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LC8C 1ra|n|ng Workshop

Introducnon to 8u||d|ng hys|cs


1hls presenLauon was prepared by lnLernauonal 8esources Croup (l8C) for Lhe Lnergy Conservauon
and Commerclallzauon ro[ecL (LCC-lll), and was made posslble by Lhe supporL of Lhe Amerlcan
eople Lhrough Lhe unlLed SLaLes Agency for lnLernauonal uevelopmenL (uSAlu). 1he conLenLs of
Lhls presenLauon are Lhe sole responslblllLy of l8C and do noL necessarlly reecL Lhe vlews of uSAlu
or Lhe unlLed SLaLes CovernmenL. 1he LCC-lll ro[ecL would llke Lo acknowledge MlnlsLry of ower
and Lhe 8ureau of Lnergy Lmclency of CovernmenL of lndla for Lhelr supporL.
ACkNCWLLDGLMLN1
All lmages, phoLographs and LexL maLerlal, excepL LhaL whlch has been sourced from Lhe references
clLed, ls Lhe properLy of uSAlu LCC-lll ro[ecL and 8ureau of Lnergy Lmclency, MlnlsLry of ower,
CovernmenL of lndla. users are free Lo copy, dlsLrlbuLe, dlsplay and make derlvauve works based on
lL provlded Lhey acknowledge Lhe creauve owners sLaung LhaL Lhe work ls:
keproduced from the c8c Professiono/ 1roininq Moterio/ creoted by u54lu cO-lll Project ond
8ureou of nerqy gciency {2010), New ue/hi, lndio"
lnformauon, lmages, graphs, LexL and daLa sourced from Lhe references clLed may have addluonal
copyrlghL proLecuon.
A11kI8U1ICN
Introducnon to 8u||d|ng hys|cs: Cut||ne
Introducnon
urpose of 8u||d|ngs
1herma| Comfort
V|sua| Comfort
8/1/11 4 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ComforL arameLers
sychromeLrlc CharL
1hermal ComforL lndlces
Cpumlzlng energy use for
Lhermal comforL
LxLernal lacLors (CllmaLe)
lnLernal lacLors (Loads)
8ulldlng PeaL 1ransfer
asslve SLraLegles
Acuve SLraLegles
lacLors LhaL aecL vlsual comforL
Cpumlzlng energy use for vlsual
comforL
LxLernal lacLors
lnLernal lacLors
asslve SLraLegles
Acuve SLraLegles
Introducnon
8u||d|ng hys|cs
Analysls of Lhe sLaLe and operauon of Lhe bulldlng envelope
PygroLhermal, acousucal and llghL relaLed properues of bulldlng
componenLs (roofs, facades, wlndows, paruuon walls, eLc.), rooms,
bulldlngs and bulldlng assemblles
Lssenual for deslgnlng, consLrucung and operaung hlgh-performance
bulldlngs
SCUkCL: Pugo, S. L. C. Pens (2008), 8ulldlng hyslcs - PeaL, Alr and MolsLure: lundamenLals and Lnglneerlng MeLhods wlLh Lxamples and Lxerclses. 8erlln: LrnsL & Sohn
NO1: 1his modu/e covers on/y the 1hermo/ ond visuo/ {/iqht re/oted) ospects of 8ui/dinq Physics
8/1/11 3 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
urpose of 8u||d|ngs
hys|ca| rocesses
neat 1ransfer
Mo|sture 1ransfer
A|r (mass) 1ransfer
L|ght 1ransfer
Cccupant Comfort
1herma| comfort
V|sua| comfort
Acousnc comfort
A|r qua||ty
8u||d|ng Lnve|ope
Wa||s
koofs
Ienestranon
Ioundanons
8/1/11 6 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
1herma| Comfort
8ulldlng hyslcs
1herma| Comfort
1haL condluon of mlnd whlch expresses sausfacuon wlLh Lhe Lhermal
envlronmenL and ls assessed by sub[ecuve evaluauon"
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
AcuvlLy (MeLabollc raLe)
CloLhlng
Alr LemperaLure
Mean 8adlanL LemperaLure
Alr speed
PumldlLy
LkSCNAL
AkAML1LkS
petsoool cbolces
LNVIkCNMLN1AL
AkAML1LkS
8ollJloq eovelope ooJ
nvAc
8/1/11 8 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Acnv|ty Metabo||c kates [M]
Met Un|ts W/m
2

Sleeplng 0.7 40
SLandlng, relaxed 1.2 70
Car drlvlng 1.2-2.0 60-113
Walklng aL 0.9m/s 2.0 113
Cooklng 1.6-2.0 93-113
laylng 8askeLball S.0-7.6 290-440
Comfort arameters - ersona|
Acnv|ty (Metabo||c rate)
M (meLabollc raLe): Lhe raLe of
Lransformauon of chemlcal energy
lnLo heaL and mechanlcal work by
meLabollc acuvlues wlLhln an
organlsm, usually expressed ln Lerms
of unlL area of Lhe LoLal body surface
or meL unlLs
1 met = S8.2 W]m
2
, whlch ls equal Lo
Lhe energy produced per unlL surface
area of an average person, seaLed aL
resL
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
8/1/11 9 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Comfort arameters - ersona|
C|oth|ng Insu|anon
c|o: a unlL used Lo express Lhe
Lhermal lnsulauon provlded by
garmenLs and cloLhlng ensembles
1 c|o = 0.1SS m
2
k]W
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
Lnsemb|e Descr|pnon I
c|
(C|o)
1rousers + shorL-sleeved shlrL 0.37
Long-sleeved coveralls + 1-shlrL 0.72
SweaL panLs + sweaL shlrL 0.74
1rousers + long-sleeved shlrL +
sulL [ackeL
0.96
lnsulaLed coveralls + long-
sleeved Lhermal underwear (+
bouoms)
1.37
8/1/11 10 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Comfort arameters - Lnv|ronmenta|
A|r 1emperature
1he average LemperaLure of Lhe alr surroundlng Lhe occupanL
usually glven ln degrees Celslus (C) or degrees larenhelL (l)
AecLs Lhe senslble coollng load
Mean kad|ant 1emperature
unlform LemperaLure of an lmaglnary black enclosure ln whlch radlanL heaL
Lransfer from Lhe human body equals Lhe radlanL heaL Lransfer ln Lhe acLual non-
unlform enclosure
Spaual average of Lhe LemperaLure of surfaces surroundlng Lhe occupanL welghLed
by Lhelr vlew facLors wlLh respecL Lo Lhe occupanLs
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
8/1/11 11 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Comfort arameters - Lnv|ronmenta|
A|r Speed
1he average speed of Lhe alr Lo whlch Lhe body ls exposed
A cerLaln mlnlmum deslrable wlnd speed ls needed for achlevlng Lhermal comforL
aL dlerenL LemperaLures and relauve humldlLy values
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy, 8ureau of lndlan SLandards, nauonal 8ulldlng Code of lndla 2003, arL 8 8ulldlng
Servlces, Secuon 1 Llghung and venulauon
Dry 8u|b
1emperature
ke|anve num|d|ty (ercentage)
C 30 40 30 60 70 80 90
(1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (6) (7) (8)
