You are on page 1of 8

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S.

AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

SAE TECHNICAL PAPER SERIES

1999-01-1662

Analysis and Development of Inline Helmholtz Resonator through Computer Simulation for Elimination of Low Frequency Intake Noise Character
Swati M. Athavale and P. R. Sajanpawar
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India.

Reprinted From: Proceedings of the 1999 Noise and Vibration Conference (P-342)

Noise and Vibration Conference & Exposition Traverse City, Michigan May 17-20, 1999
400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096-0001 U.S.A. Tel: (724) 776-4841 Fax: (724) 776-5760

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

The appearance of this ISSN code at the bottom of this page indicates SAEs consent that copies of the paper may be made for personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition, however, that the copier pay a $7.00 per article copy fee through the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. Operations Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 for copying beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the U.S. Copyright Law. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying such as copying for general distribution, for advertising or promotional purposes, for creating new collective works, or for resale. SAE routinely stocks printed papers for a period of three years following date of publication. Direct your orders to SAE Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department. Quantity reprint rates can be obtained from the Customer Sales and Satisfaction Department. To request permission to reprint a technical paper or permission to use copyrighted SAE publications in other works, contact the SAE Publications Group.

All SAE papers, standards, and selected books are abstracted and indexed in the Global Mobility Database

No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, in an electronic retrieval system or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. ISSN 0148-7191 Copyright 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Positions and opinions advanced in this paper are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of SAE. The author is solely responsible for the content of the paper. A process is available by which discussions will be printed with the paper if it is published in SAE Transactions. For permission to publish this paper in full or in part, contact the SAE Publications Group. Persons wishing to submit papers to be considered for presentation or publication through SAE should send the manuscript or a 300 word abstract of a proposed manuscript to: Secretary, Engineering Meetings Board, SAE.

Printed in USA

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

1999-01-1662

Analysis and Development of Inline Helmholtz Resonator through Computer Simulation for Elimination of Low Frequency Intake Noise Character
Swati M. Athavale and P. R. Sajanpawar
The Automotive Research Association of India, Pune, India.
Copyright 1999 Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.

ABSTRACT
The air induction system of an automobile engine contributes to the noise level generated by a passenger car. The contribution is significant in the perception of vehicle noise quality. There is a great value in reducing and controlling passenger car air induction noise. Helmholtz resonators are widely used for noise reduction in vehicle induction and exhaust system. These resonators are usually mounted as side branch volumes to the main induction system, occupying larger space. The design presented here describes the use of compact inline Helmholtz resonator (Patent application no. 190/ Bombay/98) for elimination of low frequency noise character in passenger car. Finite element model of the acoustic cavity of induction system along with the inline resonator is made. The transmission loss characteristics computed analytically correlates very well with the experimental transmission loss characteristics. The principle function of the new inline resonator is the reduction of low frequency character of inlet noise. The potential for improved engine performance is also discussed. The resonator is packaged in unique way to occupy available space under the hood.

the piston motion downward. Closing of inlet valve produces similar oscillations which are relatively undamped. The noise generated by induction system is usually in the low frequency region and it is difficult to attenuate by using absorption or cancellation principles or use of expansion chambers. The space available for such chamber is another constraint. According to the literature available so far on the intake noise reduction, the technique currently used to reduce air induction noise include the use of expansion chambers, absorption or cancellation principle. [2,3,4,5,6] Expansion chambers can be simply applied by using large, high volume air cleaners. The major drawback of the high volume air cleaner is the quantity and quality of space that it requires. The design envelope of air cleaners and ducting is restricted by the compression of the underhood packaging due to current design trends that continue to shorten and lower the hood. Also, air cleaner and ducting are typically the last components to be engineered and packaged further restricting available space. Properly applied absorption system can yield insertion losses of 2 to 5 dB across the operating range of engine at inlet. Space requirements are again a drawback as lined chamber or ducts require increased premium space. Passive cancellation uses resonators tuned to specific frequencies and connected to the induction system. When the induction system produces a frequency that a resonator is tuned to, the resonator reflects a waveform with the same, frequency and amplitude but opposite phase, thereby canceling the induction noise at that frequency. Although resonators are connected to the air induction system, there is no mean flow within the resonators. Resonators may be either side branch Helmholtz or quarter wavelength type. Helmholtz resonators are usually side branch volumes. Their resonance frequencies are determined by their volume, neck area and neck length. [7] Considerable amount of study has been carried out to show how the location of resonator affects intake noise. 1

INTRODUCTION
Induction noise from internal combustion engines is a major contributing factor for automotive passenger compartment noise levels. It has been found that [1] intake noise from the air inlet could also cause the rumble in the passenger compartment. The contribution of the induction noise is also found to be significant in the government mandated passby noise tests. Intake noise has considerable impact on the perception of vehicle quality. Intake noise is produced by both the opening and closing of the inlet valve. At its opening, the pressure in the cylinder is usually above atmospheric, and a sharp positive pressure pulse set the air in the inlet passage into oscillation at the natural frequency of air column. This oscillation is rapidly damped by the changing volume caused by

