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Management and Conservation of Water Resources (Bali Province)

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1.

Background

The current environmental issues which are increasingly widespread and complex, are suspected to be caused by, among other things, the development planning which is bias towards economic growth rather than the ecology. Hence, as its accumulation, during the last decade, there has been environmental crisis in the form of environmental disaster, an increased rate of natural resources destruction as well as environmental pollution. Consequently, the costs of environmental impact which must be borne by the public and government are much greater than the economical benefits gained.

Sustainable development as an operational basis for the implementation of the development as set out in the Constitution and Laws should be mainstreamed from the early stage of the development strategy selection process, either in the planning of periodic development, spatial layout or sectoral development. It is necessary in order to ensure that the principles of sustainable development have been used as the basis for and integrated in the development of a region and or policies, plans and/or programs.

The Province of Bali is a single unit of space and ecosystem in a small island. In terms of territory, Bali is relatively small and it does not have abundant natural resources, but it has a comparative advantage with regard to cultural uniqueness and natural beauty. A harmonious blend of agrarian cultural potentials and creative human resources along with the support of the natural
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beauty will constitute a capital base to sustain the competitive advantage of Bali as a tourist destination. In addition to the aforementioned potentials, the building of Bali regions is focused on agriculture, tourism and handicraft industry.

One of the issues faced by Bali in realizing sustainable development, which includes three aspects, namely the sustainability of economic development, social and cultural development as well as environmental protection, is water resources. Currently, the issue of water resources does not only relate to limited supply in terms of quantity and uneven distribution. The available water resources tends to be inadequate to be used by humans and other living creatures because water quality has been declining due to contamination or pollution by a number of materials and/or substances hazardous to water resources.

In order to realize sustainable utilization of water resources for the prosperity of the people to the greatest extent, water resources need to be managed in a comprehensive, integrated, and environmental-oriented manner. According to Law Number 4 Year 2007 concerning Water Resources, water resources management is an effort to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate the implementation of water resources conservation, utilization of water resources, and control of the destructive force of water.

In order to ensure that the principles of sustainable development have become the basis and have been integrated into the development of an area and/or policy, plan, and/or program, Local Governments are required to
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implement Strategic Environmental Assessment (Kajian Lingkungan Hidup Strategis or KLHS) in the formulation or evaluation of spatial layout plans (rencana tata ruang wilayah or RTRW) as well as the detailed plans thereof, long-term development plan (rencana pembangunan jangka panjang or

RPJP) and medium term development plan (rencana pembangunan jangka menengah or RPJM) of provinces and regencies/municipalities; as well as policies, plans, and/or programs (KRP) which may potentially have impacts on and/or risks to the environment, as mandated by Law No. 32 Year 2009

In 2010, the Government of Bali Province conducted KLHS with the facilitation of the Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, by going through two phases, namely the Screening and Scoping Phases. As the result of the screening phase of the KLHS implementation in Bali, an agreement had been reached on the need to formulate alternative refinement of the KRP at the Provincial and Regency/Municipal levels as mandated by Article 15 paragraph (2) of Law no. 32 Year 2009. The central theme agreed in the implementation of KLHS of Bali province is Sustainable Water Resources Management, which supports Bali as a "Green Province" (Bali Green Province). Whereas as the result of the scoping phase, some materials have been agreed, namely (1) Priority Strategic Issues; (2) KLHS Goals; (3) KLHS Period and (4) the Scope of the Area of Studies.

1.2.

Purpose and Objectives

1.2.1 Purpose The Strategic Environmental Assessment (KLHS) Workshop II is intended to be the improvement of the KLHS scoping process implementation by involving a wider range of stakeholders 1.2.2 Objectives The Strategic Environmental Assessment (KLHS) Workshop II is the improvement of the scoping phase of the Water Resource KLHS process in Bali Province, with the following objectives: 1) To identify "additional" priority strategic issues of sustainable development related to water resources management as well as the significant impacts that need to be assessed and taken into account in KLHS studies; 2) To formulate several sub-objectives of water resources management KLHS of Bali Province based on the agreed priority strategic issues. 3) To prepare a list of priority development programs for each of the priority strategic issues and sub-objectives.

1.3.

Goal and Output

1.3.1 Goal The goal of the Water Resources Strategic Environmental Assessment (KLHS) Workshop II in Bali Province is an agreement on the priority strategic issues as well as the sub-objectives and priority programs for water resources development in the context of sustainable development which must be assessed and considered in policies, plans and program (KRP).
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1.3.2 Output The output of the implementation of Water Resources KLHS Workshop II in Bali province is a Report on the Improvement of Water Resources Management KLHS Scoping Process in Bali Province.

CHAPTER II APPROACH, PROCESS AND METHODOLGY OF SCOPING IMPROVEMENT

1.1.

Approach

The approach applied in the improvement of Water Resource KLHS scoping process in Bali Province was identical to the approach applied in Workshop I, namely a combination of technocratic and participatory approaches. a. Technocratic Approach

Technocratic approach in the scoping process of Water Resources KLHS in Bali province was applied by using scientific thinking method and framework. The integration of science and the principles of integrated water resources management in Bali as a single small island ecosystem was based on data input and valid scientific information to provide various alternatives and recommendations for decision making, by considering the conditions and characteristics of social, cultural, economic, institutional and biophysical environment.

In the process of Water Resources KLHS in Bali province, the formulation of strategic issues, analysis and assessment of carrying capacity as well as recommendations of alternative policies, plans and programs (KRP) were conducted based on the flow of logical framework, by using data and scientific information, as well as by using relevant analytical models.

b.

Participatory Approach

Participatory approach in the scoping process of Water Resources KLHS in Bali was a process of involving public participation, particularly in relation to the efforts to ensure the representation of community inputs in decision making (alternative KRP recommendations). This is in line with the principles of environmental management planning, among other things, by involving the participation of local communities and other stakeholders to accommodate people's aspirations. Article 18 paragraph (1) of Law no. 32 Year 2009 concerning Environment Control and Environmental Management also mandates that the KLHS shall be conducted by involving the community and stakeholders. The involvement of the community based on norms, standards and guidelines was implemented through Workshops, Focus Group Discussions (FGD) and seminars.

1.2.

The process of the Improvement of the Scoping and Formulation of Sub-Objectives as well as Priority Development Programs

The scoping process of Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province in Workshop II followed the phases which are systematically presented in Figure 1, as follows:

1)

Phase I:

Screening of Strategic Issues related to

Water

Resources, Environment Issues and Sustainable Development Issues

The screening of issues for Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was started with a brief presentation on the implementation of KLHS in Bali province. All FGD
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participants were community members (representing tourism and industrial entrepreneurs, agricultural workers and the general community groups) in addition to stakeholders participating in Workshop I. Each community group was guided and facilitated in discussing issues of water resources, environment and sustainable development in Bali as well as identifying strategic issues of water resources, environment and sustainable

development. This Phase of FGD was expected to generate new strategic issues which were not identified in the Scoping Phase of Workshop I. The output of this stage was a set of strategic issues for each community groups as the result of the FGD. 2) Phase II: Synthesis and Finalization of Priority Strategic Issues

A range of strategic issues generated from the implementation of the FGD were then synthesized with the priority strategic issues which had been agreed in Workshop IThe synthesis was conducted through stakeholders discussion forum with the same participants as Workshop I. The purpose of this phase was to improve or to add priority strategic issues based on the inputs obtained from the FGD. The output was in the form of a final Formulation of Priority Strategic Issues , which will taken into consideration in the following KLHS process. 3) Phase III: Formulation of Sub-Objectives

Sub-objectives were then designated for each of the final priority strategic issues resulting from the synthesis of the FGD and Workshop I. The formulation of sub-objectives for each priority strategic issues was aimed at
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determining the analysis of the direction of development policies and/or plans and/or programs in the following KLHS phases.

The Phase III was implemented trough group discussions followed by panel discussions in order to agree upon each sub-objective of the strategic issues. The output from this phase is the Formulation of Sub-objective for each strategic issue.

4)

Phase IV: Formulation of Priority Development Programs

Each sub-objective of each priority strategic issues agreed upon in Phase III was followed up by the formulation of priority development programs.

Phase IV was implemented by holding focus group discussions which were followed by panel discussions to agree on priority programs for each strategic issue and each sub-objective. The output of this phase was the formulation of Priority Development Programs for each strategic issues and sub-objectives.

INPUT

PROCESS

OUTPUT

Phase I BRIEFING ON KLHS MATERIALS BY CONSULTANT

Identification of Additional Strategic Issues from the Community Groups

Collection of Strategic Issues related to 10 Water Resources, Environment and PB

FGD

Phase II PRIORITY STRATEGIC ISSUES AGREED ON IN WORKSHOP I Syntehsis and Finalization of Priority Strategic Issues Prioritas Stakeholder Discussion Description of Final Priority Strategic Issues

DESCRIPTION OF FINAL PRIORITY STRATEGIC ISSUES KLHS OBJECTIVES COVERAGE AREA STUDIES TERM OF STUDY

Phase III Formulating Subobjectives for each Priority Strategic Issues Group Discussion & Formulation of Subobjective for each Priority Strategic Issues

DESCRIPTION OF FINAL PRIORITY STRATEGIC ISSUES KLHS OBJECTIVES COVERAGE AREA STUDIES TERM OF STUDY SUB-OBJECTIVES FOR EACH STRATEGIC ISSUES

Phase IV Formulation of Priority Development Programs for each Sub-objectives and Strategic Issues

Formulation of Priority Programs

Group Discussion &

Scoping Improvement Process, Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs in Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province

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1.3.

Methodology

The Improvement of scoping in Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province applied several methods, namely: 1) Brainstorming method.

A method of exchanging thoughts with many people in a meeting in order to listen to various types of information/alternatives in relation to the topics discussed. Each participant of the discussion, based on the principles of equality, transparency and democratcy, were facilitated to freely convey their opinions and proposals/suggestions in discussing a particular topic. The brainstorming method was used in the scoping improvement process is used in the entire phases of activity 2) Meta plan method.

Meta plan method in the process of KLHS scoping improvement in Bali Province was used in the identification or mapping of water resources issues, environmental issues and sustainable development issues in the FGD. Each participant of the discussion wrote or conveyed their ideas concerning water resources issues, environmental issues and sustainable development issues on several sheets of paper. Each issue was written on a piece of paper. The issues raised on each sheet of paper were subsequently grouped, categorized and paired with each other and an agreement was then endeavored in order to produce a series of water resources issues, environmental issues and sustainable development issues. The meta plan method was used in this scoping
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process in order to reduce barriers of verbal communication in the discussion process. 3) Overlay method

Overlay method is a method in which several maps are overlaid in order to see the tendency. Technically, this method uses a number of thematic maps of physiographic and other geophysical factors in Bali Province, the region's ecosystems, hydrology, land use and spatial layout planning, as well as several socio-economic aspects, as well as social and cultural aspects. Overlay method was used in the formulation of sub-objectives and priority development programs. 4) Matrix method

The matrik method was used in order to see the relationship between one group and other groups. The matrix method was used in the improvement of the KLHS scoping process in the finalization of priority strategic issues, sub-objectives formulation and priority development programs. 5) Network/Flowchart method

Network/flowchart method was used to see an impact of one group on other groups, both directly and indirectly. The method was used in the finalization of priority strategic issues, sub-objectives formulation and priority development programs.

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6)

Analogy method

Analogy method is the making of a prediction based on similar conditions occurring in a different place/time. Analogy method was used in the improvement of the scoping process in identifying additional water resources issues /environmental issues and the formulation of strategic issues and priorities.

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CHAPTER III BRIEF PROFILE OF BALI PROVINCE

Based on the explanations of the resource persons in the Scoping process of Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province (Workshop I), the following is a brief profile of Bali Province in relation to land resources, climate, hydrology and forest. 1.1. Area and Administration

Bali Province is one of the provinces in Indonesia established by virtue of Law Number 64 year 1958. Geographically, Bali Province is located in the central part of Indonesia at 8o.03.40 South Latitude - 8o.50.48 South Latitude and 114o.25.53 - 115o.42.40 East Longitude. Bali Province is a part of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. While, the boundaries of Bali Province are, as follows:

North : The Java Sea East : Lombok Straits South : The Indian Ocean West: Bali Straits.

Bali province consists of Bali island as the main island and several small inhabited islands, namely Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Ceningan,

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and Serangan Island and uninhabited island of Menjangan Island. The total area of Bali Province is 563,666 ha (0.29% of Indonesia).

Administratively, Bali Province is divided into 8 (eight) regencies and one municipality, 57 sub-districts and 713 villages. The number of sub-districts in each District/Municipality is ranging from 4 to 10 sub-districts. The Regencies/Municipality in Bali Province are as listed in Figure 2, namely, Jembrana, Tabanan, Badung, Gianyar, Klungkung, Bangli, Karangasem, Buleleng Regencies and Denpasar Municipality.

Source: BPS Bali Province (2009) Figure 2. Size, Number of sub-districts and number of villages in Bali Province by Regency/Municipality

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1.2.

Physiography

1.2.1. Topography

The relief of Bali Island constitutes a range of mountains extending from the West to the East. Among those mountains, there are active volcanoes, namely Mt. Batur (1,717 m) and Mt. Agung (3,142 m). Because of the range of mountains which stretches along Bali island, the morphology of Bali Island is divided into several units of different topographies and physiographies, namely mountainous areas in the central part of Bali Island stretching from the west to the east, the lowlands and the ramps which are relatively widespread in southern areas, narrow lowland on the foot of hills and mountains in the northern area, and hilly terrains on the southern tip of Bali island and small islands (Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan) (Figure 3).

Adapted from the Topographic Map of Indonesia (1993)

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Figure 3. Topographic Map of Bali Province

1.2.2. Morphology Because of the range of mountains and hills stretching across Bali province, the slope of land is dominated slopes of more than 15%. Lands with a slope ranging from 15 to 40% cover 171,932 ha or 30.50% of the island and the size of land with a slope of more than 40% is 160,908 ha (28.55%). Slopes of 1540% are dominant in the central part of Bali Island, covering the mountain range stretching from the west to the east, namely Jembrana, Tabanan, Klungkung, Bangli and Karangasem. Areas with slopes of more than 40% include the hills and soe parts of Nusa Penida Island. Whereas lands with a slope of 0-2% only cover 106,775 ha (18.94%) and lands with a slope of 215% cover 124,051 ha (22.01%). The land dominated by slopes of less than 15%, include Denpasar City, and Gianyar and Badung Regencies (Figure 4).

Adapted from Source: Bali Province Regional Planning and Development Agency (Bappeda) (2006)
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Figure 4. Map of Land Slopes in Bali Province

1.2.3. Geological Structure The regional geological structure of Bali was initiated activities in the sea during the Lower Myosin producing pillow lava and breccias which were interrupted by limestone. In the southern part, there was a limestone sedimentation which subsequently formed the Southern Formation. In the line which bordered on the northern edge, there was a more subtle sedimentation. At the end of Pleistocene Time, the entire sedimentation area emerged above the sea level. At the sama time as the elevation, there was a shift causing various parts were faulting with one another. Generally, these faults were covered by younger organic or sedimentary rocks. In this matter, during the Pliocene Time, a sedimentation occurred in the sea to the North of the area, in the form of materials originating from sediments which subsequently resulted in the Asah Formation. In the Northwest, at least parts of the rocks emerged above sea level. Meanwhile, the sedimentation process of carbonate rocks was increasingly dominant further to the West. At the end of Pleosin period, the entire line was lifted and faulted, and an elevation occured. Volcanic activities mostly occurred on land which created volcanoes from west to east. It was in line with the occurrence of two calderas, namely first the Buyan-Beratan caldera and then followed by the Batur caldera. The island of Bali is still experiencing movements which cause elevation/uplifting in the northern part. As the result, Palasari formation was elevated to above the sea level and the island of Bali generally has a asymmetrical South North

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crosssection. The south is lower than the north. The geological conditions of Bali are presented in Figure 5.

Regional stratigraphy based on the Geological Map of Bali (PurboHadiwidjojo, 1971) in Bappeda Bali Province (2006), Bali geology is relatively young. The oldest rocks was probably formed during the Middle Miocene. Bali stratigraphy based on the Geological time is as follows:

Quarter, spreading over the southern, northern and central part of Bali Island. This formation is comprised of: Tuffs and Buyan-Beratan and Batur sediments. Mt. Batukaru volcanic rocks. Mt. Batur volcanic rocks. Mt. Agung volcanic rocks. Volcanic rocks of the subrecent peaks of Mt. Pohen, Mt. Sangiang, Mt. Lesung. Lava from Mt. Pawon Alluvial sediment, particularly along the coast, Buyan lakeside, Beratan and Batur Lakes.