28 * * * * * * *
29 * * * * * 0.06 0.19
30 * * * 0.06 0.24 0.33 0.83
31 * 0.06 0.24 0.33 1.04 3.04 2.10
32 0.20 0.46 0.94 1.39 2.26 ** **
33 0.77 1.36 2.12 3.00 ** ** **
34 1.83 2.72 ** ** ** ** **
33 3.20 ** ** ** ** ** **
*none
**Plgher Lhen Lhose accepLable ln pracuce.
Dry 8u|b
1emperature
ke|anve num|d|ty (ercentage)
C 30 40 S0 60 70 80 90
(1) (2) (3) (4) (3) (6) (7) (8)
28 * * * * * * *
29 * * * * * * *
30 * * * * * * *
31 * * * * * 0.06 0.23
32 * * * 0.09 0.29 0.60 0.94
33 * 0.04 0.24 0.60 1.04 1.83 2.10
34 0.13 0.46 0.94 1.60 2.26 3.03 **
33 0.68 1.36 2.10 3.03 ** ** **
36 1.72 2.70 ** ** ** ** **
*none
**Plgher Lhen Lhose accepLable ln pracuce.
8/1/11 12 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Mlolmom wloJ 5peeJs (m/s) fot Iost Acceptoble
wotm cooJluoos
uesltoble wloJ 5peeJs (m/s) fot 1betmol comfott
cooJluoos
Comfort arameters - Lnv|ronmenta|
num|d|ty
MolsLure conLenL of Lhe alr
Lxpressed ln Lerms of several Lhermodynamlc varlables, lncludlng vapor pressure,
dew polnL LemperaLure, relauve humldlLy and humldlLy rauo
AecLs Lhe laLenL coollng load
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
8/1/11 13 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ComforL arameLers & ueslgn lmpllcauons
arameters S|gn|hcance Des|gn]IL Imp||canons

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Acnv|ty Leve|
oses a problem Lo deslgners lf an lndoor space
has Lo be deslgned for people wlLh dlerenL
acuvlLy levels
ueLermlnes Lhermal ouLpuL of lndlvlduals
whlch dlrecLly aecLs coollng/heaung load of
a condluoned space
C|oth|ng Insu|anon
lmporLanL facLor ln Lhe percepuon of Lhermal
comforL, use of cloLhlng Lo ad[usL Lo Lhermal
envlronmenL ls a good example of adapuve
conLrol.
ln omce envlronmenL, chalr upholsLery can
lncrease Lhe reslsLance by as much as 0.13
clo, dlerence ln Lhe clo values of male and
female dresses should be Laken lnLo accounL
whlle deslgnlng lndoor envlronmenL
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A|r 1emperature
MosL lmporLanL parameLer for deLermlnlng
Lhermal comforL
ueLermlnes LhermosLaL seL polnLs, senslble
loads and lnuences Lhe percepuon of lndoor
LnvlronmenLal CuallLy (lLC)
Mean kad|ant
1emperature
key facLor ln Lhe percepuon of Lhermal
dlscomforL resulung from radlanL asymmeLry
Can reduce Lhe requlremenL of condluoned
alr
A|r Speed
key facLor ln Lhe percepuon of dra due Lo
elevaLed alr veloclLy
Can be used Lo reduce Lhermal dlscomforL ln
con[uncuon wlLh passlve deslgn
ke|anve num|d|ty
Lxcesslve dry or humld condluons are
lmmedlaLely percelved as uncomforLable
LnLhalpy-based economlzer, alLhough dlmculL
Lo conLrol has good poLenual Lo save energy
and provlde greaLer Lhermal comforL
8/1/11 14 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
SaLurauon llne
uew polnL
1emperaLure of Lhe alr
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of Lhe alr can be
polnL wlLhln Lhls space
Any condluon
represenLed by a
sychrometr|c Chart
sychrometry
SLudy of Lhe measuremenL of Lhe molsLure conLenL of aLmospherlc alr.
1be tetm ls commooly tokeo to meoo tbe stoJy of tbe otmospbetlc molstote ooJ lts
e[ect oo bollJloqs ooJ bollJloq systems.
SCUkCL: AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy, lalrey, .W. (1994), asslve Coollng and Puman ComforL, llorlda Solar Lnergy CenLer,
lSLC ubllcauon un-3
8/1/11 13 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
1be boslc telouoosblp exptesseJ by tbe
lsycbtomettlc cbott
sychrometr|c Chart
num|d|ty
AbsoluLe humldlLy AP and saLurauon llne
8elauve humldlLy 8P
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/
8/1/11 16 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
sychrometr|c Chart
num|d|ty
WeL bulb LemperaLure
LnLhalpy
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/
8/1/11 17 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
sychrometr|c Chart
sychrometr|c processes
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/
8/1/11 18 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
sychrometr|c Chart
sychrometr|c processes
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/, hup://www.suryakund.com/8CuC/charL/charL2.hLml
8/1/11 19 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
neouoq ooJ coolloq
1be oJJluoo ot temovol of beot, wltboot ooy cbooqe lo tbe molstote cooteot obsolote
bomlJlty (An), tesoluoq lo tbe cbooqe lo u81. 1be stotos polot wlll move botlzootolly to
tbe lef (coolloq) ot to tbe tlqbt (beouoq).