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

Quarter wavelength resonators have constant cross sectional area and a resonance frequencies are determined by their lengths. A single resonance properly sized and located, is capable of insertion losses of 5-10dB at the inlet within a narrow frequency band and hence narrow operating range of the engine. As with the other techniques, the major drawback with resonators is space. Since resonators are effective within narrow operating ranges, several may be required to satisfactorily cover the desired operating range. Increasing the number of components and the complexity of the air induction system is also considered undesirable. A single Helmholtz resonator may easily require a liter of volume and quarter wavelength resonator centered on 67Hz (Firing frequency of four cylinder engine at 2000rpm) will have length of 1250mm. Designing a resonator with the correct frequency is not enough. Resonators must have sufficient size and be located properly to cancel induction noise. This is a difficult challenge with conventional techniques. The new design called a Labyrinth Air Induction Silencer (LAIS) allows the use of multiple side branch resonators. (Predominantly quarter wavelength type) in one place. [8,9] Some of the existing vehicle engines have intake manifold fitted with resonator working on side branch Helmholtz principle. In order to tune them at very low frequency some of them are very large in size and have complicated shapes. If large space for accommodating these volumes is not available manufacturer is forced to fit smaller volumes.

intake manifold, air filter with this add-on resonator led to the computation of modified transmission loss characteristics.

DESIGN OF INLINE HELMHOLTZ RESONATOR


A new configuration of Helmholtz resonator is designed and presented in this paper for control of low frequency (40-100Hz) noise emitted from intake manifold. This configuration offers advantage over conventionally used side branch type Helmholtz resonator that it is compact, concentric with inlet pipe and its tunable at low frequency range of 40-100Hz. The new configuration is easy to fabricate and maintain Keeping in mind the above objectives, inlet resonator is designed. The dimensions of resonator connected pipes are decided based on the frequency to be eliminated, space constraint and design of existing air filter. No modification on existing intake system was required as this was posed as a constraint. The new configuration is as shown in figure 1.

VEHICLE WITH LOW FREQUENCY BURBLING NOISE CHARACTER


The small passenger car under consideration was fitted with two cylinder 500cc engine. During the testing it was noticed that their existed particularly annoying burbling noise emitting from air filter. It was also noticed in the vehicle during take off and normal run when engine was fitted in the vehicle. It was necessary to design an additional device to eliminate this noise, without changing existing air filter and intake manifold because the vehicle was already in the final stages of development. A new configuration of intake resonator was designed for elimination of burbling noise. Space constraint in the engine compartment was additional factor considered for design of intake resonator. Experimental and analytical technique were used in order to identifying the frequency of burbling noise. Experimental work included measurement of noise signal of inlet of engine alone and engine inside car. It also included subjective listening tests by several persons. Analytical work included the finite element analysis of the intake manifold and existing air filter assembly. Transmission loss characteristics of existing design was compared with experimental noise signals to identify the problem frequency. The resonator design was tuned for elimination of that frequency. Finite element analysis of the 2

Figure 1. Configuration of new inline Helmholtz resonator. Two pipes of suitable diameters are fixed one inside the other. Large pipe is arranged at the engine air filter side. Sound wave reflects from the inlet valve and enters the annular space between the two pipes. It traverses through the annular space and enters the volume surrounding the larger pipe. Since the resonance is along the axial direction, possibility of vibration of resonator surface is reduced, hence break out noise is expected to be negligible. The operation of new inline Helmholtz resonator configuration is explained in figure 2 The tunable frequency of Helmholtz resonator is decided by conventional formula. [7]

Figure 2. Operation of new inline Helmholtz resonator.

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

Since the design was expected to yield minimum break out noise from air filter system and at the same time eliminate low frequency burbling character it was decided to use computer simulation technique using finite element acoustic analysis.

Finite element model of the existing air filter and intake manifold is created using acoustic element (fluid 30) of ANSYS software (figure 3)

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS


Following acoustic fluid analysis fundamentals [13] , the acoustic wave equation is given by (1) where, C K P t = speed pf sound K/P0 in fluid medium. Figure 3. Finite element model of existing intake manifold and air filter. P0 = mean fluid density = bulk modulus of fluid = acoustic pressure = time

It is assumed that fluid is compressible, inviscid and there is no mean flow of the fluid. The mean density and pressure are uniform throughout the fluid. For harmonically varying pressure, i.e. (2) where,
P j

RESULTS
Finite element analysis of existing air filter and intake manifold is carried out by applying unit sound pressure at inlet pipe end. Transmission loss characteristics plotted using FEA is shown in figure 4.

= amplitude of the pressure -1 = 2 f = frequency of oscillations of the pressure =

equation (1) reduces to the Helmholtz equation (3) equation (1)can be rewritten in the matrix form as follows

(4) where ( )= {L}T = [ . /x /y /z ] ( )= {L} The element matrices are obtained by descretizing the wave equation (4) using Galerkin procedure. Based on this formulation ANSYS has developed a fluid element (fluid 30).

