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Bedrock Effect on Estimating Sediment Thickness Using Microtremor Analysis Methods

Sabrianto Aswad*, Erni Fransisca P*, Dadang Ahmad Suriamiharja*, Muhammad Hamzah*, Ade Perdana S** * Geophysics Department, Hasanuddin University ** Geology Department, Hasanuddin University
Summary This study analyses microtremor measurement to estimate the thickness of soft soil based on their resonant frequency. This frequency has been determined from the H/V and classical techniques. The results from both of this technique are cross-sectional profiles that show the structure of the sediments below the surface area. Then these two cross section profile compare with SPT boring log test and the result shows that the classical technique (S/R technique) is an appropriate method to determine the sediment thickness on this area than the Nakamura technique (H/V technique). Based on support data, we believe this caused by bedrock effect which is not only the different impedance that influences resonant frequency but also the thickness of sediment from bedrock is the most important things. Introduction Constant vibration of the earth's surface is called microtremor (Okada, 2004). The source of microtremor comes from human activity (movement of plant machinery and vehicles) and natural phenomena (wind, rain, variations in atmospheric pressure and ocean waves). Vibration what we means is not short duration event such as earthquakes and explosions (Seht and Wohlenberg, 1999). Ambient noise spectra obtained from microtremor measurement can be used to determine the site effect response and particularly main peak or resonance frequency of the sediment layer. Site effect response on sediment location is related to sediment thickness and shear wave velocity. Thus, the response obtained from the location of the spectral ratio technique can be used to determine the thickness of the sediments. These techniques already applied by many researcher (Nakamura, 1989 ; Lermo and Chavez-Garcia, 1993; Field et al.,1995 ; Ibs-von Seht and Wohlenberg. 1999; Delgaldo et al., 2000 ; Lombardo et al., 2001; Parolai et al., 2002; Garcia-Jerez et al., 2006) and they results show that determination of the fundamental resonant frequency of subsoil to calculate sediment thickness is possible. We will use two techniques that have been widely used to analyze microtremor records. These techniques are Classical technique and Nakamura technique. Classical techniques is the technique that uses reference recording site place on reference site (hard rock) and a second recorder placed on the sediments to be mapped (S/R spectral ratio). Nakamura technique, which is technique that only need one station. This is because the spectra ratio of horizontal and the vertical components recorded at the same site (H/V spectral ratio).This technique attractive since it gives ease of data collection and it can be applied in area of low or even no seismicity. Based on geological conditions, the city of Makassar widely covers by alluvium deposits and marine sedimentary rocks. Basement (hard rock) from Makassar consists of Camba formation volcanic rocks (breccias, lava, conglomerate and tuff) are in the vicinity of Maros and the eruption of volcanic rocks, volcanic rocks Lompobattang (conglomerate, lava, breccia, sediment, lava and tuffs) and volcanic rocks in especially lava who contained in the area around Gowa. So it is an ideal area to become research location in the determination of sediment thickness. Beside that Makassar region have low seismicity, recording representative sample of earthquakes become obstacle. Result of this research could be use as consideration on mitigation preparedness for building safety and durability. Data and Techniques It is well known that site effect from local geology as key factor due to the damage of building. The term of site affect also given as transfer function. The basic principle of the relationship between the response location (resonant frequency) and the thickness of the sediments can be explained by a simple two layer models (Fig. 1). On this picture there is a basement (hard rock) which is covered by sediments with a thickness (m) and shear wave velocity (vs). Resonant frequency of this system occurs for thickness / 4 which is in exploration we called it as tuning thickness of the bed. Resonant frequency can calculated as : 1 (1) fr 4T0 Where T0 is the shear-wave travel time from bottom to the surface of the layer. As by definition v(z)=dz/dt, and vs(z) = v0.(1+Z)x we can calculate T0 as :

T
T

dz dz ( z) v .(1 Z ) x 0 vs 0 0
1 (1 m)1 x 1 v0 (1 x)

(2)