Note tbot wblle tbe An Joes oot cbooqe, tbe cbooqe lo tempetotote meoos tbe telouve
bomlJlty (kn) cbooqes. lt locteoses lf tbe tempetotote lowets ooJ vlce vetso.
uebomlJlfcouoo by coolloq
lf, os o tesolt of coolloq, tbe polot movloq towotJs tbe lef teocbes tbe sototouoo lloe,
some cooJeosouoo wlll stott. 1be u81 cottespooJloq to tbls polot ls tefetteJ to os tbe
Jew-polot tempetotote of tbe otlqlool otmospbete. lf tbete ls fottbet coolloq, tbe
stotos polot wlll move olooq tbe sototouoo lloe ooJ cooJeosouoo wlll occot. 1be
teJocuoo lo tbe vetucol otJloote (oo tbe An scole) tepteseots tbe omooot of molstote
pteclpltoteJ l.e., cooJeoseJ oot. 1bls ptocess wlll teJoce tbe obsolote bomlJlty, bot wlll
olwoys eoJ wltb 100X kn.
sychrometr|c Chart
sychrometr|c processes
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/, hup://www.suryakund.com/8CuC/charL/charL2.hLml
8/1/11 20 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Temperature Increase (Vapor Liquid)
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Temperature Decrease (Liquid Vapor)
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AJlobouc bomlJlfcouoo (vopotouve coolloq)
lf molstote ls evopototeJ loto oo olt volome wltboot ooy beot lopot ot temovol (tbls ls
tbe meooloq of tbe tetm 'oJlobouc'), tbe loteot beot of evopotouoo ls tokeo ftom tbe
otmospbete. 1be seoslble beot cooteot - tbos tbe u81 - ls teJoceJ, bot tbe loteot beot
cooteot ls locteoseJ. 1be stotos polot moves op ooJ to tbe lef, olooq o w81 lloe. 1bls ls
tbe ptocess lovolveJ lo evopotouve coolloq.
Note tbot by tbls ptocess, tbe telouve bomlJlty ls locteoseJ. lt locteoses ooly ooul lt
blts tbe sototouoo lloe, ot wblcb lt becomes 100X. 8eyooJ lt tbete ls oo Jecteose lo
seoslble tempetotote. 1bls ls tbe teosoo wby Jotloq bot ooJ bomlJ mootbs,
evopotouve coolloq ls loe[ecuve ooJ oocomfottoble.
AJlobouc JebomlJlfcouoo (by sotbeots)
lf tbe olt ls posseJ tbtooqb o cbemlcol sotbeot motetlol (e.q., slllco qel), some of tbe
molstote ls temoveJ ooJ tbe loteot beot of evopotouoo ls teleoseJ. 1bete wlll be oo
locteose lo seoslble beot cooteot, tbos lo tbe system (l.e., lf tbe ptocess ls oJlobouc),
tbe stote polot wlll move Jowo ooJ towotJs tbe tlqbt olooq oo eotbolpy lloe.
1bls ptocess, lo e[ect ls tbe tevetse of tbe ptevloos ooe.
sychrometr|c Chart
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
WeL- 8ulb 1emperaLure
ln deg C
ComforL Zone
CccupanLs generally feel Lhermally
comforLable wlLhln a cerLaln range of
ury 8ulb LemperaLure and PumldlLy
8auo. 1hls range ls shown ln Lhe form
of a zone on Lhe sychromeLrlc CharL
known as 'ComforL Zone'
8/1/11 21 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Warm and num|d
1herma| Comfort Ind|ces
Mv/u
redlcLed Mean voLe (Mv): An lndex LhaL predlcLs Lhe maln value of Lhe voLes of
a large group of persons on Lhe seven polnL Lhermal sensauon scale
redlcLed ercenLage ulssaused (u): An lndex LhaL esLabllshes a quanuLauve
predlcuon of Lhe percenLage of Lhermally dlssaused people deLermlned form
Mv
SCUkCL: hup://www.esru.sLraLh.ac.uk/8eference/concepLs/Lhermal_comforL.hLm
8/1/11 22 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ASP8AL ComforL Zones
AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
8/1/11 23 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Acceptoble tooqes of opetouve tempetotote ooJ bomlJlty fot levels ot wblcb 80X of tbe
people ote comfottoble ( people lo typlcol sommet ooJ wlotet clotbloq. clO. wlotet 0.9,
5ommet 0.5) ooJ seJeototy ocuvlty
A5nkA 5ommet ooJ wlotet comfott 2ooes
ASP8AL ComforL Zones
Cpumal MeLhod for ueLermlnlng AccepLable 1hermal Condluons ln naLurally
Condluoned Spaces
SulLable for Locauons wlLh mean monLhly ouLdoor LemperaLure beLween 10-33.3
C
AnSl/ASP8AL SLandard 33-2004, 1hermal LnvlronmenLal Condluons for Puman Cccupancy
8/1/11 24 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Cpnm|z|ng energy use for therma| comfort
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
1emperature
ke|anve hum|d|ty
So|ar kad|anon
W|nd Speed and D|recnon
M|sce||aneous factors
Interna| Iactors (Loads)
eop|e
Lqu|pments
L|ghts
asslve
SLraLegles
Acuve
SLraLegles
ApproprlaLe
orlenLauon
Shadlng devlces
uayllghL deslgn
1hermal mass
(ume lag)
lans
Lvaporauve
Coolers
Alr-
Condluoners
8/1/11 23 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
1emperature
ury 8ulb 1emperaLure: amblenL alr LemperaLure
WeL 8ulb 1emperaLure: LemperaLure aL whlch waLer (llquld or solld), by evaporaung
lnLo molsL alr aL dry-bulb LemperaLure L and humldlLy rauo W, can brlng alr Lo
saLurauon adlabaucally aL Lhe same LemperaLure L* whlle LoLal pressure p ls consLanL.