Lower Quarter, spreading over the western part of Bali Island. The formation is comprised of: Jembrana Volcanic rocks: lava, breccia and tuffs from Mt. Klatakan, Mt. Merbuk, Mt. Patas and combined rocks.. Palasari Formation: conglomerate: sandstone, limestrone reefs. Mt. Seraya Volcanic rocks.

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Pliocene, present along the northern coast from Temukus up to Cape of Pulaki, and also in the eastern part of Buleleng region. Formation includes: Prapat Agung Formation, among other things, limestone, sandstone of limestone and marl. Pulaki Volcanic rocks : lava and breccia. Sorga Formation: tufa, marl and sandstone. Asah Formation comprising lava, breccia, tuffs, pumice with the stuffing of limestone. The

Miocene-Pliocene, including: South Formation: particularly, limestone Middle-Upper Myosin, including: Sorga Formation: tuffs, marls, sandstone.

Lower-Upper Myosin, including: Ulakan Formation: volcanic breccia, lava, tuffs with an infix of limestone.

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Adapted from the source: Bappeda Bal Province (2006) Figure 5. Geological Map of Bali Province

1.2.4. Types of Soil There are five main types of soil spreading throughout Bali Province, according to Reconnaissance Soil Map of Bali (1970). Those five types of soilare (Figure 6):

1)

Alluvial, comprising Alluvial Hidromorf and Grayish Brown Alluvial. This type of soil covers an area of 27.456 ha (4,8%), scattered in the Regencies of Jembrana, Klungkung, Buleleng and Karangasem.

2)

Regosol, comprising Grayish Brown Regosol, Grey Regosol, Brown Regosol and Humic Regosol. This type of soil covers an area of 224.869 ha (39,9%), scattered in the Regencies of Badung, Denpasar, Gianyar, and Jembrana.

3)

Grayish Brown Andosol, This type of soil covers an area of 22.976 ha (4,1%) scattered in the Regencies of Buleleng, Tabanan and Badung.

4)

Latosol, comprising Yellowish Brown Latosol, Brown Latosal, Reddish Brown Latosol and Litosol. The type of this soil dominates Bali region in an area of 251.185 ha (44,6%) in the Regencies of Buleleng, Tabanan, Badung, Denpasar, Jembrana, and Klungkung.

5)

Mediteran,

comprising

Brown

Mediteran

and

Reddish

Brown

Mediteran. This type of soil covers an area of 37.180 ha (6,6%), scattered in the Regencies of Jembrana, Badung and Klungkung.

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Adapted from source: Bappeda Bali Province (2006) Figure 6. Map of Soil Type in Bali Province

1.3.

Climate

1.3.1. Type of Climate

Generally, the conditions of weather and climate in Bali region are highly influenced by several matters, among other things, ocean-atmosphere interaction, convergence activities, the meeting of air masses from the northern and southern hemisphere, the growth of a low pressure center and the influence of local conditions. Based on the data of average monthly rainfall, Bali region has a pattern of monsoon rainfall. Monsoon pattern occurs due to the air circulation process which changes direction for every six months which pass in the territory of Indonesia, known as the west monsoon and the northeast monsoon. The west monsoon generally causes a lot of rain (rainy
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season) taking place around January, and the east monsoon generally leads to less rainfall (dry season) taking place around August.

Based on the classification of Schmidt-Ferguson, Bali has a climate type ranging from types C to F climate as shown in Figure 7. The type F climate is generally scattered in the northen and eastern coastal areas of Bali, as well as some hilly areas in thesouthern Bali and Nusa Penida. Meanwhile, the type C climate exists at the center of Bali Island and type D is at the central and the western parts of Bali Island.

Source: Bali Province Bappeda (2006) Figure 7. Map of Schmidt-Ferguson Climate Types in Bali Province

1.3.2. Rainfall The average annual rainfall in Bali during 2008 was 1,956.04 mm. Meanwhile, the average annual rainfall by Regency/Municipality was ranging
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from 1,660.42 2,436.56 mm, where the highest rainfall took place in Tabanan Regency and the lowest was in Klungkung Regency (Figure 8).

Adapted from source: BBMKG Region III Denpasar (2009) Figure 8. The Average Annual Rainfall by Regency/Municipality in Bali Province Year 2008

The average monthly rainfall in Bali was ranging from 6.04 406.54 mm, where the wettest month occurrs in February and the driest month occurrs in July. Wet months, with monthly rainfall of more than 100 mm in Bali in 2008 lasted for 6 months, among other things, in January, February, March, October, November and December (Figure 9). Jembrana, Tabanan, Karangasem Regencies and Denpasar Municipality had seven wet months while the other regencies had six wet months during 2008.

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Adapted from source: BBMKG Region III Denpasar (2009) Figure 9. The Average Monthly Rainfall in Bali Province Year 2008

1.3.3. Air Temperature The average monthly temperature in Bali province in 2008 ranged from 25.0 27.1 oC. The highest average monthly temperature was in October and the lowest was in July (Figure 10). October had the highest average monthly temperature throughout the Regencies/Municipalities, where in that month, the average monthly temperature by Regency/Municipality was ranging from 20.1 - 28.6 C, the highest was in Buleleng Regency and the lowest was in Tabanan Regency. In July, low temperatures took place throughout Bali with the average monthly temperature by Regency/City ranging from 18.0 - 26.3 C, the highest was in Buleleng Regency and the lowest was in Tabanan Regency. Tabanan Regency had an average monthly temperature which was relatively low throughout the year compared to other regencies/municipalities, namely ranging from 18.0 - 20.1 oC. Meanwhile, Buleleng Regency had an average monthly temperature which was relatively higher throughout the year with the average monthly temperatures of around 26.1 - 28.6 C (Figure 11).

Adapted from source: BBMKG Region III Denpasar (2009) Figure 10. The Average Monthly Temperature In Bali Province Year 2008
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Terendah Terendah
35 35 30 30 25 25 20 20 15 15 10 10 5 5 0 0 26,1 26,1 27,9 27,9 Suhu (derajat Celsius) Suhu (derajat Celsius) 24,4 24,4 27,4 27,4 18,0 18,0 20,1 20,1 26,0 26,0 27,6 27,6

Tertinggi Tertinggi
25,9 25,9 28,1 28,1 26,1 26,1 28,6 28,6 Bul Bul 26,2 26,2 28,1 28,1 25,5 25,5 28,0 28,0 26,1 26,1 28,2 28,2 Den Den

Jem Jem

Tab Tab

Bad Bad

Gia Gia

Klu Bang Kar Klu Bang Kar

Adapter from source: BBMKG Region III Denpasar (2009)

Figure 11. The Lowest and Highest Average Monthly Temperature by Regency/Municipality in Bali Province Year 2008

1.4.

Hydrology and Water Resource Potentials

1.4.1. Rivers

In Bali Province, it is recorded that there are 401 rivers and 162 of them empty into the sea. Out of the 162 rivers, there are only 11 rivers which have watershed of more than 100 km2. Based on the characteristics of river flows, most of the rivers are intermittent and annual rivers. Accordingly, the utilization of water from these rivers cannot be expected throughout the year. Only less than 11% of the rivers have water during dry seasons.

River systems in Bali are flowing from the north or the south as the result of the division of Bali Island by the mountains stretching from the west to the east of the island. Rivers in the south part of the mountains flow to the south and generally their length is twice the length of rivers flowing to the north in the north part of the mountains.

Watershed (Daerah Aliran Sungai or DAS) is the basis for the management of river ecosystems and surface water resources. Watershed is defined as an
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area bordered by natural topography, where all rainwater falling in it will flow through a river and comes out through an outlet on the river, or a hydrologic unit which describes and uses physical-biological units and units of social and economic activities for planning and managing natural resources.

Combination of several Watersheds becomes a Unit of River Area. The importance of watershed as a complete planning unit is a logical consequence for maintaining the sustainable use of the forests, soil, and water resources.

River systems in Indonesia are divided into 90 River Basin Units (Satuan Wilayah Sungai or SWS) pursuant to Decree of the Minister of Public Works No. 39/PRT/1989 including, more than 5,590 watersheds. Rivers in Bali province as a whole, form a single River Basin Regional Unit (SWS) or Regional River Unit, namely the River Region of Bali-Penida with SWS code of 03:01. The rivers are in Bali-Penida River Region which are divided into 20 sub SWS, namely (Figure 12):

Miniterial Decree PU No. 39/PRT/1989

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Figure 12. Map of River and Sub Unit of River Region in Bali Province

1)

Sub

SWS 03.01.01.

Includes

Denpasar Municipality,

Badung,

Tabanan, Gianyar and Buleleng Regencies, with an area of 555,64 km2. Most of the large rivers which are included in this Sub SWS are of Perennial River, except the rivers which are in Hill area (Kuta Selatan Sub-district). The greatest or dominating Watershed in this Sub SWS is Ayung Watershed. The Area of Ayung Watershed 288.37 km2 passing three Regencies of Badung, Denpasar Municipality and Gianyar Regency. The average annual rainfall in the Watershed is relatively high, reaching 2000 mm per year. 2) Sub SWS 03.01.02. Includes Badung, Tabanan and Buleleng Regencies with an area of 601,75 km2. Rivers in this Sub SWS are mostly of the parennial types. The area of the rivers are dominated by Tukad Yeh Empas Watershed with an area of 100,82 km2 and Tukad Yeh Ho Watershed with the area of 135,76 km2, where Tabanan

Regency located. The river flow continues throughout the year, with the rainfall around 2.200 mm per year. Other major watersheds in the area of this river is Tukad Yeh Penet of which area flows area, include Tabanan and Badung Regencies. 3) Sub SWS 03.01.03. Includes Tabanan Regency with an area of 288,34 km2. The area of this river is dominated by Tukad Balian Watershed with the area of 152,9 km2. The the river flow continues throughout the year, with a rainfall of around 2.000 mm per year. In addition to Tukad Balian, rivers included in Sub SWS 03.01.03, are, among others, Tk.
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Yeh Otan, Tk. Putrina, Tk. Timus, Tk. Pedungan, Tk. Payang, Tk. Gayam, Tk. Yeh Matan, Tk. Yeh Putek and Tk. Mluang. 4) Sub SWS 03.01.04. Includes Tabanan and Jembrana Regencies with an area of 392,37 km2. The rivers in this region are parennial rivers, including Tk. Selabih, Tk. Yeh Leh, Tk. Yeh Sumbul, Tk. Yeh Satang,Tk. Gumbrih, Tk. Pengyangan, Tk. Bakung, Tk. Pulukan, Tk. Kayu, Tk. Medewi and Tk. Lebah. Most of the rivers pass forest areas, particularly the middle and upstream areasparts, while in the downstream they pass rice fields. 5) Sub SWS 03.01.05. Includes Jembrana Regency with an area of 158,92 km2. The main rivers in this Sub SWS are Tk. Yeh Embang, Tk. Bilokpoh and Tk. Buah, which are parennial rivers. The upstream areas of the rivers are in protected forest areas, while the middle parts pass plantations and the downstream are in rice fields. 6) Sub SWS 03.01.06. Includes Jembrana Regency and covers an area of 228,44 km2. The rivers are dominated by Tukad Sowan Watershed with an area of 135,32 km2. Rainfall in the Watershed area is

approximately 1,900 mm per year with the no flow of river or semipermanent flow throughout the year. During monsoon time, the areas are frequently flooded. Other rivers in this Sub SWS are Tk. Titis, Tk. Mendoyo and Tk. Dalem. The downstream of the rivers are in protected forest areas, while the middle parts pass through plantations land and the downstream are in rice fileds and settlement areas. 7) Sub SWS 03.01.07. Includes Jembrana Regency which covers an area of 243,52 km2. The areas are dominated by Tukad Daya Barat
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Watershed. Other rivers, among others, are Tk. Sangyiang Gede, Tk. Melaya, Tk. Sari Kuning, Tk. Klatakan. The wter flow of Tukad Daya Barat, Tukad Sanghyang Gede and Tukad Melaya is not thorughout the year or semi permanent, while Tukad Klatakan is an intermitten river. The land utilization in the upstream areas is in the form of forests and the middle part up to the downstream are used for seasonal dry agricultural fields. 8) Sub SWS 03.01.08. Includes Buleleng regency with an area of 367,22 km2. The rivers in this raea are intermitten rivers which are relatively short, the flow of which passes through hilly areas and mostly in the form of critical land, in Gerokgak Regency, hence the Watershed is relatively in a critical condition. The rivers are, among others, Tk. Sumaga, Tk. Gerokgak, Tk. Musi, Tk. Tinga-tinga, Tk. Yeh Biu, Tk. Banyupoh, Tk. Pengunbahan and Tk. Pule. The lands in the upstream areas are in the form of forests, while the downstream are used as as dry rice fields. 9) Sub SWS 03.01.09. Includes Buleleng regency with an area of 222,39 km2. This area is dominated by Tukad Saba Watershed with an area of 130,09 km2. Other rivers in this area are Tukad Banyuraras and Tukad Gemgem. 10) Sub SWS 03.01.10. Includes Buleleng regency with an area of 114,24 km2. The rivers located in this area are generally semi permanent or intermitten rivers. The rivers in Sub SWS 03.01.10 are, among other things, Tk. Manuk, Tk. Bengkala, Tk. Jebol, Tk. Tampekan, Tk. Binong,

31

Tk. Mendaum, Tk. Langking and Tk. Anakan. Land in this river area is mostly used as dry rice fields. 11) Sub SWS 03.01.11. Includes Buleleng Regency with an area of 243,48 km2. The rivers included in this Sub SWS are, among others, Tk Tengah, Tk. Batupulu, Tk, Serumbung, Tk. Asangan, Tk. Buleleng, Tk. Banyumala, Tk. Baas, Tk. Penarukan, Tk. Yeh Taluh, Tk. Buus, Tk. Munduk, Tk. Sangsit, Tk. Pengong and Tk. Taluk. The rivers are generally semi permanent rivers. The land in the upstream areas of the rivers is used for forest and the downstream areas are in the form of densely populated residential areas in Singaraja Municipality as well as rice fields. 12) Sub SWS 03.01.12. Includes Buleleng Regency with an area of 311,65 km2. The area along this river is dominated by Tukad Daya Sawan Watershed which reaches 107,25 km2 , the land in the upper couse of Watershed is utilized for forest and in the middle of the downstream is dominated by wet rice fields and plantations. Erosion rate at the beginning of the rainy season is relatively high considering cover of vegetation at the beginning of the rainy season which has not been functioning effectively to restrain the flow of surface water. 13) Sub SWS 03.01.13. Includes Buleleng, Karangasem and Bangli Regencies which covers 357,14 km2. The rivers in this area are in general small and short rivers because they flow through hilly areas which are close to costal areas. The land utilization in the upstream areas is forest area and the middle parts up to the upstream areas are dominated by critical land and dry rice fields. The rivers are mostly
32

intermitten rivers. The rivers in Sub SWS 03.01.13 are, among others, Tk. Batang, Tk. Bangka, Tk. Ketungan, Tk. Puan, Tk. Sumegen, Tk. Baturiti, Tk. Linggah, Tk. Tutung, Tk. Abu, Tk. Maong, Tk. Dalam, Tk. Pangandangan, Tk. Lebahcelagi, Tk. Sapta, Tk. Trukuk, Tk. Cili, Tk. Sayung, Tk. Batang, Tk. Bakalan, Tk. Nusu, Tk. Pale, Tk. Embahapi, Tk. Dadak, Tk. Melaka, Tk. Grembeng, Tk. Dalem, Tk. Pilian, Tk. Sringin, Tk. Daya, Tk. Bumbung, Tk. Timbul, Tk. Santer, Tk. Karanganyar, Tk. Karobelahan, Tk. Legawa, Tk. Bungbung, Tk.

