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Name: Choong Mel June Student ID: 12WAD00443 Group: AA1 Subject: AACB3214 Biodiversity and Ecology Date:

13 February 2013 Experiment 2 Title: Variation in leaf morphology Aim: 1. 2. To observe the variation in the leaves found in TAR College Campus. To observe the characteristics of the leaves found in TAR College Campus.

Introduction: Leaves are the major site for photosynthesis in most plants. These leaves have a flat blade specialized for catching sunlight. Leaves also collect carbon dioxide from the air. Leaves vary greatly from plant to plant and are useful in classification and identification. (a) Leaf parts: Any of these parts may be lacking or reduced. Blade - The expanded portion of a leaf. Petiole - The leaf stalk connecting the blade to the stem. Stipules - A pair of appendages at the base of the petiole. They may protect the young leaf and may be modified into spines or tendrils. (b) Leaf characteristics: Simple leaves have a single blade. Compound leaves have more than one blade on a single petiole. The multiple blades of a compound leaf are called leaflets. Palmately compound leaves have leaflets arranged like the fingers of a hand. Pinnately compound leaves have leaflets arranged on either side of an axis, resembling a feather. Trifoliolate leaves have leaflets arranged in threes, like clover. Compound leaves are sometimes twice divided. These leaves are called twice-compound. (c) Leaf attachment: Petiolate - The blade is attached to the stem by a petiole. Sessile - The blade is attached directly to the stem without a petiole. (d) Leaf arrangement: Opposite - Two leaves grow opposite each other at each node. Alternate - One leaf grows at each node. The leaves alternate sides along the stem. Whorled - Several leaves grow around a single node. (e) Leaf shapes: Linear - Narrow from base to tip. Elliptic - Oval-shaped. Ovate - Wide at the base and narrow at the tip. Cordate - Heart-shaped. (f) Leaf margins: Entire - The edge of the leaf is smooth. Serrate - The edge of the leaf is finely toothed. Lobed - The edge of the leaf is deeply indented. (g) Leaf venation: The system of principal veins in the leaf blade. Parallel - Major veins arise at the base, remain more or less parallel, and converge at the tip of the leaf. Net-veined or Reticulate: Pinnate - Major veins diverge from one large mid-vein, with smaller network connections between. Palmate - Several large veins arise from the base of the leaf like the fingers of a hand. (h) Leaf surfaces: The presence or absence of hairs, the kinds of hairs, and the presence of other surface features, such as glands, combine to give many leaf characteristics. There are over 25 terms used to describe leaf surfaces. This amount of detail is beyond the scope of our class.

Materials: 1. Variety of leaves 2. Newspaper Methods: 1. An average of ten leaves was picked and the variations in leaf morphology were observed. 2. Observation was recorded. 3. The leaves were then preserved by using newspaper. Result: Observations were tabulated for five leaves in Table. Leaf Type of leaf Length Edge structure Tip Texture of leaf 1 Simple leaf Big (13.1cm) Ciliated, denticulated Blunt, apiculate Rough, presences of hair -Has pinnate venation. -Has a higher intensity of green colour on the surface of leaf compared to the bottom of leaf. 2 Simple leaf Small (1.7cm) Smooth Blunt, obtuse Smooth 3 Compound leaf Small (1.9cm) Lobed Rounded, obcordate Smooth 4 Simple leaf Big (9.2cm) Smooth Sharp, acute Smooth -Has pinnate venation. -Has red pigments on the surface of the leaf. 5 Simple leaf Big (11.3cm) Serrated Blunt, apiculate Smooth -Has palmate venation. -Has a higher intensity of green colour on the surface of leaf compared to the bottom of leaf.


-Has cordate shape. -Has palmate venation.

-Has ternate shape. -Has palmate venation.

Discussion: The leaves observed have some similarities and differences. . Leaves 1, 2, 4 and 5 are simple leaf while leaf 3 is a compound leaf. A simple leaf is a leaf blade that is one piece, although it may be deeply lobed, divided or dissected while a compound leaf is a leaf with 2 or more distinct leaflets. An axillary bud is present in the axil of a simple or a compound leaf, but it does not occur in the axils of the leaflet of a compound leaf. In terms of length, leaves 2 and 3 are considered as small because its length less than 3cm. Leaves 1, 4, 5 are longer than 8cm so considered as big. Furthermore, all the leaves observed have different edge structure. Leaf 1 has ciliated, denticulated edge. Leaves 2 and 4 have smooth edges. Leaf 3 has lobed edge. Meanwhile leaf 5 has serrated edge. Other differences between all five leaves are their tip of the leaf. The end tip of leaves 1, 2 and 5 are blunt compared to leaf 3 which the end tip of leaf is rounded. Whereby, leaf 4 is sharp in their end tip. By observing in more details, leaves 1 and 5 have apiculate tip where the tip have a short sharply pointed tip. For leaf 2, it has a obtuse tip where the tip tapered into a sharp firm point. Next, for leaf 3, it has an obcordate tip where the tip is inversely heart-shaped and deeply notched at the top. For leaf 4, it has an acute tip where the ending of tip in a sharp, but not prolonged point. All leaves have smooth texture except leaf 1. Leaf 1 has a rough texture and hairs are also presence on the surface of the leaf. The presence of hairs or leaf texture to hold a deeper boundary layer of air slows transpiration further. Besides, the functions of the plant hair are discouraging insect predators, reflecting sunlight, and insulating the plant body. It may also cause skin irritation when someone touches the leaves.

Apart from that, the leaves also vary in term of venation. Leaves 1 and 4 have pinnate venation. Meanwhile, leaves 2, 3 and 5 have palmate venation. Pinnate venation is vein arrangement in a leaf with one main vein extending from the base to the tip of the leaf and smaller veins branching off the main vein. Palmate venation is vein arrangement in a leaf with the veins radiating outward from the base of the leaf like fingers spread out from the palm of a hand. Not only that, leaves 1 and 5 have a higher intensity of green colour on the surface of leaf compared to the bottom of leaf. Leaf 2 has cordate shape while leaf 3 has ternate shape. Among all the leaves, only leaf 4 has red pigments on the surface of the leaf. Conclusion: Lots of different kinds of leaves are found in TAR College Campus. These variations of leaves are determined by types of leaf, length, sizes, shape, edge structure, texture on the surface and any other special features that found on the leaf.