Substitute equation (2) to equation ( 1) to get relation between sediment thickness and resonant frequency :

v0 (1 x) 4[(1 m)1 x ] 1
1 v0 (1 x) 1] (1 x ) 1 4 fr

(3)

m [

(4)

Where fr is to given in Hz, vo in m/sec, and m in meter. Because this area dont have downhole measurements data so the shear wave velocity (v) is assumed not to change with depth (constant),which is x = 0, then the thickness (m) in equation 4 becomes:

v0 4f r

(5)

Istanbul International Geophysical Conference and Oil & Gas Exhibition, Istanbul,Turkey, 17-19 September 2012.

Bedrock Effect on Estimating Sediment Thickness Using Microtremor Analysis Methods

Fig.1.Basic principle of (Ibs -Von Seht ,1999)

transfer

function

The basic problem with this technique is difficult to identify a common wave train for two stations involved. There are to possible solution to this problem. One is to select data windows using absolute time, without regard to the appearance of the seismogram. The second is to assume that an average of many windows for a given site is representative of its motion at any time (ChavesGarcia, 1994). Nakamura (HVSR) Technique This technique widely used for microzoning and engineering purposes proposed by Nakamura (1989). The H/V spectral ratio [TH/V()] was obtained by dividing the average spectra of the horizontal component of sediment site [ s NS ( ) s EW ( ) ] by the spectrum of the vertical component [ Sv()] of the sediment site :
s NS ( ) s EW ( ) / 2

Ambient noise data (microtremor) obtained from 17 measurement points are scattered in the area of Makassar, Gowa, and Takalar (figure 2). These measurements are performed using portable short-period seismograph instrument type TDL-303S (3 components), each of which consists of a digitizer, sensors, laptops, batteries and GPS. Measurements were taken at night (up to 0.00 am) to avoid unwanted noise. The recording time was 20 minutes with sampling frequency of 100 Hz. In processing step only quiet section of the recording were used. Every spectral smoothed by applying a low-pass filter.

S V ( ) Based on Nakamura Idea, amplitude effect of Source can be estimate by the ratio : V (9) As S VB Where amplitude spectrum of the vertical component of motion at the surface and amplitude spectrum of the vertical component of motion at the half space defined as VS and VB. Nakamura also estimates site effect of interest in earthquake engineering (SE), as ratio (10) HS
SE HB

H / V ( )

(8)

Where HS and HB are Fourier amplitude spectra of the horizontal component of motion at the surface and the base of soli layer Using assumption: HB (11)
VB 1

Fig.2 Geological overview of Makassar area and Location of sites measured. Red circles are mictoremor sites measurement on sediment area, yellow circles are mictoremor sites measurement on basement area and green circles are sites with information from drilling. Classical Technique The S/R spectral ratio [TS/R()] was formed by dividing the Averaged spectra of the horizontal component of the sediment site by an averaged spectrum of the averaged horizontal component spectra [RNS() dan REW()] of the 7 hardrock (reference) site [ R H()] :
_

We can calculate modified site affect spectral ratio (SM) as HS (12) V H SE SM S S A S H B VS VB Asumsi HB/VB= 1 was verified by Nakamura experimentally using microtremor measurement at depth in a borehole. A more detailel about this method can be found in Lermo dan Chaves-Garcia (1993,1994) Result and Discussion Figure 3 show an example result from H/V spectral ratio for S1 station. The location of S1 station is not far from the basement of this area. It is clear that horizontal component (N-S and E-W) looks similar which is a fact it selection as appropriate reference site. H/V spectral ratio result indicates the resonance frequency for this station between 8 and 9 Hz. As shown on figure 1, number sites for sediment site consists of ten stations and for reference site (basement) consists of seven stations. Examples data recorded for Classical technique could found on figure 4. Station S4

S / R ( )

s NS ( ) s EW ( ) / 2 R H ( )
7 7

(6)

with

RH ( ) [ R NS ()(i) R EW ()(i)] / 14
i 1 i 1

(7)

Istanbul International Geophysical Conference and Oil & Gas Exhibition, Istanbul,Turkey, 17-19 September 2012.