CuLdoor alr LemperaLure ls a ma[or cllmauc varlable aecung energy demand
1he lndlces used Lo reecL demand for energy are usually dlscussed ln Lerms of
"degree days"
Peaung uegree uays (Puu) & Coollng uegree uays (Cuu)
PeaL 1ransfer beLween Lhe bulldlng envelope & exLernal envlronmenL deLermlnes Lhe heaung/
coollng needs for Lhe bulldlng
Lnergy demand ls dlrecLly proporuonal Lo Lhe number of Puu/Cuu
SCUkCL: ASP8AL Pandbook lundamenLals 2003
8/1/11 26 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
1emperature
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
8/1/11 27 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
ke|anve num|d|ty
Alr humldlLy, whlch represenLs Lhe amounL of molsLure presenL ln Lhe alr, ls usually
expressed ln Lerms of 'relauve humldlLy' ( Lxpressed as a percenLage )
ln areas wlLh hlgh humldlLy levels :
1ransmlsslon of solar radlauon ls reduced
Lvaporauon ls reduced
Plgh humldlLy accompanled by hlgh amblenL LemperaLure causes dlscomforL
8/1/11 28 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
[ect of blqb tempetotote ooJ blqb bomlJlty
cooses Jlscomfott ls petspltouoo ls oot JlsslpoteJ - olt
movemeot by ctoss veoulouoo coo teJoce Jlscomfott
[ect of blqb tempetotote ooJ low bomlJlty [ect of low tempetotote ooJ blqb bomlJlty
uty olt leoJs to fostet tote of evopotouoo lf occompooleJ
by blqb tempetotote tesoluoq lo JebyJtouoo ooJ beot
sttoke - evopotouve coolloq coo ptovlJe comfott
kesolts lo cooJeosouoo occottloq oo coolet slJe of sotfoce
- moy leoJ to Jetetlotouoo of bollJloq motetlols
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
ke|anve num|d|ty
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
8/1/11 29 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
So|ar kad|anon
Clobal Solar 8adlauon ComponenLs (ulrecL and ulused )
8ulldlng Solar Caln (ulrecL and lndlrecL)
8/1/11 30 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ultect qolo loJltect qolo 5oopotb Jloqtom
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
So|ar kad|anon
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
8/1/11 31 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
W|nd Speed & D|recnon
Wlnd ls Lhe movemenL of alr due Lo a dlerence ln aLmospherlc pressure, caused
by dlerenual heaung of land and waLer mass on Lhe earLh's surface by solar
radlauon and roLauon of earLh
Wlnd speed ls expressed ln m/s and measured by a anemomeLer
AecLs lndoor comforL condluons by lnuenclng Lhe convecuve heaL exchanges of
a bulldlng envelope
lmpacLs venulauon and lnlLrauon raLes
8/1/11 32 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
1ettolo ooJ mossloq of bollJloqs o[ect wloJ speeJ
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
W|nd Speed & D|recnon
SCUkCL: W8loL vlew, Lakes LnvlronmenLal Soware
8/1/11 33 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
Mlscellaneous
rec|p|tanon
reclplLauon lncludes waLer ln all lLs
forms raln, snow, hall or dew
lL ls usually measured ln mllllmeLers
(mm) by uslng a raln gauge
C|oud Cover
8egulaLes Lhe amounL of solar radlauon reachlng Lhe earLh's surface. 1hus a cloudy day ls cooler
Lhan a day we have a clear sky. Slmllarly aL nlghL when Lhe earLh ls ln coollng mode lL cools o
qulckly under Lhe clear sky Lhan a cloudy one
Atmospher|c ressure
1he raLe aL whlch a human body can cool lLself depends upon Lhe raLe aL whlch lL can evaporaLe
sweaL from Lhe body surface and ALmospherlc pressure ls an lmporLanL parameLer ln deLermlnlng
Lvaporauon raLe
8/1/11 34 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kolofoll lo wotmet teqloos teoJs to cool sttoctote ooJ sottoooJloqs
CllmaLe Zones
laces wlLh slmllar pauerns of comblnauons of Lhese cllmauc facLors over
ume, are sald Lo belong Lo Lhe same cllmaLe zone
8ased on Lhese facLors our counLry can be dlvlded lnLo ve cllmauc zones.
PoL and ury
Warm and Pumld
1emperaLe
Cold (Sunny/Cloudy)
ComposlLe
8ureau of lndlan SLandards, nauonal 8ulldlng Code of lndla 2003, arL 8 8ulldlng Servlces, Secuon 1 Llghung and venulauon
8/1/11 33 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
CllmaLe Zones
not and Dry Warm and num|d 1emperate Co|d (Sunny]c|oudy) Compos|te
1emperature Plgh ModeraLely hlgh
durlng Lhe day and
nlghL
ModeraLe ModeraLe summer
LemperaLure and very
low wlnLer LemperaLure
Plgh ln summer and
very Low ln wlnLer
num|d|ty and
ka|nfa||
Low Plgh ModeraLe Low ln cold- sunny and
hlgh ln cold- cloudy
Low ln summer and
hlgh ln monsoons
So|ar kad|anon
and sky cond|nons
lnLense as sky ls
mosLly clear
ulused when sky
ls cloud covered
and lnLense when
sky ls clear
Same LhroughouL
Lhe year and sky ls
generally clear
Plgh ln cold- sunny and
low ln cold- cloudy
Plgh ln all seasons
excepL monsoons
W|nd PoL durlng Lhe day
and cool aL nlghL
Calm Lo very hlgh
wlnds from
prevalllng wlnd
dlrecuon
Plgh wlnds durlng
summers
dependlng on
Lopography
Cold wlnds ln wlnLer PoL wlnds ln summer,
cold wlnds ln wlnLer
and sLrong wlnds ln
monsoons
SCUkCL: 8ansal, n. k. & C. Mlnke (1990), Cllmauc Zones and 8ural Pouslng ln lndla. !eullch, Cermany, krlshan, A., n. ?. 8aker & S. v. Szokolay (2001), CllmaLe 8esponslve ArchlLecLure: A
ueslgn Pandbook for Lnergy LmclenL 8ulldlngs, 1aLa McCraw Plll