Figure 4. Transmission loss characteristics of existing intake system. (FEA) Low value of transmission loss is observed below 100Hz. Noise signal of intake system is as shown in figure 5 (original) which shows predominant peaks in the range of 50-100Hz.

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

Figure 5. Noise signal of intake system (original & modified) Three different designs of Helmholtz resonators tuned at 50Hz, 60Hz and 80Hz were tried on the engine. Transmission loss of the resonator alone was plotted experimentally for resonator tuned at 60Hz is as shown in figure 6. Transmission loss of the modified model using FEA also shows improvement below 100Hz. (figure 7)

Figure 7. Finite element model and transmission loss characteristics for modified intake system. It was observed that the burbling noise character is eliminated by using the resonator tuned at 60Hz. Figure 5 (modified) shows the noise signal after modifying the intake system. Figure 6. Experimental evaluation of transmission loss for intake resonator tuned at 60Hz. The assembly was now fitted on the vehicle. (figure 8) Noise signals at inlet with and without resonator are as shown in figure 9.

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

Original intake system

Modified intake system

Figure 8. Intake resonator along fitted inside car. The noise elimination was also confirmed subjectively by a group of approximately ten persons.

EFFECT OF INDUCTION SYSTEM ON VOLUMETRIC EFFICIENCY


It is known that the reflection of sound from the end of the duct attached to an intake of an engine can affect the average air flow through the valve hence the engine performance. At frequencies close to resonance, a side branch resonator tube in the duct causes a reflection at least as strong as from the end of the duct and therefore, can have an influence on engine performance at the corresponding engine speed range. By proper tuning of the resonator the performance can be improved. [10,11,12] Tuning involves the selection of pipe lengths and diameters to and from the cylinders, and the way in which pipes from different cylinders are joined together, either at simple junctions or volumes. The published work on the subject of tuning of inlet manifolds can be broadly divided into two categories, those that just consider a tuned pipe, and those that include a pipe and resonating volume frequently modeled as Helmholtz resonator. Engine performance was evaluated for the vehicle under consideration at full throttle and 5 speeds. It was observed that average percentages of power, torque and BSFC are improved by 5 to 6% for engine with new inlet resonator. Complete methodology developed for design of new intake resonator can be summarized as given in figure 10.

(a) Comparison of noise signals with bonnet open.

Original intake system

Modified intake system

(b) Comparison of noise signals with bonnet closed. Figure 9. Comparison of noise signal at inlet with & without resonator.

THIS DOCUMENT IS PROTECTED BY U.S. AND INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT It may not be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, distributed or transmitted, in whole or in part, in any form or by any means. Downloaded from SAE International by Automotive Research Association of India, Wednesday, April 04, 2012 05:03:32 AM

REFERENCES
1. Tetsushi Suzuki & Fumihiko Kayaba, The analysis and mechanism of engine Intake Rumbling Noise, SAE 901755. 2. Yoshitaka Nishio and Tokio Kohama, Osamu Kuroda, New approach to low-noise air intake system development, SAE 911042. 3. Kouichirou Kurata and Kazuyuki Miyake, Experimental acoustic analysis of the intake and exhaust system to predict insertion loss and engine performance, SAE 931903. 4. K.S.Peat, G.D.Callow, P .A.Bannister, Improving the acoustic performance of an intake system, C420/ 021. 5. M.F.Harrison, P O A L Davies, Rapid predictions of vehicle intake/exhaust radiated noise, C487/019/94. 6. Walter Eversman, John A.White, Acoustic modelling and optimization of induction system components, 951261. 7. A. Selamet & P .M.Radavich, Helmholtz resonator : A multidimensional analytical, computational and experimental study, SAE 951263. 8. Mark E.Schuchardt and Terrence A.Dear, K.Uno Ingard, An air induction system for a four cylinder engine : design, noise control and engine efficiency, SAE 931317. 9. Mark E.Schuchardt, Four-cylinder air induction. Automotive engineering, Feb. 1994, 10. C.R.Stone, Y.Etminan, Review of induction system design and a comparison between prediction and results from a single cylinder diesel engine, SAE 921727. 11. Rodney J.Tabaszynski, Effects of inlet and exhaust system design on engine performance, SAE 821577. 12. R.J.Pearson, D.E.Winterbone, A rapid synthesis technique for intake manifold design, Int.J.of vehicle design, vol.10, no.6, 1989. 13. ANSYS Users manual vol. IV, Theory. For revision 5.1.

Figure 10. Methodology used for burbling noise elimination from intake system.

CONCLUSIONS
1. A new simple and compact inline Helmholtz resonator configuration is designed and used for elimination of burbling noise character. 2. Improvement in engine performance is demonstrated with the use of new resonator. 3. Finite element acoustic analysis of intake system has been used effectively for proving the new design.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are grateful to the Director of ARAI for giving opportunity to work on this project and for providing required facility. We are deeply indebted to staff in our Vehicle Engineering Department, ARAI, for their assistance in preparation of the manuscript.