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Freeboard calculation

The main purpose of the calculation is to find the freeboard draught (maximum allowable draught). The rule reference is the International Convention of Load Lines, 1966. The first step in freeboard calculation is deciding the type of freeboard. There are two kinds, Type 'A' and Type 'B' (defined in ICLL Regulation 27). Usually Type 'A' ships are the ones designed to carry liquid cargoes in bulk, where the cargo tanks have small assess openings. Because of small access to the cargo and lack of floodable volume after damage in case of a loaded ship, such ships can have a low freeboard compared to Type 'B' ships. Type 'B' ships are all the other ships other than Type 'A', and these have larger freeboard (or lower maximum draught). Oil tankers are usually Type A ships. But sometimes a tanker can be taken as a Type B ship, with larger freeboard when the cargo capacity is the limiting factor. In such tankers with a normal density cargo the maximum dead weight would be with a lower draught than the Type A ship, and near the Type B ship. In choosing Type B notation, the stringent damage stability calculation by ICLL need not be satisfied. One example is taken for calculation purpose. In this a 70,000 tons deadweight oil tanker is taken. Our aim is to find the maximum summer draught allowed, and to check the bow height. Once the summer draught is decided

Principal Particulars
LBP = 264.00 m BREADTH (MLD) = 48.00 m DEPTH (MLD) = 23.10 m

1. Type of Ship:
Freeboard : 'A" type of ship; Freeboard deck (ICLL Regulation 3): Upper deck

2. Dimensions
Freeboard length (Lf) = 265.152 m (ICLL Regulation 3) LWL (Length on waterline) at 85 % depth (mld) = 270.468 m LWL x 0.96 = 259.649 m Length from the fore side of the stem to the axis of the rudder stock on a waterline at 85 % depth (mld) = 265.152 m Amidship = Freeboard length / 2 = 132.576 m Freeboard depth (Df) = 23.119 m (ICLL Regulation 3) Design depth (mld) = 23.100 m Thickness of freeboard deck (stringer plate) = 0.019 m

Depth at 85 % depth (mld) = 19.635 m Thickness of keel plate = 0.021 m Volume (mld) at 85 % depth (mld) = 207,733 cu.m Block coefficient (Cb) at 85 % depth (mld) = 0.8313 (Regulation 3) Cb = f0 / (Lf x B x 0.85D) = 207,733 / (265.152 x 48 x 19.635) = 0.8313

3. Freeboard calculation
For Lf = 265,152 mm and Df = 23,119 mm and Type 'A' freeboard, refer the freeboard table A. Ft = 3,101 mm at Lf = 265,000 mm Ft = 3,102 mm at Lf = 265,152 mm Ft = 3,106 mm at Lf = 266,000 mm. Tabular freeboard (Ft) = 3,102 mm Correction for Cb (ICLL Regulation 30) = 3,447 mm Correction = Ft x (Cb + 0.68)/1.36
= 3102 x (0.8313 + 0.68)/1.36 = 3,447 mm

Correction for depth (ICLL Regulation 31) = 1,361 mm (Df - Lf/15) x R = (23.119 265.152/15) x 250 = 1,361 mm Correction for Sheer (ICLL Regulation 38) = 846 mm Aft half (standard), As = 25(Lf/3 + 10) x 1 + 11.1(Lf/3 + 10) x 3 + 2.8(Lf/3 + 10) x 3
= 2460 x 1 + 1092 x 3 + 275 x 3 = 6561

Aft half (Actual), Aa = at A.P x 1 + at Lf/6 x 3 + at Lf/3 x 3 + at miship x 1


= 683x 1 + 30 x 3 + 0 x 3 + 0 x 1 = 773

Fore half (standard), Fs = 5.6(Lf/3 + 10) x 3 + 22.2(Lf/3 + 10) x 3 + 50(Lf/3 + 10) x 1


= 551 x 3 + 2184 x 3 + 4919 x 1 = 13124

Fore half (Actual), Fa = at miship x 1 + x 1 + at Lf/3 x 3 + at Lf/6 x 3 + at F.P x 1


=0 x 1 + 0 x 3 + 7 x 3 + 854 x 1 = 875

Deficiency of sheer After sheer = (As - Aa)/8 =(6561 - 773)/8 = 724 mm Forward sheer = (Fs - Fa)/8 = (13124 - 875)/8 = 1531 mm Total deficiency of sheer = (724 + 1532)/2 = 1128

mm Correction for variations from standard sheer profile = (deficiency of sheer -sheer credit) x (0.75 - S/2Lf) = (1128 - 0) x (0.75 - 0/(2 x 265.152)) = 846 mm

4. Summary
(i) Tabular freeboard with correction for Cb = 3447 mm (ii) Correction for depth = 1361 mm (iii) Correction for superstructure and trunk = 0 mm (iv) Correction for sheer = 846 mm (1) Summer freeboard = (i) + (ii) + (iii) + (iv) = 5654 mm (2) Deck plate = 19 mm (3) Moulded depth = 23100 mm (4) Keel plate = 21 mm (5) Summer draft (mld) = (3) + (2) (1) = 17465 mm. This is the maximum possible. In this case a lower scantling draft is chosen to reduce the weight of the steel. (6) Scantling draft (mld) = 17050 mm (7) Scantling draft (ext) = (6) + (4) = 17071 mm (8) Proposed summer draft(mld) = 17050 mm (9) Summer freeboard = (3) - (8) + (2) = 6069 mm

5. Minimum Bow height


From ICLL Regulation 39, required bow height = 7000 x {1.36/(Cb + 0.68)} for Lf >= 250 m = 7000 x {1.36/(0.8313 + 0.68)} = 6299 mm Length of sheer / Lf = 0.186 (>0.15) The actual bow height on the ship = (Moulded depth at amidship) + (Forecastle height at FP) + Sheer at FP) + (Thickness of deck plate at FP) - (Summer draft) = 23100 + 0 + 854 + 15 - 17050 = 6919 mm Actual bow height > Required minimum bow height

6. Freeboard mark
Once the summer draft is decided, the other (winter, fresh water, tropical fresh water) drafts can be calculated using ICLL Regulation 40 as: Tropical Freeboard = Summer freeboard - (Summer draft (mld) / 48 ) = 6069 - 17050/48 = 6069 - 355 = 5714 mm Winter Freeboard = Summer freeboard + (Summer draft (mld) / 48 ) = 6069 + 17050/48 = 6069 + 355 = 6424 mm Fresh water Freeboard = Summer freeboard - f0 / (40 x TPC) = 606.9 - 18265.5 / (40 x 118.29)= 606.9 - 38.6 = 568.3 cm = 5683 mm

Tropical Fresh water Freeboard = Fresh water freeboard - (Summer draft (mld) / 48 ) = 5683 - 17050/48 = 5683 - 355 = 5328 mm Now from the above data, and using the Classification symbol (AB for American Bureau of Shipping here), the load line mark (plimsoll mark) is drawn. For other Classification societies it is NV for Det Norske Veritas, LR for Lloyds Register of Shipping, NK for Class NK.