8/1/11 36 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
CllmaLe Zones
1he number of degree days ln a regular 24 hour perlod ls deLermlned by Lhe dlerence
beLween Lhe base LemperaLure and Lhe average of Lhe hlgh and low LemperaLures for
a speclc day
not and Dry
AbmeJoboJ
Warm and
num|d
kolkoto
1emperate
8ooqolote
Co|d (Sunny]
c|oudy)
Coobou
Compos|te
New uelbl
neanng Degree Days base 10 C
(nDD
10.0
)
0 0 0 0 1
neanng Degree Days base 18.3
C (nDD18.3)
11 16 0 37 286
Coo||ng Degree Days base 10 C
(CDD10.0)
6466 6081 3163 3329 3767
Coo||ng Degree Days base 18.3
C (CDD18.3)
3433 3036 2121 2344 3011
8/1/11 37 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Interna| factors (|oads)
eop|e
1 person = 1 x 100W llghL bulb heaL ouLpuL
SCUkCL: ASP8AL Pandbook lundamenLals 2003
8/1/11 38 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kepteseotouve totes ot wblcb beot ooJ molstote ote qlveo o[ by bomoo beloqs lo Jl[eteot stotes of ocuvlty
Interna| factors (|oads)
Lqu|pment
SCUkCL: ASP8AL Pandbook lundamenLals 2003
8/1/11 39 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kecommeoJeJ totes of beot qolo ftom typlcol commetclol cookloq oppllooces
kecommeoJeJ beot qolo ftom typlcol compotet epolpmeot
Interna| factors (|oads)
L|ghts
SCUkCL: L Source 1echnology ALlas Serles, volume l Llghung (2003)
8/1/11 40 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
8ollJloq beot qolo ftom Jl[eteot llqbt sootces
wltb ptopet qlozloq selecuoo lo o bollJloq, Joyllqbt wlll coottlbote fot less beot pet oolt of llqbt JellveteJ to tbe lotetlot tboo electtlc llqbts Jo.
8u||d|ng neat 1ransfer
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8adlauon
neot tronsfer due to
temperoture digerence
ond moterio/ propernes
shorLwave
Long wave
Convecuon
neot tronsfer due to oir monon ond temp
digerence
Noturo/ or Possive convecnon
{cross venn/onon & 5tock gect)
lorced convecnon
{use of fons to ossist oirfow)
Conducuon
neot tronsfer due to moterio/s in
contoct ond temperoture
digerence
1C1AL LNVLLCL nLA1 1kANSILk = Conducnon + Convecnon + kad|anon
8/1/11 41 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
8u||d|ng neat 1ransfer
uay 1lme PeaL 1ransfer
neot 1toosfet tokes ploce ftom Ou15lu
1O lN5lu of tbe bollJloq (1oot > 1lo)
nlghL 1lme PeaL 1ransfer
neot 1toosfet tokes ploce ftom lN5lu to
Ou15lu of tbe bollJloq (1oot < 1lo)
8/1/11 42 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Conducuon
1ransfer of Lnergy due Lo lnLernal vlbrauons of molecules, wlLhouL a neL dlsplacemenL
of Lhe molecules Lhemselves
O = neot ttoosfet tbtooqb cooJocuoo
u ot u-foctot = Ovetoll beot ttoosfet co-e[cleot (w/(m2k)
A = 5otfoce oteo
Jelto 1 = 1empetotote Jl[eteoce octoss sotfoce, 1
lo
(
l
) - 1
oot
(
s
) (k)
LC8C regulaLes Lhe u-facLor
Surface area ls deLermlned by bulldlng deslgn
uelLa 1 ls deLermlned by cllmauc condluons
lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8/1/11 43 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Conducuon
8educe u-facLor
rovlde adequaLe lnsulauon based on cllmaLe zone (8au & 8lankeLs , Loose llll, 8lgld,
or 8eecuve sysLems)
AdopL cavlLy consLrucuon Lo lncrease lnsulauon properLy of roof/wall
8educe exposed surface area (A)
Mlnlmlze exposed surface area of walls and roof ln hoL cllmaLes, and maxlmlze
exposed surface areas ln cold cllmaLes
8egulaLe 1hermosLaL Semngs (uelLa-1)
Cpumlze LemperaLure dlerence beLween lndoor and ouLdoor whlle malnLalnlng
Lhermal comforL
CLher Lnergy Lmclency 1lps for 8oofs and Walls
Apply llghL colored surface nlshes Lo lncrease solar reecuvlLy
Shelf shadlng of exposed wall surfaces Lhrough bulldlng form
8/1/11 44 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Convecuon
PeaL Lransfer ln gases and llqulds. Lxample: Warm alr rlslng (or cool alr falllng) on
a wall's lnslde surface, lnduclng alr movemenL.
llux due Lo local LemperaLure and denslLy dlerences (naLural or free convecuon)
or due Lo mechanlcal devlces (forced convecuon)
PeaL Lransfer by convecuon Lakes place aL Lhe surfaces of walls, oors and roofs
lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
O
c
= neot ttoosfet tbtooqb coovecuoo
b
cv
= neot 1toosfet coe[cleot

s
=1empetotote of tbe sotfoce

f
=1empetotote of tbe folJ
convecnon neot tronsfer coegcient in oir h
cv
in w/
m
2
k
lree 3 - 10
lorced 10 - 100
0
s
0
f
8/1/11 43 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Convecuon
venulauon
lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla, 8ureau of lndlan SLandards, nauonal 8ulldlng Code of lndla 2003, arL 8 8ulldlng Servlces, Secuon 3 Alr Condluonlng, Peaung and Mechanlcal venulauon
O
v
= neot ttoosfet tbtooqb veoulouoo
p= ueoslty of olt (kq/m
J
)
v
t
= veoulouoo tote (m
J
/s)
c= 5peclfc beot of olt (I/kq-k)
A1= 1empetotote Jl[eteoce (
s
-
f
) (k)
4pp/iconon 4ir chonqe per nour
Assembly rooms 4-8
8akerles 20-30
8anks/bulldlng socleues 4-8
8aLhrooms 6-10
8edrooms 2-4
8llllard rooms 6-8
8oller rooms 13-30
Cafes and coee bars 10-12
CanLeens 8-12
Cellars 3-10
8/1/11 46 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kecommeoJeJ voloes fot olt cbooqes
8adlauon
1ransporL of energy by elecLromagneuc waves. no maLerlal oLher Lhan Lhe surfaces
exchanglng energy need be presenL for radlauon Lo occur.