Bedrock Effect on Estimating Sediment Thickness Using Microtremor Analysis Methods

located on sediment site and station B3 located on basement area.

Table 1 The resonance frequency values and the thickness of sediment using H / V and S / R Techniques
Sta S1 S2 S3 S4 Lat -5,26 -5,26 -5,25 -5,25 -5,20 -5,19 -5,17 -5,17 -5,15 -5,14 Long 119,81 119,76 119,70 119,65 119,64 119,59 119,55 119,50 119,45 119,40 elev (m) 698 420 227 139 49 26 11 15 6 2 H/V (fr) 8,347 0,647 0,883 0,701 8,4 10,799 11,492 8,347 11,698 1,629 S/R (fr) 2,305 1,189 1,197 3,582 3,557 0,217 0,252 2,183 2,353 0,565 H/V (m) 1,723 22,231 16,289 20,518 1,712 1,332 1,252 1,723 1,230 8,830 S/R (m) 6,241 12,098 12,011 4,015 4,044 66,199 57,074 6,587 6,114 25,461

a)

b)

S5 S6 S7 S8

Fig. 3. An example of Nakamura or H/V spectral ratio.(a) Application of the HVSR technique on both N-S and E-W horizontal component. (b) Result of the HVSR spectral ratio To calculate thickness of the sediments, not only the resonance frequency we need, but also the value of shear wave velocity at the surface. Using Schmidt hammer system, the value of shear wave velocity is 57.54 m/s. substitute all the value of resonance frequencies and shear wave velocity in equation (4) to estimate the thickness of the sediments under every station on sediment sites. These result Sediment thickness obtained from H/V and S/R techniques can be seen in table 1. The values of each of these spectra from all sites are used to calculate the resonant frequency using equations (6) and (7). The results of the resonance frequency (fr) of the Nakamura spectral ratio technique (H/V) and the classical spectral ratio technique (S/R) shown in table 1. Data from the sediment thickness and elevation data from each station used to reconstruct cross section that show subsurface structure of the area investigated (fig. 5 and fig.6). Gray color on the profile shows a basement or hard rock and the brown color indicates the sediment. Location N-S Spectral E-W Spectral

S9 S10

Fig.5. Cross section showing the subsurface structure using H/V technique

S4

B3

Fig.6. Cross section showing the subsurface structure using S/R technique subsurface structure thickness of the sediments derived from H/V technique (fig. 5) and S/R technique (fig. 6) showed different results. Figure 5 for H/V technique shown from station 1, sediment thickness tends to increase up to station 4, then decreases to station 5 to 9 in which at this point the thickness of the sediments ranged from 1.2 meters to 1.7 meters and rise again at station 10. Using S/R technique (fig.6) shown from station 1 to station 3 is likely to increase, then decrease again at station 4 and 5. At a station 6 and 7 the thickness of sediment is higher than any other point in the picture looks like a small basin. Sediment thickness is reduced further to station 8 and 9 and rising at the station 10. There are five sediment thicknesses of the data obtained from the boring logs and SPT-N Test Result and also the profile static penetration test (sounding) from building in Makassar area located quite close to the location of some station of the study. The location of this drill site can be found on figure 1. Following table show the thickness of sediment determine from drill data :

Fig.4. examples spectral recording data from sediment site and basement site using in classical technique

Istanbul International Geophysical Conference and Oil & Gas Exhibition, Istanbul,Turkey, 17-19 September 2012.