Telaga, Tk. Selahu, Tk. Jaka,Tk. Luwah, Tk. Gelar, Tk. Sidepana, Tk. Yeh Bau, Tk. Bonriu, Tk. Tembok, Tk. Bulakan. 14) Sub SWS 03.01.14. Includes Karangasem Regency which covers an area of 295,38 km2. The rivers in this Sub SWS are, Tk. Mantri, Tk. Seraya, Tk. Pitpitan, Tk. Bangas, Tk. Bunutan, Tk. Tibidalem, Tk. Belong, Tk. Itam, Tk Buah, Tk. Pangkuh. Tk Titis, Tk. Kutumanak, Tk. Kusambi, Tk. Batukeseni, Tk. Bluhu, Tk. Desa, Tk Pangkung and Tk. Aya. The rivers are mostly intermitten rivers and passing through critical land around Mt. Seraya. The land is dominated by critical land and seasonal dry agricultural fields. 15) Sub SWS 03.01.15. Includes Karangasem Regency which covers an area of 272,53 km2. Rivers in this area are flowing throughout the year and their watersheds are dominated by rice fields. The three main rivers in Sub SWS 03.01.15 are Tk. Pedih, Tk. Bangka and Tk. Nyuling. Another river is an intermitten one, namely Tk. Ringuang. The condition of the Watershed is relatively critical and land use is dominated by dry seasonal dry agricultural fields.
33

16)

Sub SWS 03.01.16. Includes Karangasem Regency which covers an area of 342,08 km2. This area is dominated by Tukad Jangga Watershed which covers 70,125 km2. The land is dominated by rice fields. The rivers are located in the lava watershed area of Mt. Agung, namely Tukad Jangga. The rivers included in Sub SWS 03.01.15 are, among others, Tk. Prakpak, Tk. Buwatan, Tk. Mengereng, Tk. Jangga, TK. Telincicing, Tk. Tanahampo, Tk. Buhu, Tk. Sampiang, Tk.

Karangan and Tk. Alas. 17) Sub SWS 03.01.17. Includes Karangasem, Bangli and Klungkung Regencies with an area of 257,78 km2. The area is dominated by Tukad Unda Watershed in an area of 220,52 km2. Other rivers are Tk. Bugbugan, Tk. Paang, Tk. Cau, Tk. Betel, Tk. Unda, Tk. Lombok, Tk. Pegatepan. The rainfall in this area is relatively high which reaches 3000 mm per year. The rivers are flowing throughout the year, the land is mostly used for wet rice fields, while the areas in the upstream areas are in the form of forest areas. Most of the rivers in this area are flowing in the course of Mt. Agung lava. The sedimentation caused by volcanic materials from Mt. Agung is still dominating the rivers condition in Tukad Unda watershed. In addition to high rainfall, there are many springs in Tukad Unda Watershed, which have large potentials namely Telaga Waja, Surya, Arca, Tirta Gangga, and so forth. 18) Sub SWS 03.01.18. Includes Gianyar, Bangli, Karangasem and Klungkung Regencies which covers an area of 48,84 km2. The main rivers in this river area are Tk. Jinah, Tk. Melangit, Tk. Bubuh, Tk.
34

Sangsang and Tk. Pakerisan, which are parennial rivers, and the watersheds are mostly used as rice fields. 19) Sub SWS 03.01.19. Includes Gianyar, Bangli, Badung and Denpasar Regencies in an area of 102,19 km2. This river area is dominated by Tukad Oos watershed which covers an area of 116,52 km2. The other rivers are Tk. Sangku, Tk. Kutul, Tk. Petanu, Tk. Singapadu, Tk. Jerem, Tk. Blahbatuh and Tk. Sekatu. The rivers have continuous flow throughout the year, while the land is mostly used for wet rice fields. The rivers have high banks with long channels, where vertical erotion in all rivers is relatively high. 20) Sub SWS 03.01.20. Located in Nusa Penida Island with an area of 208,87 km2. The rivers located in Nusa Penida Island are entirely intermitten rivers, namely rivers which only flow during rain, an hour after the rain, the flow will cease. The land in this area is mostly used for seasonal dry agricultural fields. 1.4.2. Lakes, Dams and Small Reservoirs

Bali Province has four lakes, namely Batur Lake in Bangli Regency, Beratan Lake in Tabanan Regency, Buyan Lake and Tamblingan Lake in Buleleng Regency (Table 2 and Figure 12). Batur Lake is the largest lake in Bali with the surface area of 16,05 km2. Lakes in Bali are all volcanic lakes located in the mountain chains at the height of 1000 1200 m above the sea level. With such position, the four lakes are the support for the water systems in the downstream areas as well as the surrounding areas. Table 2.
35

The Characteristics of Lakes in Bali


Name of Regency/ No Lakes City area (km ) 1 2 3 4 Batur Beratan Buyan Tamblingan Total Bangli Tabanan Buleleng Buleleng 105,35 13,4 24,1 9,2
2

Fishing

Surface area (km ) 16,05 4,38 3,67 1,15


2

Average Length Depth (km) (m) 50,8 12,8 31,7 23,5 7,7 2,0 3,7 1,8 2,7 2,0 1,5 0,9 815,38 49,22 116,25 27,00 1.007,85 (km) Widht Water Vol (m million)
3

Source: Bali Province Bappeda (2009) Dams and small reservoirs are man made lake constructed for various purposes, such as supply of irrigation water, raw water for clean water, flood control and others. In Bali Province, there are five dams/small reservoirs, namely Palasari Dam in an area of 87 ha located in Jembrana Regency, Gerokgak Dam in an area of 350 ha located in Buleleng Regency, Telaga Tunjung Dam in an area of 17 ha located in Tabanan regency, Muara Dam in an area of 35 ha located in Denpasar Municipality and Badung Regency, and Seraya Small Reservoir in an area of 2 ha located in Karangasem Regency (Public Works Service Office of Bali Province, 2008) (Table 3 and Figure 13)

Table 3. The Characteristics of Dams and Small Reservoirs in Bali Province


Water Catchment Name of No Dam/Reservoir Municipality Regency/ Area (km )
2

Surface Depth area (m) (ha) (juta m)


3

Vol

Palasari Dam

Jembrana

4.230

87

29

8,00

36

2 3

Gerokgak Dam Telaga Tunjung Dam

Buleleng Tabanan

2.850 950

350 17

42 33

3,75 1,26

4 5

Muara Dam Seraya Small Reservoir Total

Denpasar Karangasem

2.255 250

35 2

2 4

0,42 0,10

13,53

Source: Bali Province Bappeda (2009)

Figure 13. Map of Lakes, Dams and Small Reservoirs in Bali Province

1.4.3. Springs

Spring is a point where ground water flows out to land surface naturally, caused by an interruption of groundwater flow by the local topographic form
37

and comes out of rocks. Generally, spring appears on foothills or slopes, valleys and plains. Springs that come out to land surface are mostly caused by topographic changes and are affected by the differences between permeable layer of volcanoes and impermeable layer (lava chunks) in the form of seepages. According to Prastowo in Arsyad and Rustiadi (2008), the presence of springs are in general affected by geological factors, such as morphological, lithological and geological structure conditions as well as local land use.

Based on the JICA report (2005) in the Regional Planning and Development Agency of Bali Province (2009), there are 1,273 springs in Bali Province (Table 4). The largest number of springs exist in Bangli Regency, namely 423 springs, followed by Buleleng Regency which have 327 springs, Tabanan Regency with 177 springs and Karangasem Regency with 138 springs. Regencies having relatively small area of lowland have relatively small number of springs, such as in Jembrana Regency, which has 61 springs, Badung with 30 springs, Gianyar 79 springs, Klungkung 38 springs, as well as Nusa Penida which has 9 springs.

The distribution of several springs in Bali Province is presented in Figure 14. Table 4. The Condition of Springs in Bali Province
Regency/ No Municipality 1 2 Jembrana Tabanan (piece) 61 177 (litre/second) 85,1 3.080 (litre/second) 17,0 73,2 Number of Springs Total Discharge Average Flow

38

3 4 5

Badung Gianyar Klungkung (mainland) Klungkung (Nusa Penida)

30 79 29

1.291 2.981 202

184,4 56,2 40,4

522

104,1

6 7 8

Bangli Karangasem Buleleng Total

423 138 327 1.273

2.736 9.808 6.603 27.063

48,0 102,3 71,3 75,4

Source:JICA (2005) Bali Province Regional Planning and Development Agency (2006)

Those 1,273 springs have various flowrate, ranging from one litre/second to several hundred litres/second. The total flowrate of springs in the entire Bali is 27,063 litres/second with the average flowrate of 75,4 litre/second (Table 4).

39

Source: Bali Province BLH (2009)

Figure 14. Distribution Map of Several Springs in Bali Province

1.4.4. Groundwater Basin (Cekungan Air Tanah or CAT)

Ground water is water in layers or rocks under the ground level. Groundwater is found in aquifers. The main characteristics that distinguish ground water to surface water is its slow movement and very long stay time which can reach tens or even hundreds of years. Because of the very slow movements and long stay time, it will be difficult for ground water to recover, in case of contamination.

The condition of groundwater in Bali is very dependent on its geological conditions. Basin is a place where groundwater can be found, which is formed through geological processes, and limited by hydrogeological boundaries. Based on the results of a research conducted by the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources (2005), ground water basins in the province of Bali is divided into 8 groups of basins as shown in Table 5.

Table 5. The potentials of ground water in Groundwater Basins in Bali Province

40

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Cadangan Air Tanah (CAT) Denpasar-Tabanan Gilimanuk Negara Singaraja Danau Batur Amlapura Nusa Dua Nusa Penida Jumlah % thd Bali

Luas (Ha) 208.000 13.130 41.850 50.520 75.050 19.982 9.911 19.790 438.233

Hujan (mm) 1500 - 3500 1000 - 1500 1500 - 2000 1000 - 2500 500 - 2000 1000 - 2000 1500 - 2000 500 - 1000 -

Tak-tertekan (juta m3/thn) 894 30 73 215 188 60 38 79 1.577,00

Tertekan (juta m3/thn) 8 1 4 3 3 2 21

77,75

Source: the Department of Energy and Mineral Resources (2005) in Bali Province Bappeda (2009)

1.4.5. Potentials of Water Resources

The potential of river water according to the River Basin Sub Unit in Bali is 196.4 m3/second or 6,195.3 million m3/year. The largest water potential is contained in Sub SWS 03.01.02, namely 29.09 m3/second (Tabel 6). Table 6. The Potentials of River Water by Sub-Units of River Area in Bali Province
Catchment Area No Sub SWS (km )
2

Average Rainfall

Annual Runoff of All the River Basins Total (mil.


3

Runoff Depth

(mm/year)

m) 1 2 3 4 5 6 03.01.01 03.01.02 03.01.03 03.01.04 03.01.05 03.01.06 555,64 601,75 288,34 392,37 158,92 228,44 2.078 2.450 2.582 2.360 2.112 1.978 718,5 917,4 501,7 406,5 198,7 278,2 22,78 29,09 15,91 12,89 6,30 8,82 1.293 1.525 1.740 1.036 1.250 1.218

(m /sec)

(mm)

41

7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

03.01.07 03.01.08 03.01.09 03.01.10 03.01.11 03.01.12 03.01.13 03.01.14 03.01.15 03.01.16 03.01.17 03.01.18 03.01.19 03.01.20 Total/average

243,52 367,22 222,39 114,24 243,48 311,65 357,14 295,38 272,53 342,08 257,78 48,84 102,19 208,87 5612,77

1.583 1.365 2.096 1.704 2.005 1.792 1.798 1.911 1.629 2.237 2.337 2.700 1.809 1.079 1.980

237,2 328,8 305,8 169,5 383,1 255,7 164,6 144,7 276,2 476,0 374,9 57,8 6.195,3

7,52 10,42 9,70 5,37 12,15 8,11 5,22 4,59 8,76 15,09 11,89 1,83 196,42 1.014

974 895 1.375 1.484 1.574 820 461 490 1.013 1.392 1.454 277

Source: Bali Province Bappeda (2009) The total volume of lake water throughout Bali is 1,007.85 million m3, 80.9% of which is in Batur Lake, 11.5% in Buyan Lake, 4.9% in Beratan Lake and 2.7% in Tamblingan Lake (Table 2). The total volume of dam and reservoir water in Bali is 13,53 million m3 covering Palasari Dam with a volume of 8.00 million m3, Gerokgak Dam with a volume of 3.75 million m3, Telaga Tunjung Reservoir 1.26 million m3, Muara Reservoir 0.42 million m3, and Seraya Pond with 0.10 juta m3 (Table 3).

Those 1,273 springs have various flowrate, ranging from one litre/second to several hundred litres/second. The total flowrate of springs in the entire Bali is 27,063 litres/second with the average flowrate of 75,4 litre/second (Table 4)
42

Unpressured ground water potential in groundwater basins in Bali Province is 1.577,00 million m3 / year and the pressured groundwater is 21 million m3 / year.

1.5.

Forest Areas

1.5.1. Size and Distribution of Forest Area

Forest areas in Bali in 2008 covered 130,686.01 hectares (ha) or 23.19% of its juridiction. Forest areas in Bali have not reached an ideal size yet in order to optimize the environmental benefits of at least 30% of the size of the island pursuant to Article 18 paragraph (2) of Law Number 41 Year 1999 concerning Forestry. The spread of forest areas in Bali is presented in Table 7.

Forest areas in Bali are not evenly distributed among the regencies/cities. In fact, in Gianyar Regency, there is no stipulaton of forest area. The largest forest area is in Buleleng Regency, however, Jembrana Regency has the largest percentage of forest area to the total area. Only Jembrana and Buleleng Regencies have the percentage of forest areas to the size of regency/munipality which have met the required minimum 30% forest areas . Table 7 The Size of Forest Areas and the Percentage of Forest Areas to the Size of Territory by Regency/Municipality in Bali Province 2009
Forest Regency/ No Municipality (Ha) (Ha) 1 Jembrana 84.180 42.156,27 Reg/Muni 50,08 Province 7,48 Forest Areas 32,26
43

Percentage (%) of Forest Area to Size of Size of Size of Province

Size Area

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Buleleng Tabanan Badung Denpasar Gianyar Bangli Klungkung Karangasem Bali Province

136.588 83.933 41.852 12.778 36.800 52.081 31.500 83.954 563.666

51.436,21 9.969,15 1.779,87 734,5 9.341,28 1.048,50 14.220,23 130.686,01

37,66 11,88 4,25 5,75 17,94 3,33 16,94 23,19

9,13 1,77 0,32 0,13 1,66 0,19 2,52 23,19

39,36 7,63 1,36 0,56 7,15 0,80 10,88 100,00

Source: Forest Service of Bali Province (2010)

State forests in Bali Province are spread in 22 forest areas (Table 8). The largest forest area in Bali is the West Bali Forest area, which covers Buleleng and Jembrana, namely 62% of the entire forest areas. Several forest areas which size is more than one thousand hectares are Mt. Batukau Mountain, Mt. Abang, Mt. Agung, Penulisan-Kintamani, Yeh Leh-Yeh Lebah, Mt. Batur Bukti Payang, Prapat Benoa, Mungsu Mountain, and Mt. Seraya. Table 8 Forest Areas in Bali in Year 2009
Regency/ No Forest Area RTK Municipality 1 2 3 Puncak Landep Mt. Mungsu Mt. Silangjana 1 2 3 Buleleng Buleleng Buleleng Buleleng-Tabanan4 5 Mt. Batukau Munduk Pengajaran 4 5 Badung Bangli 15.153.28 613.00 11.60 0.47 590.00 1.134.00 415.00 Size (Ha) (%) 0.45 0.87 0.32 Percentage

44

Regency/ No Forest Area RTK Municipality 6 7 8 9 10 Mt. Batur Bkt. Payang Mt. Abang Agung Mt. Seraya Prapat Benoa Yeh Ayah 7 8 9 10 11 Bangli Bangli-Karangasem Karangasem Badung-Denpasar Tabanan Tabanan-Jembrana11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 Yeh Leh-Yeh Lebah Bali Barat Penulisan-Kintamani Sangeh Nusa Lembongan Bunutan Bukit Gumang Bukit Pawon Kondangdia Tanjung Bakung Suana Sakti Total 12 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Buleleng Buleleng-Jembrana Bangli-Buleleng Badung Klungkung Karangasem Karangasem Karangasem Karangasem Klungkung Klungkung Klungkung 4195.30 80,995.27 5,849.25 13.97 202.00 126.70 22.00 35.00 89.50 244.00 329.50 273.00 130,686.01 2.528.00 14,817.01 1.111,00 1,373.50 575.73 Size (Ha)

Percentage (%) 1.93 11.34 0.85 1.05 0.44

3.21 61.98 4.48 0.01 0.15 0.10 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.19 0.25 0.21 100.00

Source: Bali Province Forest Service (2010) 1.5.2. Forests based on their functions

Based on their functions, there are 3 (three) types of forests, namely protected forest, conservation forest, and production forest. Based on the abovementioned functions of forests, forest areas can be distinguished into preservation, conservation and production forests.
45

1)

Protected Forest: a forest area which main function is for the protection of life supporting systems in order to manage water systems, to prevent flooding, to control erosion, to prevent sea water intrusion, and to maintain soil fertility.