kad|anon (vlo 1toospoteot sotfoce)
Where:
5nCc = solot beot qolo coe[cleot

t
= loclJeot solot toJlouoo
A = oteo of ttoospoteot elemeot
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla, krelder, !. l., Arl 8abl & eLer Curuss (2002), Peaung and coollng of bulldlngs: deslgn for emclency. McCraw-Plll
8/1/11 47 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
8adlauon
Solar 8adlauon = 8eecuon + Absorpuon+ 1ransmlsslon
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
p
r
o
8/1/11 48 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
8/1/11 49 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
uayllghL peneLrauon and fenesLrauon
deslgn has lmpllcauons on heaL galn/loss
Lhrough Lhe bulldlng
ulrecLly lmpacLs energy use for
elecLrlc llghung and PvAC
Careful orlenLauon of fenesLrauon can
help achleve Lhermal and vlsual comforL
uayllghL harvesung Lhrough Lhe norLh
and souLh faades should be maxlmlzed
ln order Lo reduce llghung elecLrlcal
loads
8/1/11 30 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
LxcellenL
very Cood
Cood
v
e
r
y

8
a
d

N
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
8educe heaL galn and coollng
energy use
LllmlnaLe glare & reduce conLrasL
rauos
Lnhance vlsual comforL
SCUkCL: PaLhy, lassan, WalLer Shearer & Abdal-8ahmn SulLn (1986) ,naLural energy and vernacular archlLecLure: prlnclples and examples wlLh reference Lo hoL arld cllmaLes, unlverslLy of
Chlcago ress
8/1/11 31 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
1ypes of Shadlng devlces
LxLerlor uevlces
- use horlzonLal form for souLh wlndows
- verucal form for easL and wesL wlndows
- rlorlLy Lo wesL and souLh shadlng
- Shadlng on norLh needed for glare conLrol
lnLerlor uevlces
- LlmlLed ablllLy Lo reduce heaL galn
- LlghL colours Lo reecL heaL back ouL
- 8esL opuon for glare conLrol
llxed vs. Cperable
- Cperable shades maxlmlze adapLablllLy
- Comblne muluple shadlng sLraLegles for
maxlmum beneL
SCUkCL: 1lps for uayllghung wlLh Wlndows: 1he lnLegraLed Approach, L8nL-39943, Lawrence 8erkeley nauonal LaboraLory, unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, CA
8/1/11 32 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
vetucol loovets ot
fos fot eost ooJ
especlolly west
focoJes
5lope lt Jowo fot less
ptojecuoo
use loovets lo ploce
of sollJ ovetbooq fot
mote Jl[ose llqbt
wblle sull sboJloq
8teok op oo
ovetbooq fot less
ptojecuoo
5tooJotJ botlzootol
ovetbooq
utop tbe eJqe fot
less ptojecuoo
5obsutote loovets
fot tbe sollJ JtoppeJ
eJqe to let lo mote
llqbt
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
1hermal mass (Lhermal capaclLance or heaL capaclLy) ls Lhe capaclLy of a body Lo sLore heaL (!/
C or !/k)
lor a homogeneous maLerlal, Lhermal mass ls slmply Lhe mass of maLerlal presenL umes Lhe
speclc heaL capaclLy of LhaL maLerlal. Speclc PeaL (c) values (aL room LemperaLure) for:
Alr = 1006 !/(kg.k)
WaLer = 4187 !/(kg.k)
Cr, Lo warm up 1 LlLer waLer aL 14,3C by 1 k, 4187 ! ls needed
1hermal mass provldes "lnerua" agalnsL LemperaLure ucLuauons, someumes known as Lhe
1IML LAG
8/1/11 33 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
1hermal mass can be used eecuvely Lo
absorb dayume heaL galns (reduclng coollng
load) and release Lhe heaL durlng Lhe nlghL
(reduclng heaL load)
8/1/11 34 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
Appropr|ate or|entanon
Shad|ng dev|ces
1herma| mass
1radluonal Lypes of Lhermal mass lnclude
waLer, rock, earLh, brlck, concreLe, cemenL,
ceramlc ule eLc.
SCUkCL: 8ureau of lndlan SLandards (1988), Pandbook on luncuonal 8equlremenLs of 8ulldlngs (CLher Lhan lndusLrlal 8ulldlngs) (S : 41)
Spec|hc neat kI](kg.k) Dens|ty kg]m
3
Conducnv|ty 'k' W](m.k) kes|snv|ty '1]k' k.m]W
WaLer 4.187 1000 0.38 1.72
8urnL 8rlck 0.88 1820 0.811 1.23
uense ConcreLe 0.88 2410 1.74 0.37
1lmber 1.68 480 0.072 13.89
8/1/11 33 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
ComforL can be achleved for subsLanual parL of Lhe day, week, monLh,
year, ln a passlve manner
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
8/1/11 36 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Appllcoblllty of lA55lv 51kA1Cl5 towotJs
molotololoq comfottoble ombleot cooJluoos
lo 1MlkA1 cllmote
ass|ve Strateg|es
not and Dry Warm and num|d
1emperate Co|d (Sunny]c|oudy) Compos|te
SCUkCL: CllmaLe ConsulLanL Soware
8/1/11 37 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Acnve Strateg|es
When passlve sLraLegles do noL provlde requlred comforL condluons Lhey
are supplemenLed wlLh acuve sLraLegles:
Ians
Lvaporanve coo|ers
A|r-cond|noners
8/1/11 38 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Acnve Strateg|es
lans
1he mosL common - leasL expenslve, leasL power lnLenslve
lncrease Lhe raLe of evaporauon from Lhe skln by lncreaslng Lhe a|r speed near
Lhe occupanL
Lvaporauve coolers
SulLable for hoL and dry condluons (due Lo hlgh raLe of evaporauon ln such
cllmaLes)
Alr-condluoners
MalnLaln boLh LemperaLure and humldlLy wlLhln Lhe space and are mosL energy
lnLenslve
8/1/11 39 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
V|sua| Comfort
8ulldlng hyslcs
Iactors that aect v|sua| comfort
I||um|nanon maLched Lo Lask requlremenLs
ldeally wlLh Lhe use of dayllghL as far as posslble
G|are
V|ew (connecuon Lo ouLdoors)
8/1/11 61 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
lllumlnauon
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8/1/11 62 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
1erm Symbol unlL
Lumlnous ux f lm
Lumlnous lnLenslLy l cd (lm/sr)
I||um|nance L lx (lm/m
2
)
Lum|nance L cd/m
2
Lum|nous emcacy r lm/W

lllumlnauon
I||um|nance
uescrlbes Lhe quanuLy of lumlnous ux falllng on a surface
Measured ln lux (lx)
uecreases by Lhe square of Lhe dlsLance (lnverse square law)
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8/1/11 63 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
lllumlnauon
I||um|nance
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8/1/11 64 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kecommeoJeJ loJoot lox levels OotJoot lox levels
lllumlnauon
Lum|nance
1he only baslc llghung parameLer
LhaL ls percelved by Lhe eye
Cb[ecuve base of percepuon of
brlghLness
Specles Lhe brlghLness of a surface
and ls essenually dependenL on lLs
reecLance (nlsh and colour)
SCUkCL: lrom lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs" presenLauon prepared by unlv. rof. ur. A. Mahdavl, ueparLmenL of 8ulldlng hyslcs and 8ulldlng Lcology, vlenna unlverslLy of 1echnology,
vlenna, AusLrla
8/1/11 63 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
lllumlnauon
Lum|nous Lmcacy
Lnergy emclency of llghung sysLems
ls measured ln Lerms of 'Lumlnous
Lmcacy'.
