Spectrum

The Conditioning Problem

numerical example

5116 d.o.f.

BiCGstab solver

ILUT preconditioning

(fill-in 30%)

400 load steps

81

Conclusions

3d-modeling of Shells

3d-solids

3d-shell and continuum shell (solid shell)

mechanical ingredients identical

stress resultants

flexible and most efficient finite element technology

neglecting higher order terms bad for 3d-applications

best for 3d-analysis of real shells

usually suffer from trapezoidal locking

(curvature thickness locking)

pass all patch tests (consistent)

higher order terms naturally included

best for thick-thin combinations

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