2)

Conservation Forest: a forest area having particular characteristics, which has essential function of preserving the diversity of plants and animals as well as ecosystems. Conservation Forest includes Nature Reserve Forest, Nature Preservation Forest and Hunting Park. Nature Reserve Forest is divided into Natural Conservation Areas and Wildlife Conservation Areas. While, Nature Preservation Area is divided into National Parks, Forest Parks and Natural Tourism Parks.

3)

Production Forest: a forest area having the essential function of producing forest products. Production forest includes Limited

Production Forests and Permanent Production Forests.

Based on the above-mentioned functions of forests, forest areas in Bali comprise protected forest, conservation forest which include Natural Reserves, National Parks Area, Natural Tourism Parks, Grand Forest Park (Tahura), and Production Forest areas include Limited Production Forest and Permanent Production Forest.

The size of forest areas based on their functions by regency/municipality is presented in Table 9 and Figure 15, as well as forest areas based on their functions is presented in Table 10.
46

Table 9 Forest Areas Based on their Functions by Regency/Municipality in Bali Year 2009
Limited Reg/ No Muni on Forest on Forest 1 Jembrana 32.974,97 2.610,20 383,10 6.188,00 12.814,8 2 3 4 5 6 7 Buleleng Tabanan Badung Denpasar Gianyar Bangli Klungkun 8 g Karangas 9 em 19.002,8 Bali Percentage (%) 95.766,06 6.719,26 1.907,10 1.762,80 9 73,28 5,14 1,46 1,35 14,54 3,18 1,05 4.154,40 1.373,50 1 100,00 130.686,0 14.016,12 204,11 14.220,23 804,50 244,00 1.048,50 31.936,32 8.668,24 1.126,90 6.239,01 3.207,95 453,00 1.524,00 1.004,40 9 758,40 542,51 3,97 2.649,27 639,00 734,50 9.969,15 1.779,87 734,50 9.341,28 948,65 51.436,21 42.156,27 Forest Reserve Park Park Park Preservati Producti Permanent Forest Production Natural National Tourism Forest Total Grand

Source: Bali Province Forest Service (2010)

Based on their functions, forest areas in Bali comprise protected forests in an area of 95,766.06 hectares (ha) or 73.28% of the total area of forests, production forests in an area of 8626.36 ha or 6.60%, and conservation forest in an area of 26293.59 ha (20.12%). The largest protected forests are located in Jembrana and Buleleng Regencies, while in the municipality of Denpasar and Gianyar Regency there is no protected forest.
47

Source: Bali Province Forest Service (2010) Figure 15. Map of Forest Areas based on Functions in Bali Province Year 2009

Several forest areas serve three functions at the same time (protection, production and conservation functions), namely the forests of Mt. AbangAgung (protected forest, limited production forest and natural park); and forest area of West Bali (protected forest, limited production forest, permanent production forests and National Parks.

Forest areas serving the protection and conservation functions, namely Batukau Mountain forest area (preservation forest, Natural Park and Nature Reserves). Forest areas which only serve the protection function, are Landep Puncak area, Mungsu Mountain, Silangjana Mountain, Munduk Pengajaran, Seraya Mountain, Yeh Ayah, Yeh Leh-Yeh Yeh Lebah, Nusa Lembongan,
48

Bunutan, Gumang Hill, Puncak Pawon, Kondangdia, Suana and Shakti. While, forest areas which do not serve the function of preservation, namely Batur-Hill Payang (limited production forests and Natural Park), Prapat Benoa (Forest Park), Sangeh (Natural Park), and Tanjung Bakung (limited production forest) (Table 10).

Table 10 Forest Areas Based on their Functions by Forest Areas in Bali Province Year 2009
Permane nt Forest No Area Forest on Forest on vation Forest Protected Producti Limited Natural Producti Conser Park* National TWA Tahura Total

Puncak 1 Landep Gunung 2 Mungsu Gn. 3 Silangjana Gunung 4 Batukau Munduk 5 Pengajaran Gn.Batur 6 Bkt Payang Gunung 7 Abang Agung

590,00

590.00

1,13,.00

1,134.00

415,00

415.00

11,899.32

1,762.80

1,491.16

15,153.28

613.00

613.00

453.00

2,075.00

2,528.00

14,038.63

204.11

574.27

14,817.01

49

Permane nt Forest No Area Forest on Forest on vation Forest Protected Producti Limited Natural Producti Conser Park* National TWA Tahura Total

Gunung 8 Seraya Prapat 9 Benoa 10 11 Yeh Lebah 12 Bali Barat Penulisan13 Kintamani 14 15 Lembongan 16 Bunutan Bukit 17 Gumang Bukit 18 Pawon Kondangdi 19 a Tanjung 20 Bakung 21 22 Suana Sakti Total Sangeh Nusa Yeh Ayah Yeh Leh-

1,111.00

1,111.00

1,373.50 1,373.50

575.73 4,195.30

575.73 4,195.30

54,452.68 5,663.70

1,907.10 -

5,632.60 185.55

19,002.89 -

80,995.27 5,849.25

202.00

13.97 -

13.97

202.00 126.70 22.00 22.00 35.00 35.00 89.50 89.50 244.00 244.00 329.50 273.00 95,766.06 1,907.10 6,719.26 1,762.80 19,002.89 4,154.40 1,373.50 329.50 273.00 130,686.01 126.70

*) Including, waters in an area of 3,145 ha


50

Source: Forestry Service Office of Bali Province (2010)

Protected forest

Protected forest areas in Bali in 2008 was 95,766.06 hectares or 73.28% of the total forest area. Details and location of each area of protected forest areas are, as follows:

1)

Puncak Landep protected forest, covering an area of 590 ha, located in Buleleng Regency (Sukasada Regency).

2)

Mt. Mungsu protected forest, covering an area of 1134 ha, located in Buleleng Regency (i.e. Sukasada and Banjar Regencies).

3)

Mt. Silangjana protected forest, covering an area of 415 ha, located in Buleleng Regency (i.e. Sawan and Sukasada Regencies)

4)

Mt. Batukau protected forest, covering an area of 11899.32 ha, located in Buleleng Regency (Regencies of Sawan, Kubutambahan, Banjar and Sukasada), Tabanan Regency (Regencies of Selemadeg, Penebel, Baturiti and Pupuan), and Badung regency (Petang Regency)

5)

Munduk Pengejaran protected forest, covering an area of 613 ha located in Bangli District (Subdistrict Kintamani).

6)

Protected forest of Mt. Abang, Mount Agung, covering an area of 14,038.63 ha located in Bangli District (Subdistrict Kintamani) and Karangasem District (District Abang, Kubu, Bebandem, Rendang and Selat).
51

7)

Yeh Ayah protected forest, covering an area of 575.73 hectares, located in Tabanan Regency (Penebel Subdistrict).

8)

Protected forest of Mt. Seraya, covering an area of 1,111.00 ha, located in Karangasem Regency (Sub-District Karangasem).

9)

Protected forest of Bukit Gumang, covering an area of 22 ha, located in Karangasem Regency (Bebandem Sub-District).

10)

Protected forest of Bukit Pawon, covering an area of 35 ha, located in Karangasem Regency (Bebandem Sub-District).

11)

Protected forest of Kondangdia, covering an area of 89,5 ha, located in Karangasem Regency (Abang Sub-District).

12)

Protected forest of Bunutan, covering an area of 126,70 ha, located in Karangasem Regency (Abang Sub-District).

13)

Protected forest of Yeh Leh-Yeh Lebah, covering an area of 4.195,30 ha, located in Tabanan Regency (Sub-District of Selemadeg, Pupuan), Buleleng Regency (Busungbiu Sub-District) and Jembrana Regency (Pekutatan Sub-District).

14)

Protected forest of West Bali, covering an area of 54.452,68 ha, located in Jembrana Regency (Sub-District of Melaya, Mendoyo and Pekutatan) and Buleleng Regency (Sub-District of Gerokgak, Seririt and Busungbiu).

52

15)

Protected forest of Penulisan Kintamani, covering an area of 5.663,70 ha, located in Buleleng Regency (Tejakula Sub-District) and Bangli Regency (Kintamani Sub-District).

16)

Protected forest of Nusa Lembongan is a mangrove, covering an area of 202 ha, located in Klungkung Regency (Nusa Lembongan, Nusa Penida Sub-District).

17)

Protected forest of Suana, covering an area of 329,50 ha and protected forest of Sakti with an area of 273 ha, both of them are located in Nusa Penida Sub-District, Klungkung Regency.

Production Forest

The size of production forests in Bali in 2008 was 8,626.36 ha (6,60%), comprising permanent production forest in an area of 1,907.10 ha and limited production forest with an area of 6,719.26 ha. Fixed production forest is in the forest area of West Bali, including Buleleng Regency (Sub-Districts of Gerokgak and Seririt) with an area of 1,524.00 ha and Jembrana Regency (Melaya Sub-District) in an area of 383,10 ha. While, limited production forest is in the forest area of West Bali for 5,632.60 ha (83.93 %), including Jembrana Regency (Melaya Sub-District) covering an area of 2,610.2 ha and Buleleng Regency (Sub-District of Gerokgak and Seririt) in an area of 3.022,4 ha. Furthermore, production forest is in forest area of Gunung Batur Bukit Payang with an area of 453.00 ha located inKintamani Sub-District (Bangli), forest area of Gunung Abang Agung with an area of 204.11 ha located in Kubu Sub-District (Karangasem), forest area of Penulisan-Kintamani with an
53

area of 185.55 ha located in Tejakula Sub-District (Buleleng), and forest area of Tanjung Bakung for 244 ha, located in Nusa Penida Sub-District (Klungkung). Reserve Forest

Reserve forest can only be found in forest area of Batukau Mountain Batukau with an area of 1.762,80 ha, including in Buleleng Regency (Sub-District of Banjar and Sukasada) with an area of 1,004.4 ha, and Tabanan Regency (Sub-District Baturiti and Penebel) with an area of 758.40 ha. National Park Forest

The area of National Park in Bali is 19,002.89 ha, including water territory of 3,415 ha, located in forest area of West Bali, including Jembrana Regency (Melaya Sub-District) with an area of 6,188.00 ha and Buleleng Regency (Sub-District of Gerokgak) for 12.814,89 ha. Natural Park

Natural Park in Bali is in the area of 4154.4 ha, scattered on several forest areas, namely: 1) Natural Park-Lake Buyan-Danau Tamblingan which covers an area of 1,491.16 ha, located in Banjar Sub-District with an area of 442.35 hectares, an area of 506.3 ha for Sukasada Sub-District, and Baturiti Sub-District with an area of 542.51 ha. 2) Natural Park of Batur Bukit Payang Mountain with an area of 2,075 ha located in Kintamani Sub-district;
54

3)

Natural Park Penelokan in forest areas of Abang Agung forest, covering an area of 574.27 hectares located in the Sub-district of Kintamani;

4)

Sangeh Natural Park which covers an area of 13.97 hectares located in Abiansemal Sub-District, Badung Regency.

Grand Forest Park (Taman Hutan Raya or Tahura)

Taman Hutan Raya is the only forest existing in the forest area of Prapat Benoa which covers an area of 1,373.5 ha, of which area of 734.5 ha located in South Denpasar Sub-District and 639 ha is in Sub-Districts of Kuta and Kuta Selatan. The area of this forest is in the form of mangrove forest.

55

CHAPTER IV REVIEW OF SCOPING RESULTS AT WORKSHOP I

Several formulations had been agreed upon in the Water Resource KLHS Workshop I in Bali Province which are used as reference materials in the subsequent KLHS process. The formulations agreed in Workshop I are, as follows: 1.1. Description of Priority Strategic Issues

The description of priority strategic issues with regard to water resources, environment and sustainable development in Bali province is presented in Table 11.

56

Table 11. Description of Priority Strategic Issues Agreed in Workshop I


Impact/Implication/ No Priority Strategic Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence A PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL ASPECTS 1 Decline in the flowrate of surface water Spring water, river, lake, small reservoir, and dam located in Bali Forest destruction, change in land use, sedimentation, Lack of water during dry season

reduce in the water catchment area

Decline

in

surface

water

All rivers and lakes located in Bali

Lack

of

public

awareness,

Decline

in

water

efficiency,

quality due to contamination (solid and liquid waste) 3 High conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural land All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali

weak law enforcement, limited waste disposal location High growth, level of population investment

occurrence of sickness, flood, disruption in water biota Open space becomes narrow, lack of water catchment area, decline in environmental carrying capacity
57

requirements, weak control of land use, no land policy

Impact/Implication/ No Priority Strategic Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence 4 High level of ground water exploitation All over Denpasar, Badung Limitation supply in Public water cheaper Threat of groundwater surface reduction, layer subsidence of soil

Selatan, Badung Tengah, Tourism areas in Karangasem, Lovina and Singaraja Municipality, Melaya

capacity,

cost/fee of ground water, good quality of ground water

Sub-District, Negara Sub-District and Jembrana ubud, Sub-District, Sukawati,

Payangan,

Gianyar, Blahbatuh 5 Intrution of sea water in Denpasar Selatan, Kuta, Legian, Seminyak, Nusa Dua, Tanjung Benoa, Jimbaran, Canggu, Seseh, Cemagi, Lebih, Kota Singaraja, Lovina, Gilimanuk Perancak, Loloan, Excessive ground water exploitation of Declining ground water quality

several areas in Bali

B.

BOLOGICAL ASPECTS

58

Impact/Implication/ No Priority Strategic Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence 1 High level of forest Rendang and Selat Sub-District, Kintamani, Sukasada, Gerokgak, Melaya, Belimbingsari, Nusasari, Pupuan, Petang, Baturiti, surroundings Jatiluwih, of TPA Economic pressure, Damage to the hydrological

destruction/disturbance (state and comunity forests)

investment requirements and lack of livelihood alternatives

system, declining biodiversity

Suwung and TNBB C. SOCIAL ASPECTS 1 weak law enforcement in All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali Poor discipline among and law Numbers of violation, no AND CULTURAL

managing Natural Resource

commitment

detterence effect

enforment officials, unoptimal law enforcement system 2 Inequality in the distribution and access of the community to natural resources Badung : Bukit, Pecatu, Petang; Buleleng Kubutambahan; : Gerokgak, Bangli : No source of water, Community basic needs have not been optimally fulfilled,

topography,

distribution

network infrastructure and lack of water storage

disturbance of community health, proverty problems can not be solved, decline in economic

Kintamani; Karangasem : Kubu, Western part of Abang, eastern

59

Impact/Implication/ No Priority Strategic Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence part of Karangasem, Klungkung : Nusa Penida; Gianyar : Desa Kertha (Payangan) 3 Conflict of interests in water resource utilization All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali Competition in the utilization of limited distribution over water, system, unclear control resource Occurrence of public unrest, growth

compromised security, damage to water resources

water

unilaterally

D. 1.

ECONOMIC ASPECT Incentive programs areas and for disincentive downstream are not yet Bangli, Badung, Tabanan, Unavailability regulation of policy Accumulation of destruction in downstream areas

Karangasem, Buleleng Regencies

which

optimal .

60

1.2.

The Goals of Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province

The Goals of Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province are to maintain water resources conservation for Balis sustainable development and to support Bali as Green Province. 1.3. The Coverage of the Study

The Water Resources Strategic Environmental Assessment in Bali province covers all Regencies/Municipalities in Bali Province, namely: Jembrana, Tabanan, Badung, Gianyar, Klungkung, Karangasem, Bangli, Buleleng Regencies and Denpasar Municipality (Figure 16).

Figure 16. The Coverage of the Water Resources Strategic Environmental Assessment in Bali Province

61

1.4.

The Period of the Study

The period of the Water Resources KLHS in Bali Province is adjusted to the long term development planning and spatial planning, namely applicable for 20 (twenty) years.

62

CHAPTER V

THE

RESULTS

OF

THE

SCOPING

IMPROVEMENT AND THE FORMULATION OF SUB-OBJECTIVES AND PRIORITY

DEVELOPMENT PROGRMS AT WORKSHOP II

1.1.

The Results of Water Resources and Environmental Issues Identification in FGD

The FGD implemented by involving tourism and agricultural enterpreuners, and the general public generates a series of strategic issues for each group, as presented in Table 12.