1he Lumlnous Lmcacy ls Lhe rauo of
Lhe lumlnous ux Lo Lhe elecLrlcal
power consumed (lm/W)
lL ls a measure of a lamp's economlc
emclency
SCUkCL: L Source 1echnology ALlas Serles, volume l Llghung (2003)
8/1/11 66 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
lomp e[cocy of mojot llqbt sootces
Clare
Plgh lumlnance levels or large
lumlnance dlerences ln Lhe
eld of vlew
ulmculLy seelng ln Lhe presence of
llghL
vlsual ComforL = no CLA8L
lnuence lacLors
Lumlnance of source
Slze of source
osluon of source
SLaLe of adapuon
- (8rlghLness of 8ackground)
8/1/11 67 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
DIkLC1 GLAkL
L|ght source |n he|d of v|ew
kLILLC1LD GLAkL
keecnon of a ||ght source
Clare
8/1/11 68 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Connecuon Lo ouLdoors (vlew)
1lps for uayllghung wlLh Wlndows: 1he lnLegraLed Approach, L8nL-39943, Lawrence 8erkeley nauonal LaboraLory, unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, CA
8/1/11 69 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Obsttocuoo loctot (Ol)
Space character|sncs
lenesLrauon
Locauon
osluon
ueslgn - glazlng, shadlng
8oom surfaces - color, LexLure
Space plan
Cccupant behav|our
naLure of acuvlLy (Llghung requlremenLs)
ConLrols
L|ectr|ca| L|ghnng
Cpnm|z|ng energy use for v|sua| comfort
Lxterna| Iactors (C||mate)
- Day||ght Ava||ab|||ty
- 8u||d|ng S|te and Cbstrucnons
Interna| Iactors (Loads)
asslve
SLraLegles
Acuve
SLraLegles
ApproprlaLe
orlenLauon
SkyllghLs, aLrla
LlemenLs - llghL
shelves, reecLors,
louvers, bllnds
lenesLrauon ueslgn
- Clazlng selecuon
LlghL LransporL
sysLems
LmclenL
elecLrlcal llghung
Llghung conLrols
8/1/11 70 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors
Day||ght ava||ab|||ty
Sky lumlnance
Sky Lype - Cloudlness
SCUkCL: hup://www.saLelllghL.com/gulde/advlum.hLm
8/1/11 71 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
A5kc-cl lomloooce Jlsttlbouoo fot tbe foot boslc moJels (kcJ/m
2
)
c/oud/ess c/oud/ess 1urbid
lntermediote Overcost
Lxterna| Iactors
Day||ght ava||ab|||ty
AluLude
lauLude
azlmuLh
SCUkCL: Ml1 CpenCourseWare hup://ocw.mlL.edu/courses/archlLecLure/
8/1/11 72 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
Lxterna| Iactors
8u||d|ng S|te and Cbstrucnons
SCUkCL: hup://naLuralfrequency.com/arucles/smarLmodelllng, hup://www.ecohomemagazlne.com/energy-emclency/masLerlng-sldellghL.aspx
8/1/11 73 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
8u||d|ng form and sk|n
lorm (lncrease perlmeLer)
CrlenLauon
SkyllghLs, aLrla
SCUkCL: Whole 8ulldlng ueslgn Culde hup://www.wbdg.org/resources/dayllghung.php, LC8C user Culde, uSAlu LCC-lll ro[ecL, new uelhl
8/1/11 74 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
8u||d|ng form and sk|n
lncrease exposure Lo dayllghL
Shape bulldlng for self-shadlng
1ake a deep faade approach
lncorporaLe envelope feaLures LhaL lmprove uayllghung
8alance dayllghL admluance
SCUkCL: 1lps for uayllghung wlLh Wlndows: 1he lnLegraLed Approach, L8nL-39943, Lawrence 8erkeley nauonal LaboraLory, unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, CA
8/1/11 73 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ueep woll secuoo ptovlJes self-sboJloq, ollows eosy
loteqtouoo of llqbt sbelf, cteotes sotfoces tbot
mluqote qlote, ooJ teJoces oolse ttoosmlssloo.
5lopeJ sotfoces olso belp sofeo qlote.