Bedrock Effect on Estimating Sediment Thickness Using Microtremor Analysis Methods

Table 2 Sites where geotechnical information is available and location close to microtremor measurement
No. 1 2 3 4 5 Lat -5,1258 -5,1369 -5,1649 -5,1305 -5,1651 Long 119,4138 119,4101 119,4765 119,4358 119,4252 Thickness (m) 25 25 5 10 20

All data in table 2 will be used to verify the results obtained the sediment thickness from microtremor measurements. The location of the first and second drill data is located quite close to the station 10, the third data is located quite close to station 8, the fourth data is located quite close to the station 9, and the last data located between station 9 and 10. As shown in Table 2 that the thickness of sediments obtained from the drill data for the area around station 10 is 25 meters, close to the value resulting from the S/R spectral ratio technique which is 25.461 meters. Drill data near to station 8 produced values of sediment thickness of 5 meters and the S/R spectral ratio technique obtained sediment thickness of 6.587 meters. Sediment thickness of the drill data obtained near station 9 is 10 meters and the S/R spectral ratio technique is obtained 6.114 meters of sediment thickness. This fact shows that when we compared the result of the thickness drill data S/R spectral ratio technique is most closely than H/V spectral ratio technique. It looks this is because the depth of bedrock in Makassar area is not to deep and we call it as bedrock effect. So it is why S/R technique more reliable because in calculation this technique use spectral from bedrock. Conclusion Analysis of microtremor measurement using these two techniques shows that the resonant frequency varies considerably through Makassar city. Values of resonance frequency increases as the basement depth decreases and vice versa. In some of previous studies show that the best method for determining the thickness of the sediments is Nakamura method. Whereas the results obtained in this study the best method is the classical method (S / R). This corresponds to the thickness of sediments derived from the S/R technique is more in accordance with the thickness of sediments from drill data compared to the thickness of sediments derived from H / V technique. we believe this caused by bedrock effect which is not only the different impedance that influences resonant frequency but also the thickness of sediment from bedrock is the most important things. References Antonio Garca-Jerez, Francisco Luzon, Manuel Navarro, and J. Alfonso Perez-Ruiz., 2006. Characterization of the Sedimentary Cover of the Zafarraya Basin, Southern Spain, by Means of Ambient Noise., Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.,, Vol. 96, No. 3, pp. 957967

Delgado, J., C. Lopez Casado, A. C. Estevez, J. Giner, A. Cuenca, and S Molina (2000a). Mapping soft soils in the Segura river valley (SE Spain): a case study of microtremors as an exploration tool, J. Appl. Geophys. 45, 1932 Field, E.H., Clement, A.C., Jacob, K.H., Aharonian, V., Hough, S.E., Friberg, P.A., Babaian, T.O., Karapetian, S.S., Hovanessian, S.M., Abramian, H.A., 1995. Earthquake site response study in Giumri (formerly Leninakan), Armenia, using ambient noise observations. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 85, 349353. G. Lombardo, G. Coco, M. Corrao, S. Imposa, R. Azzara, F. Cara and A. Rovelli. Results of microtremor measurements in the urban area of Catania, Italy, 2001, Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Ed Applicata, VOL. 42, N. 3-4, PP. 317-334 Ibs-Von Seht, M., Wohlenberg, J., 1999. Microtremor Measurement Used to Map Thickness of Soft Sediments, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am.89, 250-259. Lermo, J., J. Ch~vez-Garcia, 1993. Site effect evaluation using spectral ratios with only one station, Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 83, 1574-1594. Lermo, J., J. Chfivez-Garcia, 1994, Are microtremors useful in site response Evaluation?, Bull Seism. Soc. Am. 84, 1350-1364. Okada, H., 2004, The Microtremor Survey Method. Society of Exploration Geophysicists. United State of America. Nakamura, Y., 1989. A method for dynamic characteristics estimation of subsurface using microtremor on the ground surface. QR of RTRI, Vol. 30, No.1, 25-33. Parolai, S., Bormann, P., and Milkereit, C., 2002. New relationships between Vs, thickness of sediments, and resonance frequency calculated by H/V ratio of seismic noise for the Cologne Area (Germany), Bull. Seism. Soc. Am,. 92 (6):2521-2527.

Istanbul International Geophysical Conference and Oil & Gas Exhibition, Istanbul,Turkey, 17-19 September 2012.