Table 12. Collection of Strategic Issues Identified by Tourism and Agricultural Enterpreunersas well as the General Public

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group 1 The infrastructure of the local water company are not ready when the government raised ABT Tax 1 Decline in the quantity and quality of water resources (river and lake) 1 Difficulties in the handing of forest protection from any disturbance (clearing/logging/en croachment)
63

Agricultural Group

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group Agricultural Group

Charging of fees by BU PAL to hotels in the amount of Rp 100,000/month for each hotel room is considered expensive

Decline in river water quality

Limited capacity (funding/human resources) in adaptation and mitigation of global warming which resulted in water reserve reduction

Existence of uniteral control or monopoly of spring water resources /water resources by bottled water companies

Decline in ground water resources in coastal area due to excessive utilization of ABT

High rate of population growth in Bali causing the decline in natural Resources support, infrastructure and facilities

Existence of conflict of interests in water utilization between

Lack of clean water in urban areas

Weak spatial utilization caused by weak government apparatuss capacity

64

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group community and the hotel 5 Large amount of ABT Tax raise which reaches 1000% 5 Occurrence of flood due to forest clearing in downstream areas 5 High contamination of chemical fertilizer and water plants population resulted in sedimentation in lakes 6 Leniency in the issuance of permits for the construction of hotels in Denpasar and Badung 7 Lack of maintenance of drainage channels in Kuta, resultin flooding during rainy seasons. 7 Inequality in the distribution of clean water for the community. 7 unoptimal contribution of service users for the management of river basins 6 Lack of water resource conservation 6 Changed function of flood control areas resulted in increased load of river Agricultural Group

Lack of parks and

Lack of green open

Lack of water quality

65

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group the number of infiltration wells/biopori at hotels areas as a water catchment areas control due to human resources, costs and laboratory (hazardous materials and certain chemicals) 9 Low supply of PDAM resulting in the increase of the use of ABT 9 lack of respect for local traditions & wisdom of Balis community related to the environmental management 9 The absence of certain legal umbrella to protect subak land use Agricultural Group

10

The absence of tax imposition mechanism related to waste water for entrepreuners discharging their waste directly into the environment

10

Lack of involvement of community members (customary and traditional communities in Bali) in the protection and management of the environment

10

Low level of awareness of the community in the conservation and utilization of water resources and control of water contamination

66

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group Agricultural Group

11

Continuously decreasing quality of water

11

Non-maximum transparency and protection and management of the environment, either between the government and investors and Balis community members

11

Lack of supervision on the issuance of permits for water resources utilization (surface water and ground water)

12

Lack of information service concerning weather to rafting companies

12

The occurrence of excessive exploitation of ground water by the tourism industry

12

Decline in biodiversity level

13

Inadequate resevoires constructed for containing rainfall

13

Declining quality of river water caused by excavation of Type C Mining Materials in bodies of water

67

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group 14 Lack of PDAM infrastructure in the effort to reduce the use of ABT 14 Declinie in the quality of the environment and soil surface subsidence caused by excessive use Agricultural Group

15

DSDP Process Result is not maximized

15

Lack of conservation of natural resources used for ceremonial purposes (plants/fruits)

16

Lack of optimum involvement of indigenous peoples in the waste management

16

Lack of public awareness in the management of waste /waste water affecting water quality

17

No shift of paradigm in the disposal ceremonial waste into the sea and

17

Minimum Environmental education at the community and school level.

68

Tourism & Industrial General Public Group Group rivers by utilizing landfill (by giving tirta/ destruction water to the ceremony waste by a religious ceremony/Bendes a custom) Agricultural Group

18

weak supervision by the government on businesses/activiti es disposing garbage/waste into the environment

18

Lack of information, communication and education concerning environment

1.2.

Synthesis of Water Resources and Environmental Issues (FGD Results) with Priority Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) and Finalisation of Strategic Issues

69

The collection of water resources issues and environmental issues resulting from the FGD were synthesized with priority strategic issues agreed in Workshop I in order to generate final strategic issues. Most of the water resources and environmental issues identified in the FGD were

accommodated in priority strategis issues agreed in Workshop I. The results of the synthesis are presented in Table 13, 14 and 15. Based on the results of the synthesis, three new strategic issues have been agreed to be considered in the next phase of the study, as shown in Table 16. Table 13 The Synthesis of Water Resources and Environmental Issues Identified by the Tourism and Industrial Enterpreneurs Synthesis and Stakeholder Issues Identified by the Tourism & Assessment by Referring to the Industrial Group Priority Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) 1 PDAM Infrastructure is not ready when the government raises ABT Tax Not categorized as strategic issue

The fee charged by BU PAL on hotels in the amount of Rp 100,000/month for each hotel room is considered expensive

Not categorized as strategic issue

Existence of uniteral control or

Accommodated in Issue C.3.

70

monopoly of spring water resources /water resources by bottled water companies

Existence of conflict of interests in water utilization between community and hotels

Accommodated in Issue C.3.

Large amount of ABT Tax raise which reaches 1000%

Not categorized as strategic issue

Leniency in the issuance of permits for the construction of hotels in Denpasar and Badung

Not categorized as strategic issue

Lack of maintenance of drainage channels in Kuta, resulting in flood during rainy seasons.

Not categorized as strategic issue

The lack of parks and the number of infiltration wells/biopori at hotels

Accommodated in Issue A.3.

Low supply of PDAM resulting in the increase of the use of ABT

Accommodated in Issue A.4.

10

The absence of tax imposition mechanism related to waste water on entrepreuners disposing their waste directly into the environment

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

71

11

Continuously declining quality of water

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

12

Lack of information service concerning weather for rafting companies

Not categorized as strategic issue

13

Lack of resevoires constructed for containing rainfall

Accommodated in Issue A.1.

14

Lack of PDAM infrastructure in the effort to reduce the use of ABT

Accommodated in Issue A.4.

15

Non maximum results of DSDP Process

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

16

Lack of optimum involvement of indigenous peoples in waste management

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

17

No shift of paradigm in the disposal ceremonial waste into the sea and rivers by utilizing landfill (by giving tirta/ destruction water to ceremonial waste by a religious ceremony/Bendesa custom)

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

72

18

weak supervision by the government on businesses/activities disposing garbage/waste into the environment

Accommodated in Issue A.2.

Table 14 Synthesis of Water Resources and Environmental Issues Identified by the General Public Group Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Common Group Issues Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) 1 Decline in the quantity and quality of Accommodated in Issue A.2. water resources (rivers and lakes) 2 Decline in river water quality Accommodated in Issue A.2.

Decline in ground water resource in Accommodated in Issue A.4. coastal areas due to excessive

utilization of ABT 4 Lack of clean water in urban areas Accommodated in Issue C.2.

Occurrence of flood due to forest Accommodated in Issue B.1. clearing in downstream areas

73

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Common Group Issues Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) 6 Lack of water resource conservation Accommodated in Issue A.1.

Unequal distribution of clean water to Accommodated in Issue C.2. the community.

Lack of green open land as water Accommodated in Issue A.3. catchment areas

The lack of respect for local traditions Not categorized as strategic issue & wisdom of Balis community related to environmental management

10

Lack of involvement of all elements Not categorized as strategic issue of the community (customary and traditional community in Bali) in the protection and management of the environment

11

Non-maximum

transparency

and Not categorized as strategic issue

protection and management of the environment, either between the

government and investors and Balis

74

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Common Group Issues Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) community members 12 The occurrence of excessive Accommodated in Issue A.4.

exploitation of ground water by the tourism industry

13

Declining

quality

of

river

water Accommodated in Issue A.2.

caused by excavation of Type C Mining Materials in bodies of water

14

Declinie

in

the and

quality soil

of

the Accommodated in Issue A.4.

environment

surface

subsidence caused by excessive use

15

Lack

of conservation used for

of

natural Accommodated in Issue A.1.

resources

ceremonial

purposes (plants/fruits) 16 Lack of public awareness in the Accommodated in Issue A.2. management of waste /waste water affecting water quality

75

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Common Group Issues Strategic Issues (Workshop I Result) 17 Minimum Environmental education at Accommodated in Issue A.2. the community and school level.

18

Lack

of and

information, Agreed as an additional (new) education strategic issue in the SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

communication

concerning environment

Table 15 Synthesis of Water Resource and Environmental Issues Identified by the Argicultural Group

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Issues Identified by Agricultural Group Strategic Issuess (Workshop I Result) 1 Difficulties in the handing of forest Accommodated in Issue B.1. protection from any disturbance

(clearing/logging/encroachment) 2 Limited capacity (funding/human Accommodated in Issue A.1.


76

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Issues Identified by Agricultural Group Strategic Issuess (Workshop I Result) resources) in adaptation and

mitigation of global warming which resulted in water reserve reduction 3 High rate of population growth in Bali Considered causing the decline in as additional

natural strategic issue (new) in SOCIAL

Resources and facilities 4

support,

infrastructure AND CULTURAL ASPECTS

Weak spatial utilization caused by Accommodated in Issue C.1. weak capacity government apparatuss

High

contamination

of

chemical Accommodated in Issue A.2.

fertilizer and water plants population resulted in sedimentation in lakes 6 Changed function of flood control Accommodated in Issue A.3. areas resulted in increased load of river 7 unoptimal contribution of service Accommodated in Issue D.1.

users for the management of river basins 8 Lack of water quality control due to Accommodated in Issue A.2.

77

Synthesis and Stakeholder Assessment Refers to Priority Issues Identified by Agricultural Group Strategic Issuess (Workshop I Result) human resources, costs and

laboratory (hazardous materials and certain chemicals) 9 The absence of certain legal umbrella Accommodated in Issue A.3. to protect subak land use

10

Low level of awareness

of the Accommodated in Issue A.2.

community in the conservation and utilization of water resources and control of water contamination 11 Lack of supervision on the issuance Accommodated in Issue C.1. of permits for water resources

utilization (surface water and ground water) 12 Decline in biodiversity level Considered as an additional

(new) strategic issue in the BOLOGICAL ASPECT

Table 16 Description of Additional Issues Resulting from the Synthesis of the Results of the FGD and Workshop I
78

Additional Impact/Implication/ No. Strategic Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

Decline level

in

the All

Agricultural

land Reduction of food resources, disruption balance ecosystems, reduction economic opportunities of of the of

of Reg/Muni in use, Bali deforestation, environmental pollution

biodiversity

Bali's

high All

The high fertility Reduction of natural and resources capacity, infrastructure and carrying

population growth Reg/Muni in rate rate resulting in a Bali decreased carrying capacity of the natural population

migration to Bali

facilities which are available

resources, infrastructure and facilities 3 Lack information, communication and education of All Unoptimal of Lack of public related

Reg/Muni in function Bali means

the awareness

and to environment

channels of IEC

79

concerning environment

(communication, information and

education) on the environment the community for

Based on the results of the synthesis and the agreements on additional strategic issues, final priority strategic issues have been agreed upon as the results of the scoping improvement as presented in Tabel 17.

80

Table 17 Final Priority Strategic Issues as the result of Water Resources KLHS Scoping in Bali Province

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

PHYSICALCHEMICAL ASPECTS

Decline

in

surface Spring water, river, lake, Forest destruction, change in Lack of water during dry small reservoir, and dam land located in Bali reduce use, in sedimentation, season the water

waters flowrate

catchment area

Decline

in

surface All rivers and lakes located Lack of public awareness, Decline in water efficiency, weak limited location
81

water quality due to in Bali contamination and liquid waste) (solid

law

enforcement, occurrence of sickness, flood, disposal disruption in water biota

waste

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

High

conversion land

of All

High

level

of

population Open space becomes narrow, investment lack of water catchment area, in environmental

agricultural

to Regencies/Municipalities in growth, Bali

non-agricultural land

requirements, weak control decline of land use, no land policy

carrying capacity of groundwater

High level of ground All water exploitation

Denpasar,

Badung Limitation in Public water Threat capacity,

Selatan, Badung Tengah, supply Tourism area

cheaper surface reduction, subsidence

in cost/fee of ground water, of soil layer

Karangasem, Lovina and good quality of ground water Singaraja Melaya Negara Municipality, Sub-District, Sub-District and

Jembrana Payangan,

Sub-District, ubud,

82

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

Sukawati, Blahbatuh 5

Gianyar,

Intrution of sea water Denpasar Selatan, Kuta, Excessive in several areas in Bali

exploitation

of Decrease of ground water quality

Legian, Seminyak, Nusa ground water Dua, Tanjung Benoa,

Jimbaran, Canggu, Seseh, Cemagi, Singaraja, Perancak, Gilimanuk Lebih, Kota Lovina, Loloan,

B.

BOLOGICAL

83

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

ASPECTS 1 High level of forest Rendang and Selat Sub- Economic destruction/disturbance District, (state forests) and comunity Sukasada, Melaya, Kintamani, investment and pressure, Damage to the hydrological lack of system, declining biodiversity

Gerokgak, livelihood alternatives Belimbingsari,

Nusasari, Pupuan, Baturiti, Jatiluwih, surroundings of Petang, TPA

Suwung and TNBB 2 Decline in biodiversity All Reg/Muni in Bali level Agricultural land use, Reduction of food resources,

deforestation, pollution of the disruption of the balance of environment ecosystems, reduction of

economic opportunities
84

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

C.

SOCIAL CULTURAL ASPECTS

AND

weak law enforcement All

Poor

discipline among

and Numbers

of

violation,

no

in managing Natural Regencies/Municipalities in commitment Resource Bali enforment

law detterence effect

officials,

unoptimal law enforcement system 2 Inequality in the Badung : Bukit, Pecatu, No Buleleng source of water, Community basic needs have

distribution and access Petang;

: topography,

distribution not been optimally fulfilled, of community

of the community to Gerokgak, Kubutambahan; network infrastructure and disturbance natural resources Bangli : Kintamani; lack of water storage

health, proverty problems can


85

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

Karangasem

Kubu,

not be solved, decline in economic growth

Western part of Abang, eastern part of

Karangasem, Klungkung : Nusa Penida; Gianyar : Desa Kertha (Payangan) 3 Conflict of interests in All water utilization Competition in the utilization Occurrence of public unrest, limited water, unclear compromised security,

resource Regencies/Municipalities in of Bali

distribution system, control damage to water resources over water resource

unilaterally

Bali's high population All

High

fertility

rate

and Reduction of natural resouces


86

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

growth rate causing a Regencies/Municipalities in population migration to Bali decrease resources capacity infrastructure facilities in natural Bali carrying , and

carrying infrastructure and

capacity, facilities

which are available

Lack

of

information, All

Lack of optimum function of Low of community awareness

communication education

and Regencies/Municipalities in the means and channels of related to environment IEC (communications,

concerning Bali

the environment

information and education) for the environment, for the community

87

Additional Strategic Impact/Implication/ No. Issues Location Causal Factor Consequence

D. 1.

ECONOMIC ASPECT Incentive and Regencies of Bangli, Unavailability Tabanan, regulation of policy Accumulation of destruction in downstream area

disincentive programs Badung,

for downstream areas Karangasem, Buleleng which are not yet

optimal .

Based on final priority strategic issues as presented in Table 17, the relation among strategic issues can be seen through flowchart as in Figure 17.

88

Figure 17. Flowchart of the Relationship among Water Resources Strategic Issues in Bali

1.3.

The Results of the Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs

The formulation of sub-objectives for each priority strategic issues and priority development programs are presented in Table 18, Table 19, Table 20 and Table 21.