5lopeJ sotfoces, socb os tbls sployeJ wloJow opeoloq,
belp sofeo qlote. 1bese sotfoces sboolJ be llqbt-
coloteJ obJ ptovlJe oo lotetmeJlote btlqbtoess
betweeo wloJow ooJ toom sotfoces, mokloq oo eoslet
ttoosluoo fot tbe eye.
ass|ve Strateg|es
koom
Ienestranon
Locauon
osluon
ueslgn
- Cverhangs
- LlghL shelves
- Louvers
- 8llnds
SCUkCL: 1lps for uayllghung wlLh Wlndows: 1he lnLegraLed Approach, L8nL-39943, Lawrence 8erkeley nauonal LaboraLory, unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, CA
8/1/11 76 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
ass|ve Strateg|es
koom
Surfaces
Plgh surface reecuvlLy of Lhe
Celllng, Walls and lloor decreases
Lhe need for powered llghung and
Lhus reduces Lhe elecLrlclLy
consumpuon
1he gure on Lhe rlghL shows Lhls
ln Lhe Lerms of Lhe reduced 40 W
uorescenL Lubes
SCUkCL: 8ureau of lndlan SLandards, nauonal 8ulldlng Code of lndla 2003, arL 8 8ulldlng Servlces, Secuon 1 Llghung and venulauon
foot oteo
wloJow oteo
x 100
Opeoloqs, letceot =
8/1/11 77 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
5opplemeototy otufclol llqbuoq fot 40w llootesceot
tobes
ass|ve Strateg|es
Systems
G|az|ng
- 1lnLed
- 8eecuve
- Low-e
- SpecLrally selecuve
1rode-og between so/or heot qoin ond doy/iqht
SCUkCL: L Source 1echnology ALlas Serles, volume l Llghung (2003), 1lps for uayllghung wlLh Wlndows: 1he lnLegraLed Approach, L8nL-39943, Lawrence 8erkeley nauonal LaboraLory,
unlverslLy of Callfornla, 8erkeley, CA
8/1/11 78 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
1otol solot ooJ vlslble llqbt ttoosmlssloos fot selecteJ qlozloq oolts
Clozloq oolts wltb blqb vlslble llqbt ttoosmlssloo ooJ low solot beot qolo coe[cleots (5nCc, tbe ftocuoo of tbe
loclJeot solot eoetqy ttoosmlueJ tbtooqb o wloJow) ote best fot Joyllqbuoq lo bollJloqs JomlooteJ by coolloq
looJs.
[ecuve opettote
[ecuve opettote (A) = vlslble ttoosmluooce (v1) \ wloJow-to-
woll touo (wwk). 1bese tbtee wloJows oll bove tbe some A of
0.26
Acnve Strateg|es
Lnergy-emc|ent e|ectr|c ||ghnng based on
1ask
Level of quallLy deslred
AmounL of llghL requlred
SCUkCL: L Source 1echnology ALlas Serles, volume l Llghung (2003)
8/1/11 79 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
A btlef blstoty of llqbuoq
1be compoct footesceot lomp bos lmptoveJ tbe ptoJoct e[cocy ooJ llfeume 50-folJ os compoteJ wltb tbe
tooqsteo-flomeot lomp ooJ by bolf o mlllloo compoteJ wltb tbe cooJle.
lu opetouoo
Acnve Strateg|es
Use of ||ghnng contro|s
Cn-o conLrols
Manual swlLches
Llapsed-ume swlLches
Clock swlLches
LMS (Lnergy ManagemenL SysLems) conLrols
hoLocell conLrols
Cccupancy conLrols
SwlLched power sLrlps
ulmmlng conLrols
ower reducers
SLepped-dlmmlng conLrols
Conunuous-dlmmlng conLrols
SCUkCL: L Source 1echnology ALlas Serles, volume l Llghung (2003)
8/1/11 80 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
kepteseotouve seosot covetoqe Jloqtom
ulttosoolc seosots coo Jetect mouoo ot ooy polot wltblo tbe cootoot lloes sbowo lo tbe qtopb.
loftoteJ seosots see ooly lo tbe weJqe-sbopeJ zooes ooJ tbey qeoetolly Joot see os fot os
olttosoolc oolts. 5ome seosots ote fottbet sttolqbt obeoJ tboo to tbe slJe. 1be tooqes sbowo
bete ote tepteseotouve, some seosots moy be mote ot less seosluve.
Lnd of MCDULL
lntroducnon
Purpose of 8ui/dinqs
1hermo/ comfort
visuo/ comfort
8/1/11 81 LC8C 1ralnlng Workshop: lnLroducuon Lo 8ulldlng hyslcs
comfott lotometets
lsycbtomettlc cbott
1betmol comfott loJlces
Opumlzloq eoetqy ose fot
tbetmol comfott
xtetool loctots (cllmote)
lotetool loctots (looJs)
8ollJloq neot 1toosfet
losslve 5ttoteqles
Acuve 5ttoteqles
loctots tbot o[ect vlsool comfott
Opumlzloq eoetqy ose fot vlsool
comfott
xtetool loctots
lotetool loctots
losslve 5ttoteqles
Acuve 5ttoteqles
ro[ect Gu|dance Content Deve|opment 1echn|ca| Consu|tants
uSAlu/lndla
ur. Archana Walla
8ureau of Lnergy Lmclency
ur. A[ay MaLhur
Mr. San[ay SeLh
uSAlu LCC-lll ro[ecL
ur. Saush kumar
SanyoglLa Manu
Aalok ueshmukh
8avl kapoor
vasudha LaLhey
Shruu narayan
Anurag 8a[pal
Contact Informanon
USAID]Ind|a
Amerlcan Lmbassy
Chanakyapurl
new uelhl 110021
1: +91-11-2419-8000
l: +91-11-2419-8434
8ureau of Lnergy Lmc|ency
CovernmenL of lndla
MlnlsLry of ower
4
Lh
lloor, SLWA 8hawan
8. k. uram, new uelhl 110066
1: +91-11-2617-9699
l: +91-11-2617-8332
WebslLe: www.bee-lndla.nlc.ln
USAID LCC-III ro[ect
AAul 8ulldlng
Lower Cround lloor
2 8alblr Saxena Marg
Pauz khas, new uelhl 110016
1: +91-11-4397-4397
l: +91-11-2683-3114
Lmall: eco3[lrgssa.com
WebslLe: www.eco3.org