89

Table 18 The Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs on the Physical and Chemical Aspects

Priority Strategic Declining Flowrate of surface water Issues A.1 Location All rivers and lakes located in Bali

Causal Factors

Destruction of forests, change in land use, sedimentation, reduction of water infiltration area

Impact/Implication/ Lack of water during dry season Consequence Sub-Objective Preserving catchment areas and water sources for fulfilling the needs of water for the community, as well as agricultural
90

and tourism purposes, and the prevention of flood hazard Development Priority Replanting trees in agricultural lands Rehabilitation of critical lands A million biopori to improve catchment- Reforestation around springs Construction of new small reservoirs and dams in midstream Maintaining the preservation of water catchment areas Enforcement of law in a more firm manner in relation to regulations in the upstream areas Optimalization of the utilization of available reservoirs Preparation of legislation concerning unprocessed water source protection Rehabilitation of irrigation channels Family-based tree planting movement "One man one tree. Provision of trees by private parties for every permit issued The use of organic fertilizers in order to improve soil texture Control of erosion Need to make check DAM building which surrounds the flood-prone river Development of terrasering system and replanting trees

91

in areas prone to erosion Monitoring the watershed through the development of monitoring stations Development of intercropping systems with perennial crops Developing conservation Reforestation of deforested forest areas Monitoring on land use in the upstream areas Empowerment of communities surrounding the forest area Incentives for the upstream area in order to conserve water resources Application of rules of soil and water conservation in areas which have the form of a hilly and mountainous areas Efficiency of water utilization Implement monitoring and evaluation against water resources (including research) spiritual mentality in environmental

Priority Strategic Decline in surface water quality due to pollution (solid Issue A.2 Location waste and liquid waste) All rivers and lakes located in Bali

92

Causal Factors

Low public awareness, weak law enforcement , limited waste disposal site

Impact/Implication/ Decreasing use of water resources, the emergence of Consequence Sub-Objective disease, floods, disruption of water biota Maintain and improve water quality in a sustainable manner through law enforcement efforts, reforming industrial and environmental sanitation to improve the usability of water Development Priorities Reducing the use of chemical fertilizers/an organic and optimizing the use of organic fertilizers Any activity generating waste shall be equipped with the IPAL to prevent the dumping of waste into water bodies Adding a new landfill development (especially regions

93

not participating in the Sarbagita program) Information dissemination and building of awareness in society about the importance of environmental

conservation and a healthy lifestyle Increasing supervision of waste disposal Development of communal IPAL to domestic/RT and home industry (including, socialization to the home industry) Increasing Sanimas across the residential areas along the river which is densely populated Management of hazardous and poisonous waste Development of water front city (river front city) Increasing the capacity of the water quality laboratory at the regency/municipality level (facilities, Human

Resources, status) Law enforcement (sanctions) on regulations concerning solid and liquid waste disposal Increasing the participation of communities along rivers Setting up announcement boards related to the prohibition of waste disposal Maintaining river banks and cliffs Optimizing the use of bio pesticides and minimizing the use of chemical pesticides Improving infrastructure for waste management

94

Encouraging the accelerated completion of regional law concerning waste

Monitoring the performance of IPAL Use of environmentally friendly technology for reusing waste

Priority Strategic High Issue A.3 Location

land

conversion

from

agricultural

to

non

agricultural land All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali

Causal Factors

High rate of population growth, investment requirements, weak control of space utilization, lack of land use policy

Impact/Implication/ Decreasing open spaces, decreased water catchment Consequence areas, decreasing carrying capacity of the environment

95

Sub-Objective

Controlling land conversion in order to maintain Water Resource conservation and catchment areas so as to prevent natural disasters, erosion as well as maintain the balance of biodiversity which will then improve food security through the enforcement of existing spatial layout

Development Priority

Incentives for farmers in the form of organic fertilizers, seeds, etc.

Incentives for agricultural land (tax reduction) Control of green belts Making regional regulation/Governor regulation/Regent regulation concerning sawah abadi (eternal rice fields)

Encouraging the coming forth of management and protection of subak throughout Bali

Reducing the growth of tourism facilities Securing agricultural products during harvest time Control of development investments in fast growing and developing areas

Evenly distributing development of rural infrastructure which supports the agricultural, economic and tourism sectors

intensification of agricultural production up to 70 kg / acre to 90 kg/acre needs to be conducted

Subsidies of agricultural production facilities infrastructure

and

96

Controlling market prices Controlling development activities which are

inconsistent with land suitability

Priority Strategic High level of ground water exploitation Issues A4 Location All Denpasar, Badung Selatan, Badung Tengah, Toursim Areas in Karangasem, Lovina and Singaraja Municipality, Sub Melaya, Negara, Jembrana, Payangan, ubud, Sukawati, Gianyar, Blahbatuh Sub-districts

Causal Factor

The limited capacity of public water supply, lower price/costs for the extraction of ground water, good quality of groundwater

97

Impact/Implication/ The Hazard of groundwater level reduction andland Consequence Sub-Objective subsidence Controlling groundwater exploitation for preventing seawater intrusion, soil degradation which then can prevent land surface subsidence as well as maintain hydrological cycles to be in line with efforts to improve efficient use of water, increased PDAM performance and optimizing the utilization of surface water Development Priorities Increasing water catchment areas Increasing PDAM facilities and infrastructure for the allotment of water to the community Consolidating and supervising water meters for

groundwater users Increasing the transparency of ground water tariffs in the effort to improve the efficient use of groundwater Improving regulations permitting the utilization of ground water application of progressive tax on groundwater on ABT in a transparent manner in the tourism and industrial areas Increasing the network for clean water provision by PDAM and private parties Kimiting the construction of new golf courses using ground water Encouraging efficient use of water in star hotels

98

Improvement of PDAM water production capacity

Priority Strategic Sea water intrusion in several regions in Bali Issues A5 Location Denpasar Selatan, Kuta, Legian, Seminyak, Nusa Dua, Tanjung Benoa, Jimbaran, Canggu, Seseh, Cemagi, Lebih, Singaraja Municipality, Lovina, Perancak, Loloan, Gilimanuk

Causal Factor

Excessive ground water exploitation

Impact/Implication/ Decrease of ground water Consequence Sub-Objective Conduct planning, controlling, and supervising of ground water utilization by enhancing the development of drinking

99

water development in fair and equal manner Development Priority Increasing the green opened space Structuring the city which meets spatial requirements Control and efficiency of ground water utilization Planting mangrove trees at the appropriate coastal areas Termination of ground water extraction which has been intrused by seawater It is necessary to make water catchment areas and to multiply biopores coastal areas security management programs The prohibition of sand/stone mining in coastal areas Same as A-4 (ABT)

Table 19 The Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs in Biological Aspect Priority Strategic High level of forest destruction/disturbance (state and Issues B.1 Location community forests) Rendang and Selat, Kintamani, Sukasada, Gerokgak,

Melaya, Belimbingsari, Nusasari, Pupuan, Baturiti, Jatiluwih, Petang Sub-Districts, the surrounding areass of TPA Suwung and TNBB

100

Causal Factor

Economic and investment requirements and lack of livelihood alternatives

Impact/Implication/ Damage to the hydrological system, decrease of biodiversity Consequence Sub-Objective Improving the hydrological system so that there will be more optimal water storage and land damage can be minimized through local wisdom, law enforcement based on the applicable Laws Development Priority Increasing the number of forest monitoring posts by placing responsible personnel (Polhut) Skills Training to create jobs outside forest areas Forest and land rehabilitation Applying the concept of local wisdom around forest areas
101

in order to support the realization of sustainable forest Planting productive crops in community forest areas Encouraging the implementation of village forests Law enforcement on parties destroying forests

Priority Strategic Decrease of biodiversity level Issues B.2 Location All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali

Causal Factor

Conversion of Agricultural land, deforestation, pollution to the environment

Impact/Implication/ Reduction of food resources, disruption to the balance of the Consequence Sub-Objective ecosystems, reduction of economic opportunities Conserving biodiversity for maintaining the balance of
102

ecosystems, conservation of germplasm so that it can improve the structure, texture, soil fertility and water quality as to increase agricultural productivity, food supply, nutrition and the need of upakara Development Priority Increasing the use of organic fertilizers and pesticides Increasing the breeding and development of germplasm monitoring and enforcing laws related to hunting of rare animals and protected plants Improving water quality supervision and land through environmental laboratory Socialization of the use of environmentally friendly chemicals Conducting an inventory and identification concerning biodiversity The existence of reigonal regulations which regulate and protect the flora and fauna Improving conservation of water resources Increasing the diversification of food Reducing the use of chemical pesticides Making biopori Planting perennial crops to maintain humidity Providing Organic fertilizer subsidy

103

Table 20 The Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs in Social and Cultural Aspect

Priority Strategic Weak law enforcement in managing Natural Resources Issue C.1 and protection of subak in a broad sense.

Location

All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali Province

Causal Factor

Poor discipline and commitment among law enforment officials, unoptimal law enforcement system

Impact/Implication/ Rampat violations, no deterrent effect Consequence Sub-Objective Improving the protection of water resources through Spatial

104

Planning, community participation based on Tri Hita Karana and orderly utilization of water resources Development Priority Integrating awig awig into regional regulation Improving PPNS and PPLHD cadres at the

regional/municipality level Providing conservation Confirmation of the implementation of spatial regulation. The need of socialization concerning managing water resources The contribution of local governments to subak abian institution Construction and rehabilitation of irrigation system subak to the level of tertiary and fourth without limiting its range Implement monitoring and law enforcement for the destruction of water resources To socialize and protect of water resources Increasing participation of the public to report endowment fund for environmental

environmental degradation in the P3SLH Priority Strategic Uneven distribution and access of the community to Issues C.2 Water Resources

Location

Badung : Bukit, Pecatu, Petang; Buleleng : Gerokgak,

105

Kubutambahan; Bangli : Kintamani; Karangasem : Kubu, western part of Abang, Karangasem Gianyar : bagian timur,

Klungkung : (Payangan)

Nusa Penida;

Desa Kertha

Causal Factor

No source of water, topography, distribution network infrastructure and lack of water reservoirs,

Impact/Implication/ Unoptimal fulfillment of the basic needs of the community, Consequence disruption to the communitys health, difficulties in efforts to overcome poverty, declining economic growth

Sub-Objectives

Even Distribution and access to water Resources to prevent conflicts among the community, increasing the quality of life, the development of economic enterprises, the availability of
106

food through the preservation of subak so as to maintain the balance of the ecosystems Development Priority Development of water resource infrastructure Improving the quality and quantity of unprocessed water resources Supervision and enforcement of laws on water

resources users violating the laws in accordance with applicable laws and regulations Adjustment of water tariffs in accordance with the designation Improve the performance of PDAM and the private sector to provide water to the destination Preparation of small reservoirs/dams Optimizing the participation of the community in keeping the water resources Development in distributing area which has limited water The need to provide incentive to upstream areas area Building and development of subak roads in isolated areas Sosializing the use of water efficiently to the community to the level of banjar Priority Strategic conflict of Interest in the utilization Issues C.3 water resources

107

Location

All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali

Causal Factor

Competition in using the limited water, unclear distribution systems, unilateral control of water resources

Impact/Implication/ Occurrence Consequence Sub-Objective

of

Public

unrest

occurred,

security

is

compromised, destruction of water resources Prevention of conflicts of interest in the utilization of Water Resources through even distribution of water, conservation of water resources, preservation of facilities and

infrastructure in order to create harmony among water users in accordance with the applicable laws and regulations

108

Development Priorities

Preparation of master plan of water resources in the province of Bali by involving all components of the government, private sector, and the community so that it can become the basis for the implementation of the water resources utilization

Making

regulation

concerning

the

proportion

of

utilization of water resources through irrigation, water, drink and tourism Improving the dissemination of information on water resources to all levels of community in cooperation with villages/districts and subak Strengthening the implementation of regional autonomy, supported by inter-regional cooperation which is

mutually beneficial to establish local independence Implementing common perceptions and attitudes in managing upstream and downstream regions Improving the development of water resources

infrastructure Constructing small reservoirs, dams and cubang for

collecting rainwater in a water crisis regions Increasing the role of traditional villages in the utilization of water resources Priority Strategic High rate of population growth in Bali resulting in the Issues C.4 decline of Water Resources support, infrastructure and

109

facilites

Location

All Regencies/Municipalities in Bali

Causal Factor

High fertility rate and population migration to Bali

Impact/Implication/ Reduced natural resources carrying capacity, as well as the Consequence Sub-Objective available infrastructure and facilities Reducing urbanization by creating jobs, independent businesses, agricultural ventures/agricultural commodities which have high economic value in accordance with the conditions of rural land Development Priority Creating and evenly distributing job opportunities in rural areas

110

Encouraging independent business activities in rural areas

Planting agricultural commodities which have high economic value in accordance with the class of capability and land suitability

Disseminating information on the efficient use of water by using some local media

Controlling urbanization in order to control over the rate of population growth

Improving Family Planning program Improving water resources by monitoring and

conducting the conservation of upstream areas as the sources of water catchment Handling demographic problems, particularly migrants in a holistic, comprehensive, and integrated manner between village pekraman and the government Improving rural facilities and infrastructure to encourage economic growth Stimulating implementing urbanization Priority Strategic Lack of information, communication, and education Issues C.5 Location concerning environment In the entire Bali the growth of home in industries to by

skill

training

order

reduce

111

Causal Factor

unoptimal function of the means and channels of KIE (communication, information and education) on environment for the community

Impact/Implication/ Low public awareness of the environment Consequence Sub-Objective Improving the socialization of information to the public through printedand electronic media, formal education, and utilization of local culture (puppets, bondres, drama gong) in relation to environmental conservation Development Priority Improving the socialization of information through printedand electronic media, formal education, local media (puppets, bondres, drama gong) in

112

environmental conservation Maximizing the duties and functions of the department of information and communication at the

regency/municipality level Addition of curriculum concerning LH from kindergartenhigh school level Performing environment-themed activities involving all components of the government and the community Organizing competitions related to the environment Empowerment of the community components such as environmentally conscious groups, the PKK and sekehe cadets/i

113

Table 21 The Formulation of Sub-Objectives and Priority Development Programs in Economic Aspect Priority Strategic Unoptimal Incentive and disincentive programs in Issues D.1 Location upstream areas Regencies of Bangli, Badung, Tabanan, Karangasem, Buleleng

Causal Factor

Unavailable Regulation of policies

Impact/Implication/ Accumulated damage to upstream areas Consequence Sub-Objective Maintaining Coordination (Improved cooperation) between upstream and downstream areas through the determination

114

of policies or cross-subsidies in order to preserve the upstream areas so that they will become a hydrological unity of Bali which can be maintained Development Priority Maintaining the synergy of incentives and disincentives programs among sub-districts and

regencies/municipalities Creating a legal instrument concerning cross-subsidies policy incentives and disincentives between sub-district and regency/municipality Socialization of Incentives and disincentives programs for the community in the upstream and downstream areas Formulation of policies as outlined in joint work contracts between upstream and downstream areas regulatory policy of the budget of incentives and disincentives programs particularly in the upstreamdownstream areas

115

CHAPTER VI LINKAGE BETWEEN PRIORITY STRATEGIC ISSUES AND RPJPD, RTRW AND PROGRAMS OF THE RELEVANT INSTITUTIONS IN WORKSHOP III

1.1.

Presentation of the Strategic Plans, RPJPD and RTRW

Workshop III was started with the presentation of the strategic plans by agencies related to water resources in Bali Province, namely forestry, agriculture, tourism, environment, public works agencies and BP DAS Unda Anyar. It was aimed at searching for linkages between agencies and RPJP, RTRW as well as strategic issues resulting from Workshop II on the KLHS of Bali Province. During the session for thoroughly discussing the RPJPD, workshop participants were divided into three groups, each of which searched for keywords to make it easier to synergize or see the links. In this case, the RPJPD studied was Regulation of Bali Province No. 6 year 2009, Concerning Long-Term Regional Development Plan (RPJPD) of Bali Province Year 20052025, particularly point 4.2.5, namely Realising Sustainable Reliable and Evenly-Distributed Development in Bali, consisting of sub-points (a) through (z) which are equivalent to points 1 to 26 in Table 22. The outcome of these discussions are as follows: Table 22. The Results of the Discussion on keywords in the RPJPD of Bali Province

No

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3
116

No 1 Policy

Group 1 of Bali

Group 2 in Sustainable

Group 3 of Natural

development Development

environmental development as

of Bali in a single unity of Resources & Environment, a island ecosystem Single Unity of Island

single unity of island ecosystem (one

Ecosystems, Empowerment Participation Communities of & Local

island, one plan, one management) 2 Natural management ENVIRONMENT

resource Natural Resource policy Improved and direction ENVIRONMENT environmentally and awareness towards sustainable

education

&

campaign,

friendly ENVIRONMENT management of

& Natural

Green Bali Program

Resources, environmental ethics, Green Bali program 3 Management Natural into of Management of Natural utilization & management and of should Natural Resources principles,

Resources Resources local Environment

account

be conservation

knowledge

participatory by taking into local wisdom, increased account local knowledge community and the principles participation,

of island ecosystems

conservation and policy of OTDA 4 Management of Economic development in Environmentally friendly

117

No

Group 1 Natural considering knowledge Resources the

Group 2 use of

Group 3 Natural development, and valuation, services, services, the development economic

local Resources environmental should principles

environmental sustainable

integrate of

economic

valuation in each policy. 5 Environmentally Industry having based continue Natural Utilization which directed to additonal of of to resources increase value, Natural

friendly development, Resource control and pollution, should increase the carrying maintain capacity quality.

environmental maintenance Resources as well

development as increased

sustainability development, renewable, rational,

optimal & efficient, a result of recovery, rehabilitation & provisioning 6 The effectiveness of Utilization Natural of renewable Utilization of renewable

Resources Natural Resources should natural resources, which efficient and have the potential to be

utilization, balance of be economic,

competitive as supported developed, needs support

environmental aspects by national and regional of policies (National and and social policies. Regional)

118

No

Group 1 development utilization renewable and of natural

Group 2

Group 3

resources, restoration and rehabilitation of critical condition 7 Balance between the Utilization utilization of land and renewable sea, Human capacity increase in resources must and of non- Utilization natural renewable of nonNatural

be Resources substituted by ones which are

Resource reclaimed renewable sources.

seeking the

alternative environmentally friendly

Water management

resource Improving efforts of forest Improving is rehabilitation and critical and

rehabilitation critical land

directed to integrated land reforestation in forest reforestation in forest area watershed management area to achieve a

coverage area of 30%, in addition improve watershed to efforts forest to and

management

systems in an integrated manner

119

No 9

Group 1 Improve performance controlling and of

Group 2

Group 3

the Improve the performance Monitoring & enforcement the of controlling institution for of Law, RTH Municipality 30% watershed

institution the utilization of space, to for RTH create urban

create

green conservation as much as

utilization conservation watershed areas

and opened spaces as much 30% forest of as 30% and conservation of watershed areas at

least of 30% by improving the quality of the forests for at least 30%. 10 Direction of Coastal development Preventing seawater

development policies policy directions pursued intrusion to overcome of the to overcome the danger of intrusion by

dangers

coastal seawater

sea water intrusion

reducing and controlling ground water exploitation at the beach, and applying the appropriate regulations of coastal border

consistently

11

Policy for utilization of Farmer who is water user Subak as the main actors irrigation water (subak) placed as the of irrigation management

120

No

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

main actors and decision together with government, makers in each irrigation Local management activities. 12 Water resources Management of government &

Community

water Planning & Management

policies governed by resources based on the of water resources in an the concept of one concept of one island, one integrated island, one plan, one plan, one management by balance management taking into account the between interests of people across institutions, of manner, interests sectors, the

the watershed, while the Regency/Munipality areas, utilization of Ground Water & the river area, utilization is managed by considering of ABT considering the the carrying capacity and carrying capacity & law conducting enforcement. 13 Conserve catchment lower water Development areas, areas, of rivers Development lakes, rivers and & watersheds areas, water function and as law enforcement

lakes

sedimentation watersheds is conducted balancing

rate and stability of by lowering the level of social river water flow sedimentation, stabilizing goods

economic

the drainage capacity of river water and building flood control, reducing the

121

No

Group 1

Group 2 difference water flow, in seasonal maintaining

Group 3

and stabilizing the quality and quantity of water, water areas, the building

conserving catchment providing

controlling the sediment, providing dams and small reservoirs in areas prone to drought. 14 Preserving maintaining and Development the resources to of water Increase coverage of

meet

the drinking water, preserve & clean water,

development of clean needs of at least 50% of maintain

water built, optimizing the community who have increase the availability of the use of surface not served drinking water unprocessed water for drinking up to year 2025 through Balance the development of regional of water, services, is

water needs

cooperation the in

regional water supply.

unprocessed often

budget, solving

cooperation

drinking water problems

15

Handling waste with Handling waste in Bali is Handling garbage with the

122

No landfill

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

sanitary directed to the pattern of same regional cooperation can reduce regional cooperation, by Patterns using landfill & fostering

system

environmental pollution

sanitary sustainable pattern tp the

system, by involving the community with 3R pattern community and private.

16

Waste

water Waste water management Management

of

management in areas which is not serviced with wastewater directed by On which reachable conducted are to with not centralized (offsite)system Site system, Communal

be as directed by using the IPAL through SANIMAS & the local system (on site)- DSDP

system of communal based community. (local)

17

Handling

of

water Handling of water, soil and Handling Water pollution, Air with law

pollution as directed to air pollution, is directed at Land,

the increase of public efforts to increase public enforcement effort awareness, and law awareness enforcement enforcement and law

18

Maintaining catchment (catchment

water Construction of drainage is Drainage development to area directed to minimize the minimize the occurrence of area), occurrence of flood and flood, protection to

123

No

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3 water,

drainage construction inundation, to minimize

maintaining unprocessed

the and protecting its sources improvement of ecological

potential

occurrence of unprocesed water from functions in the upstream maintaining

of floods, protection of the solid and liquid waste region, unprocessed water pollution and

minimize catchment areas

resources from solid infiltration of toxins into the and liquid waste soil

pollution

19

Adaptation mitigation concerning change

and Policy

direction of

to

the Increased

awareness

&

policies phenomenon

global community's role in climate adaptation

climate climate change carried out change by increasing the &mitigation

awareness and community participation for adaptation and mitigation to climate change and revitalization of environmental wisdom. 20 Early warning systems Disaster against mitigation is Infrastructure development early detection of

natural directed to infrastructure for development for

disasters (tsunami)

early disaster and emergency

detection and emergency response of disaster THP response

124

No

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3

21

Sustainable development building PLTA De

energy by

Development of energy is directed to the provision and utilization of energy resources, the increase in institutional function,

namely quality of HR & mastery of technology, the role of society, and

diversification conservation of energy 22 Development in the electricity directed reliable sector towards is a and

Construction of electricity for the whole level of

society by rehabilitating & repawery 2 GW of electric power supply pd 2025

professional workforce

23

Development transportation from is

of started road channel, &


125

additional

connecting construction,

No

Group 1

Group 2

Group 3 rearrangement transportasi nodes of

24

Development of integrated transportations facilities

and infrastructure between regions as a unity of

transportation network

service

25

Increase in traffic discipline with socialization and of law

regulatory enforcement 26

Development of telematics within the global namely industry, of the

competition, broadcast concept

responsive increased

technology,

knowledge on technology based information

126

1.2.

Synergy of RPJP, RTRW, Bali Clean & Green And Agricultural Institution

Group II discussing synergy between RPJP, RTRW, program in Agricultural Institution and Bali province to get results, such as the green in Table 23 below. In terms of the synergized RTRW by Bali Provincial Regulation No. 16 Year 2009 concerning Spatial Planning of Bali Province Year 2009-2029, in particular the Policy and Strategy Development of Space Structures (Article 9), the Policy and Strategy Development of Protected Areas (Article 11) , the Policy and Strategy for Aquaculture Development Zone (Article 12) and the Policy and Strategy Development Strategic Areas (Article 13).

Table 23. Synergy between RPJP, RTRW, agricultural instituonal program and Bali green province Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP A - Development of SDA & ENVIRONMENT, - Unity of Island RTRW Articles Agricultural Province Green

Ecosystem, - Empowerment Partisipation Community B - Increase in education Article & of Local

127

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP and campaign, - Human management sustainable ENVIRONMENT, etichs of environment, green bali program C

Articles Agricultural RTRW awareness 13a Article Resource 11a

Green Province

Utilization & management Article of Natural Resources 13b principles, Article increased 13e

Green culture

conservation local wisdom,

community

participation,

island ecosystems D Environmentally development, valuation, services, construction friendly Article economic 13c Green economy Clean and green

environmental Article sustainable 11a

Utilization

of

natural Article

Clean and green

resources is directed to 13c

128

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP increase added of as

Articles Agricultural RTRW value, Article natural 12a well

Green Province

preservation resources sustainable

development,

renewal, rational, optimal &efficient, recovery result, rehabilitation &reserves

Utilization

of

renewable Article 13

Clean and green

natural resources, which d have the potential to be developed, need support of policies (National and Regional)

Utilization renewable resources with friendly

of

non- Article natural 13d

to substituted Article environmentally 11b

Enhance

critical

land Article and 12b

rehabilitation

129

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP reforestation of forest area

Articles Agricultural RTRW

Green Province

Monitoring & enforcement of law Water Resources

utilization in accordance with the carrying capacity & Needs I Municipality RTH for 30% Watershed & Article Improved food security Clean and green

forest 12c

conservation 30% Improved livelihoods of farmers J Preventing intrution K Subak as main actor of irrigation management sea water Article 11b Improved Clean and green Green

livelihoods of culture farmers

together with government, Local Government &

Community

agribusiness

130

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP

Articles Agricultural RTRW Improved facilities &

Green Province

infrastructure L Planning & Management of Article 9c water resources in an

integrated manner

Balance between institution,

of

interests sectors, the

Regency/City, & the river area

ABT utilization considering carrying capacity & law enforcement

Development lakes, rivers & watersheds areas

Agribisnis Ketahanan pangan

Balancing the water as a function of social goods and economic goods N Construction of road Article 9c
131

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP transportation begins with the addition of connective road network, development & structuring transportation nodes Realizing transport system transportation the as of the public core city

Articles Agricultural RTRW

Green Province

integrated

transportation Article

infrastructure development 13f between regions as a Article 9c

single-entity transportation Article 9b service network P Increased traffic discipline Article 9c with socialization and of law

regulatory enforcement Q Increase

coverage

of Article 11b

drinking water services Preserve & maintain clean water

132

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP Increase the availability of unprocessed water The balance of services Regional cooperation often the budget Cooperation in solving

Articles Agricultural RTRW

Green Province

drinking water problems R Handling of garbage with Article Patterns of regional 11b

cooperation & sustainable Article 9b training to the community Article 9a with pattern of 3R S Management of Article

wastewater directed to On 11b Site system, IPAL Article 9b through Article 9a

Communal SANIMAS & DSDP

Handling of water, soil and Article air pollution with law 11c Article 11b

enforcement efforts

133

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP

Articles Agricultural RTRW Article 9b

Green Province

Construction of drainage to Article minimize the occurrence of 11b flood, sources water, protecting of its

unprocesed in in

improvement function

ecological

upstream area sustaining the infiltration area V Development of telematics within the global namely industry, of the

competition, broadcast concept

responsive increased

technology,

knowledge on technology based information W Development of energy is Article 9c directed to the provision and utilization of energy resources, The increase in

134

Number Keyword of RPJP RPJP institutional function,

Articles Agricultural RTRW

Green Province

namely quality of HR & mastery of technology, the role of society Diversification conservation of energy X Construction of electricity Article for the whole level of 13d and

society by rehabilitating & Article 9c repawery Provision of 2 GW of

electric power supply in 2025 Y Improvement awareness & of public in

roles

adaptation to & mitigation of the climate change Z Development infrastructure for of Article early 11d

detection of disasters and emergency disasters response to

135

1.3.

Several Relationship Between RPJP, RTRW and Priority Strategic Issues

Several priority strategic issues discussed in group III, indicate the relationship between RPJPD and RTRW. Furthermore, KRP alternatives

have been sought for (Activities, Plan and Program) in order to strengthen the achievement of sub-objective in any strategic issues discussed. In this matter, out of 13 strategic issues agreed upon, the ones discussed only three issues with the outcome which is presented accordingly in Table 24.

136

Table 24. Relationship between RPJPD, RTRW and priority strategic issues PRIORITY SUBNo. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE ISSUES 1 Decline in Keep and Waste management to water Waste is management use directed IPAL communal and system system sewerage to water is use IPAL and system RPJP/RTRW OF KRP ALTERNATIVES

surface water increase

quality due to water quality directed pollution (solid and waste) sustainably communal

waste through law system liquid enforcement efforts, arrangement sewerage (s)

which is supported by local regulations

Handling of waste is of industrial directed area and regional cooperation environment between sanitation in regency/municipality directed order increase and pattern 3 R water regency/municipality efficiency to the use of waste as a source of between the to on a sanitary landfill regional cooperation to the the Handling of waste is to the waste concerning liquid

energy, fertilizer and recycled products


137

PRIORITY SUBNo. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE ISSUES RPJP/RTRW OF KRP ALTERNATIVES

High rate of Control lan

of Utilization of space Utilization of space area in cultivated area in

d land use to cultivated

function from keep Water accordance with the accordance with the agricultural to Resource spatial planning. spatial through planning

non- conservation (RPJP) and Policy catchment area areas so as embodiment to prevent harmony natural linkages disasters, culture b. control of erosion and farming activities in can maintain order not to exceed the balance the of capacity biodiversity carrying that improve food security through the enforcement will (RTRW) capacity and carrying between and the of covers

agriculturan

cultivated increased a. enforcement

law

Cultivation area of policy reaffirmed determination that the of

zoning area in each regency/municipality

138

PRIORITY SUBNo. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE ISSUES of existing RPJP/RTRW OF KRP ALTERNATIVES

spatial 3 High rate of Emphazied population growth on in urbanization Improve resources management water Tightening residence permit for with new settlers in the river area exceeded the

Bali causing by

creating integrated

the decline in jobs, Water Resource carrying capacity, independent business, farm agricultural

basin management carrying capacity of and water resource water use in accordance / with the carrying

capacity (tamping)

infrastructure commodities and facility that high economic value in have

accordance with the

conditions of rural land

139

140

CHAPTER VII DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES

7.1.

Grouping of Development Priorities into Clusters

Development priorities Summarized in the results of the workshop II, pages 53-66 are presented in a fairly detailed manner and include many types, so it is necessary to group them into clusters. In this case, the grouping is conducted by putting them in sub-clusters under one cluster. With those clusters, the types of activities will be more easily managed. The program, itself, can be further simplified although the coverage is varied. However, it will be more focused on achieving the sub-objectives contained in the priority strategic issues. Whereas the clusters are presented in the following description A.1 The issue of declining flowrate of surface water has a cluster and eight subclusters in the development priorities, namely: Water resources conservation

1. 2. 3. 4.

Forest and critical land rehabilitation Conservation of water resources and soil Supervision and Control of land use in the upstream Community empowerment and local wisdom in the management of water resources

5. 6.

Intensification of land for plantations Research and Development of Water Resources


141

7. 8. A.2

Legislation Water Resources Management Efficiency of water utilization The issue of declining surface water quality due to pollution (solid and liquid waste) have three clusters and each of them has two to three subclusters in its development priorities, namely:

Improved management of wastewater and garbage

1. 2.

Controlling water pollution by waste water, waste and B3 Revitalization of existing landfill facilities and infrastructure

Empowerment of communities and law enforcement in the management of waste water and garbage

1. 2. 3.

Increased awareness and public participation Increased law enforcement Legislation of waste management of solid and liquid waste management through

Integration

rearrangement

1. 2.

Development of water front city Development of a regional landfill

A.3

The issue of high land conversion from agriculture to non agriculture have three clusters, each with two to three subclusters in its development priorities, namely:

142

Conservation of agricultural land

1. 2.

Incentives for agricultural ventures Legislation on agricultural land Conservation

Control of space utilization

1. 2.

Control of green belt Control of areas constructed on agricultural land

Development agropolitan

1. 2. 3. A.4

Development of rural infrastructure which supports agriculture Intensification of agriculture to commodity Facilities and infrastructure subsidies of agricultural production The issue of excessive exploitation of groundwater has one cluster and three subclusters in the development priorities, namely:

Control of ground water Utilization in an integrated manner

1. 2. 3.

Improvement of public water service facilities and infrastructure (piping) Groundwater utilization control Improvement of the raw water production capacity

A.5

The issue of sea water intrusion in some areas in Bali has two clusters and each of them has three sub-clusters in its development priorities, namely:

143

Integrated coastal management

1. 2. 3.

Coastal area rehabilitation Handling of coast guard Control of beach material mining activities

Control of ground water utilization in an integrated manner

1. 2. 3.

Control and efficiency of utilization of ground water Increased green opened spaces Conservation of water resources and soil

B.1

The issue of the high destruction/disturbance of forests has one cluster and three subclusters in its development priorities, among other things:

Protection and maintenance of forests

1. 2. 3. B.2

Forest and critical land rehabilitation Community forestry development Improvement of surveillance and law enforcement The issue of declining biodiversity has one cluster and six subclusters

in the development priorities, namely:

Biodiversity conservation 1. 2. 3. Control over the use of fertilizers and pesticides Breeding of species and the protection of germplasm Supervision and law enforcement over the use and distribution of protected biodiversity
144

4. 5. 6. C.1

Development of biodiversity database Improvement of food diversification Improvement of organic farming The issue of law enforcement is still weak in water resources management and protection of subak in a broad sense, has one cluster and four subclusters in the development priorities namely:

Law enforcement in an integrated manner

1. 2. 3. 4.

Increased institutional capacity of law enforcement Compliance with the implementation of spatial Increased awareness and empowerment The application of sanctions law firm and consistency

C.2

The issue of uneven distribution and access to water resources has one cluster and seven subclusters in the development priorities, namely:

Improvement of public water services

1.

Improvement of public water services facilities and infrastructure (piping)

2. 3. 4. 5.

Improvement of raw water production capacity Improvement of minimal water public service Restructuring PDAM Development of Cooperation with Private Parties (PPP)

145

6.

Community empowerment and local wisdom in the management of water resources

7. C.3

Efficiency in water utilization The issue of conflicts of interests in the utilization of water resources has one cluster and four subclusters in the development priorities namely:

Development of water resources management partnerships

1. 2. 3. 4.

Technical Development Water Needs Planning (Master Plan) Pattern of Water Cooperation Utilization Improvement of public water service facilities and infrastructure (piping) Community empowerment and local wisdom in the management of water resources

C.4

The issue of high rate of population growth in Bali resulting in decreasing carrying capacity of water resources, infrastructure and facilities has two clusters and each has one to two subclusters in the development priorities, namely:

Empowerment of rural communities

1.

Improvement of employment opportunities and rural

Improvement of population administration system

1. 2. I

Improvement of population administration mprovement of family planning program


146

C.5

The issue of lack of information, communication and education about the environment has one cluster and three subcluster in its development priorities, namely:

Development of IEC

1. 2. 3.

Improvement of environmental socialization Development of environmental information The development of formal, informal environmental education, and cultural arts

D.1

The issue of unoptimal incentives and disincentives programs for upstream areas has one cluster and three subclusters in the development priorities, namely:

Bali as a single island ecosystem management

1.

Development management

of

cooperation

on

interregion

water

resources

2. 3.

Legislation on Incentives for upstream areas development of Disincentive for upstream area utilization

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CHAPTER VIII IMPACT MANAGEMENT AND MITIGATION

In each cluster appearing in the response column, the impacts should be managed and mitigated. Therefore, each cluster in the response group is discussed as to which institution is acting as the leading sector, and what should be conducted by each institution assuming the coordinating function and which institutions will become the supporting institutions. The following Table 25 describes the functions of the relevant institutions with respect to the responses set out in the clusters and sub-clusters. Table 25. Relation between response and impact management and mitigation IMPACT MANAGEMENT AND RESPONSE MITIGATION Cluster : water resources Leading Institution : Public Work Service, assigned to : Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Forest and critical land rehabilitation Evaluate Water and soil resources conservation Supported by:

conservation

Monitoring and controlling upstream land area utilization Bappeda : planning and monev

Empowering the community and local

148

wisdom in managing water resources

Environment empowerment

Board:

Community

Intensification of land for plantations

Forestry: afforestation and reforestation Department of Agriculture: setting the

Research and Development of Water cropping pattern, soil conservation and Resources community empowerment. Plantation Legislation Management empowerment Culture Efficiency of water utilization application of local wisdom Cluster: Control of utilization of Service: strengthening the of Water Resource plantation land, community Service: intensification of

ground water in an integrated manner Improved facilities and public water Leading services infrastructure (piping) Control of Ground water utilization Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Increase in unprocessed water Evaluate production capacity Supported by: Environmental communication education Dispenda assisting monev Cluster : integrated Management of Leading Institutions : Public Works
149

Institutions

Public

Works

Service of Reg/Munci, assigned to:

Board and

information, and

education

coastal areas

Service, assigned to: Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and

Coastal area rehabilitation Evaluate Handling of coastal area security Supported by: maitnenance Environmental Control of coastal material mining communication education Forestry Cluster : control of ground water rehabilitation and coastal area replanting utilization in an integrated manner trees DKP : management of coastal area Control and efficiency of utilization of ecosystem ground water Service: coastal forest Board and : information, and

education

Increased green opened spaces

Tourism

Service:

controlling

tourism

business in coastal region Conservation of water resources and soil Health Service : measuring the quality of ground water Cluster : Increased in public water Leading services Institutions : Public Works

Service, assigned to:

Improved facilities and public water Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and services infrastructure (piping) Increased production capacity of Supported by: unprocessed water
150

Evaluate

Agricultural Service : subak training Increasing public minimal service water

Restructuring PDAM

Deperindag : industry training Tourism Service: managing tourism

Development Cooperation for Private water utilization Party (PPP) (PKPS)

Community

empowerment

and

local

wisdom in the management of water resources Efficiency of water utilization

Cluster

Development

of

water Leading Institutions : Public Works

resource management partnerships Service, assigned to:

Technical Development Water Needs Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Planning (Master Plan) Cooperation Pattern of Water Utilization Evaluate Supported by: Institutions : Public Works

Improved facilities and public water Leading services infrastructure (piping) Community empowerment and local

Service, assigned to:

Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and wisdom in the management of water Evaluate resources Supported by: Leading Institutions : Public Works
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Service, assigned to: Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Evaluate Supported by: Cluster : Forest protection and Leading Institutions : Public Works

preservation Forest and critical land rehabilitation

Service, assigned to: Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Evaluate

Development of community forest Supported by:

Increase

in

monitoring

and

law Regional Police: law enforcement

enforcement

Environmental communication education Rege/Municipal empowerment

Board and

information, and

education

goverment: of the community

surrounding the forest BPMD : empowerment of the community surrounding the forest BPN : control of state land boundary Leading Institution : Forest Service, Cluster : Boidiversity Conservation assigned to:
152

Control

the

use

of

fertilizers

and Plan, Conduct, Control, monitor and Evaluate

pesticides Breeding species and the protection of

Supported by : germplasm Agricultural Supervision and law enforcement use conservation in agricultural land and circulation of biodiversity protected Service: biological

Development of biodiversity data base DKP : biodiversity in water territory

BLH Increasing diversification of food

conservation

of

biodiversity,

including rare, precarious and needs upakara Regency/Municipality government:

Increase in organic farming

conservation of biodiversity of flora and fauna of the region mascot Animal Husbandary Service: livestock biodiversity conservation (typical local germplasm) Leading Institution : Integrated Team (Public Prosecutor, police, BLH) a

Cluster : Law enforcement in an conducting integrated manner sanction investigation impose

Increased institutional capacity of law Supported

by

BLH

providing
153

enforcement

socialization, prosecution, and police conducting examination investigation and

Compliance with the implementation of spatial Increased awareness and empowerment The application of sanctions law firmly and consistently Leading Institutions Cluster : Development of IEC coordinating media Supported by: BLH for socialization Increased environmental socialization material, investigating curriculum issues : Diskominfo in

Development information

of

environmental

The development of formal, informal environmental education, and cultural arts Cluster : Bali as an island ecosystem Leading Institution : Bappeda to plan and management Development of cooperation on Supported interregion water resources management coordinating incentive and disincentive by: financial bureau in coordinate

154

Incentive Legislation for upstream area

Disincentive development of upstream area utilization

Cluster : Improved management of Leading Institution : wastewater and waste BLH in conduction water quality test

Controlling water pollution by liquid Supported by : DKP to handle the waste, waste, waste and B3 Revitalization of existing landfill facilities and infrastructure Cluster : Empowerment of BLH in coordinating waste

communities and law enforcement in Leading Institution : BLH in coordinating the management of waste water and law enforcement team garbage 1. Increased awareness and public Supported by : Satpol PP in conducting participation 2. 3. Increased law enforcement Legislation on waste management actions

Cluster : Integration management of waste and liquid water with spatial Leading management Institution : Bappeda in

coordinating

1.

Development of water front city

Supported by : PU in the context of


155

infrastructure procurement

2.

Development of TPA regional

Cluster : Conservation of agricultural Leading Institution : Agricultural Service land in providing extension

Supported by : Estate service office in 1. Incentives farm providing extension

2.

Conservation legislation

of

agricultural

Leading Cluster : Control of space utilization

Institution

Bappeda

in

enforcing law Supported by : PU in development issue 1. Control of green belt and BLH in violation

2.

Control

of

the

built-area

on

agricultural land Cluster : Development agropolitan 1. Development of rural infrastructure Supported by : Agricultural Service office which supports agriculture for field extension Leading Institution : Bappeda in planning

2.

Intensification

of

agriculture

to
156

commodity 3. Facilities and infrastructure

subsidies of agricultural production

Leading Institution : Population Service Cluster: Empowerment of rural Office and Family Planning in providing extension

communities

Supported by : disperindag in providing 1. Increased opportunities and rural employment training, cooperation service office in assisting capital

Cluster:

Increased

population Leading Institution: Population Service office and work force in inventory

administration system

Supported by : Regency Municipality 1. Increased population administration government in recording

2.

Increased family planning program

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CHAPTER IX INDICATORS AND MONITORING

To be able to know whether the sub-objectives can be achieved well, so that the priority strategic issues are eliminated and are no longer becoming issues, it is necessary to have clear measurement indicators and monitoring programs. Therefore, based on the results of the monitoring on the specified indicators further steps will be taken in order to achieve the subo-bjectives effectively and efficiently. The indicators and monitoring are described in Table 26 below. Table 26. Indicators of monitoring an evaluation PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

Lowering

in

surface

Preserving the catchment area and water sources to insufficient water needs of the community, agriculture, and tourism, and prevention of flood hazard

Monitoring Indicator : Flowrate of river water and spring water, lake water Period: Continuous measurement of rainfall Period: every day surface 3 level months

waters flowrate

Evaluation:
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PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

Discharge data of river water Springs surface water

level of the lake and rainfall data (Ecological balance) High level of ground Control of groundwater Monitoring Indicators: of water

water exploitation

exploitation for prevention of Measurement seawater intrusion, soil degradation which later can prevent degradation of land surface hydrological cycle as well as keeping in line with efforts to improve effesiensi water use, increase performance and

groundwater levels in test wells Installation meters Measurement of of water AT water

levels in production wells evaluation: Groundwater level data

optimize the utilization of the and data extraction of PDAM water surface Sea water intrusion several areas in Bali in Conduct planning, controlling and monitoring ground Monitoring Indicators:

Measurement of quality

159

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

the utilization of ground water by improving water infrastructure development in a fair and equitable manner

of ground water in test wells Period: 1 of of month well the

Measurement water quality

population Period: 6 months

Ground surface elevation measurements Period: evaluation: Groundwater quality data (an indicator of seawater intrusion) Elevation data of soil surface Inequility of distribution and access of the Equitable distribution and access the SD of water to prevent conflicts among the people, increasing the degree of life, the Monitoring Indicators: 1 year

Coverage of clean water Period: production Period: 1 1 of year water month

community Against water resources

160

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

development of economic enterprises, the availability of food through the preservation of the balance

water Period: evaluation: Data of 1

needs year

coverage

of

of ecosystems is maintained water so that the subak Data

services production and

distribution Data of needs water Conflicts utilization resources of of interest water Prevention of conflicts of interest of Water Resources through equitable distribution of water, conservation of water resources, preservation of facilities and infrastructure so that the creation of harmony among water users in accordance with the regulations / by-laws applicable The high level of Improve the hydrological Monitoring Indicators: Monitoring The Indicators: of the the parties 6 months

intensity and

conflict conflicting Period: evaluation:

Number of conflicts data and conflicting parties

161

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

destruction

/disturbance system so that more optimal water storage and land damage caused can be minimized through local wisdom, law enforcement under the applicable Laws

violation of forest Period: 1 month evaluation: Data of forests violation

of forests (state forests and community forest)

Decreased biodiversity

levels

of

Conserving biodiversity for maintaining the balance of Monitoring Indicators: level and

ecosystems, conservation of Population germplasm so that it can improve the structure, texture, soil fertility and water quality so as to increase agricultural productivity, food supply, nutrition and the need of upakara Weak law enforcement in the management and Improve the protection of water resources through Monitoring The

biodiversity of flora and fauna Period: evaluation: Data population of flora and fauna biodiversity 1 year

Indicators: of

occurrence

protection of Subak Water Spatial Planning, community violations in the utilization Resources in a broad participation based on Tri of water for every six

162

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

sense

Hita Karana and orderly in their utilization.

months Evaluation: Numbers of violations

Lack

of

information, and

Improving dissemination to the public through printed media, electronic, formal education, and utilization of local culture (puppets, bonders, drama gong) in environmental conservation

Monitoring Indicators: The intensity of the

communication

education concerning the environment

negative news about the environment performed

at least every month Evaluation: the amount of news Monitoring Indicators: Upland complaints incentives Evaluation: Number of complaints community from the community about the

program of incentives and disincentives for

Coordinate (Improved cooperation) between upstream and downstream area through the determination of policy or cross-subsidies in order to preserve the upstream area so that it becomes a hydrological unity of Bali which can be maintained

upstream area which is not yet optimal

The decline in surface

Maintain and improve water

Monitoring

Indicators:

163

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

water

quality

due

to

quality in a sustainable manner through the efforts of law enforcement, reforming industrial and environmental sanitation to improve the usability of water

The results of test for water quality conducted at least every 6 months Evaluation: The data of surface water quality (rivers and lakes)

pollution (solid waste and liquid waste)

Conversion of high land from agricultural to non agricultural

Control of land use to keep the Water Resources conservation and catchment areas so as to prevent natural disasters, erosion and to be able to maintain the balance of biodiversity which will improve food security through the enforcement of existing spatial

Monitoring Indicators: Widespread conversion

of agricultural into nonagricultural land for every once a year Evaluation: Data of land area used

The

high

rate

of

Emphasizing on urbanization by creating jobs, independent business,

Monitoring Bali

Indicators: growth

population growth in Bali resulted in a decreased

population

rate which is conducted

164

PRIORITY STRATEGIC MONITORING AN ISSUE SUB-Objectives EVALUATION

carrying natural

capacity

of

farm/agricultural commodities having high economic value in accordance with the conditions of rural land

every Evaluation: data

year Population

resources, and

infrastructure facilities

165

CHAPTER X RECOMMENDATIONS

In order to be able to preserve the existing water resources in the Province of Bali so that their utilization can be distributed evenly to all corners of Bali island towards the objective of Bali Green Province as well as to address the thirteen priority strategic issues that have been agreed upon, the recommendations conveyed are as follows:

1.

In the context of overcoming the decreasing flowrate of surface water for the fulfillment of the communitys water supply, it is necessary to improve the conservation of water resources in an integrated and sustainable manner.

2.

Prohibiting the community from disposing solid and liquid waste to the environment, while businessmen will be required to treat their waste prior to disposal to the environment

3.

Development of agropolitan system by establishing conservation and space utilization

4.

The high level of ground water extraction must be controlled immediately in an integrated manner by improving public water facilities and infrastructure , increasing raw water production capacity from surface water as well as limiting underground water extraction which should not be> 2 lt/sec per 1 point of extraction

5.

Seawater intrusion is controlled by limiting the extraction of ground water, which is supported by an integrated coastal management.

166

6.

Due to the high level of damage/disturbance to forests, sustainable protection and maintenance of forests as strategic areas are needed.

7.

In order to preserve biological resources for maintaining the balance of ecosystems and the preservation of germplasm, it is necessary to improbe the efforts for biodiversity conservation in an integrated manner.

8.

Strengthening and enforcing laws in water resource management and protection of water-control system in a broad sense of the terms

9.

To ensure even distribution and access to water resources, particularly in areas prone to water deficiency, it is necessary to search for water sources, increase raw water production capacity and infrastructure in areas prone to water deficiency.

10.

Conflicts of interest on the utilization of water resources need to be resolved by developing cooperation/partnership in water utilization as well as involving community as from the beginning of the planning process.

11.

Controlling the rate of population growth through demographic mechanism in an integrated manner

12.

Improving the dissemination of environmental information through socialization and environmental education

13.

The preparation of regulations requiring the downstream areas to provide incentives for upstream areas.

14.

certification of law enforcement human resources, so law enforcement will be conducted in accordance with the applicable regulations

167

15.

Improving

the

participation

of

village

Pekraman

in

handling

environmental issues, including improving the performance of the government apparatus and establishing institutions which manage environmental services in strategic areas (high valued view, having a cultural heritage, landscape beauty, including cliffs) 16. Improving coordination among sectors, regions (regency/municipality) as well as between government, private, and community, including traditional institution. 17. Monitoring and evaluating the quality and quantity of water as well as the violation of spatial layout at a minimum of once in 6 months. 18. It is necessary to have a zoning of river bodies utilization (drinking water, irrigation, tourism, energy) and to protect water catchment areas including the conduct of intensive reforestation. 19. Striving for at least 30% of forests in Watershed areas and 40% of urban green open spaces 20. All components of the community should be required to make water catchment wells and bio pores

168