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Introduction

ITIL and the ITIL Process Map

IT Process Maps GbR, 2013

IT Process Maps GbR, 2013

Contents
Introduction ................................................................................................... 1
ITIL and the ITIL Process Map...................................................................................................... 1

History of ITIL ............................................................................................... 1


The Beginnings ................................................................................................................................ 1 Recognition as a Standard ............................................................................................................... 1 New Version in 2007: The ITIL V3 Service Lifecycle ...................................................................... 2 ITIL 2011 Upgrade ........................................................................................................................... 3

The ITIL Service Lifecycle .............................................................................. 4


ITIL Main and Sub-Processes ......................................................................................................... 5 ITIL Core Principles ........................................................................................................................ 6

How the ITIL Process Map was created from the ITIL Books ....................... 8
Differences between a Book and a Process Model ......................................................................... 8 Where the ITIL Process Map goes beyond the ITIL Books .......................................................... 9 Processes vs. Functions ................................................................................................................. 18

The 2007 and 2011 Editions of ITIL ..............................................................19


How to adapt your Processes to ITIL 2011 .................................................................................. 19

Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition) ..........................................20


Changes in Service Strategy .......................................................................................................... 20 Changes in Service Design ............................................................................................................. 21 Changes in Service Transition ....................................................................................................... 22 Changes in Service Operation ....................................................................................................... 24 Changes in Continual Service Improvement ................................................................................. 27

ITIL and ISO 20000 .......................................................................................28


How ITIL and ISO 20000 are related............................................................................................ 28 Key ISO 20000 Requirements ........................................................................................................ 28 ISO 20000 Requirements in Relation to ITIL Processes .............................................................. 29

IT Process Maps GbR, 2013

History of ITIL
The Beginnings
ITIL1 was developed at the end of the 1980's by the Central Computing and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA), a government agency in Great Britain. The reason for commissioning the CCTA was a lack of quality of the IT services procured by the British Government, so that a method had to be found to achieve better quality and simultaneously decrease their costs. The objective was to develop effective and efficient methods for the provision of IT Services - in other words a catalogue of best practices for the IT organization, which today is known as ITIL. The essence of the methods is to make IT services explicit and strictly focused on client needs. This is combined with clearly defined responsibilities for the service provision within the IT organization and effectively designed IT processes. As a result, the IT organization concentrates on the services required by the business, rather than being focused on technologies. The recommendations thus compiled are very broadly valid. It was found that the requirements of the businesses and organizations examined by the CCTA were mostly similar, independent of their size or industry sector. A series of books on ITIL has been issued since 1989 by the Cabinet Office, an administrative body of the Government of Great Britain which is the successor of the CCTA. ITIL is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited.

Recognition as a Standard
In the past years, ITIL has become the de-facto standard for IT Service Management. Increasingly, IT managers developed awareness for the service- and customer-driven approach championed by ITIL, and the ITIL terminology is widely understood and used.

ITIL is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited.

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The ITIL philosophy has found its way into a multitude of other models related to IT Service Management, as for example: ISO/IEC 20000 (formerly BS 15000): Information Technology Service Management HP ITSM Reference Model (Hewlett Packard) IT Process Model (IBM) Microsoft Operations Framework

New Version in 2007: The ITIL V3 Service Lifecycle


In 2007 the Cabinet Office published a completely revised version of ITIL, known as ITIL Version 3 (ITIL V3). ITIL V3 reflects the experiences gained with the earlier versions and puts a greater emphasis on creating business value. In comparison to ITIL V2 - which consisted of nine books - it is more streamlined around a set of five new core publications which together form the ITIL V3 Service Lifecycle: Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement The rationale for organizing the ITIL books in this way was to establish a Deming-like Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle focused on continual improvement. Overall, ITIL V3 complements the processes known from ITIL V2 with a number of new processes and puts more emphasis on producing value for the business. The underlying principles, however, are largely unchanged. The following chapter presents an introduction to the ITIL V3 Service Lifecycle.

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ITIL 2011 Upgrade


Four years after the introduction of ITIL V3 the main guidance has been updated, taking into account feedback from the user and training community. The new ITIL 2011 Edition was published at the end of July 2011. As the official ITIL Update FAQs state, "ITIL 2011 is an update, not a new version". No entirely new concepts were added, but the aim of the update is was to "resolve errors and inconsistencies in the text and diagrams across the whole suite". Since ITIL V2 is about to be phased out, there is also a new naming convention, doing away with the V3 suffix: the latest edition is referred to as "ITIL 2011" or simply "ITIL", while the term "ITIL 2007" is used for the first edition of ITIL V3. Consequently, in this document and throughout the ITIL Process Map we use the term ITIL to refer to the most recent version of ITIL.

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The ITIL Service Lifecycle


Processes outside the IT Organization

The ITIL Service Lifecycle

Processes outside the IT Organization

Service Strategy

Service Strategy

+
Service Portfolio

Customer Agreement Portfolio

Service Design

Request for Change (RFC) Service Design Package (SDP)

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

+
Customer Process
Business Planning Information Desired Service Outcomes

Customer Process

Service Catalogue

Service Transition

CMS/ CMDB Technical/ Administration Manual

+
External Supplier Process
Supplier Service Level Report

Underpinning Contract (UC)

External Supplier Process

Service Operation

Suggested Service Improvement Suggested Process Improvement

Continual Service Improvement

CSI Register

Back to Front Page

The Service Lifecycle is about managing services from their creation to retirement. Each of the five stages is focused on a specific phase of a services lifecycle: Service Strategy determines which types of services should be offered to which customers or markets Service Design identifies service requirements and devises new service offerings as well as changes and improvements to existing ones Service Transition builds and deploys new or modified services Service Operation carries out operational tasks Continual Service Improvement learns from past successes and failures and continually improves the effectiveness and efficiency of services and processes.

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ITIL Main and Sub-Processes


The ITIL Process Map allows exploring the Service Lifecycle processes in a top-down manner. The example on this page shows why this is ideal for getting familiar with the ITIL processes:

Overview: IT Service Management (ITIL Service Lifecycle)

Processes outside the IT Organization

The ITIL Service Lifecycle

Processes outside the IT Organization

Service Strategy

Service Strategy

+
Service Portfolio

Customer Agreement Portfolio

Service Design

Request for Change (RFC) Service Design Package (SDP)

Service Level Agreement (SLA)

+
Customer Process
Business Planning Information Desired Service Outcomes

Customer Process

Service Catalogue

Service Transition

CMS/ CMDB Technical/ Administration Manual

+
External Supplier Process
Supplier Service Level Report

Underpinning Contract (UC)

External Supplier Process

Service Operation

Overview: Service Transition


Suggested Service Improvement Suggested Process Improvement
Processes outside the IT Organization ITIL Processes outside Service Transition ITIL Processes outside Service Transition Processes outside the IT Organization

IT Service Management

+
Superior Process

Continual Service Improvement

CSI Register
Customer Process Change Schedule

Projected Service Outage (PSO) Validation Test Report

Customer Process


Project Mgmt. (Transition Planning and Support) User Manual Project Plan (Service Transition Plan) Project Portfolio Status Report

Change Record


External Supplier Process

External Supplier Process

Technical/ Administration Manual User Manual

Data for Project Plan Update

Support Request

Validation Test Report

Back to Front Page

Service Strategy Change Management

CMS/ CMDB Change Schedule Change Evaluation

Service Strategy

+ +

Change Evaluation Report

Project Portfolio Status Report

Change Record

Request for Change (RFC) Service Design Package (SDP) Service Design Service Acceptance Criteria (SAC)


Release and Deployment Management Development Work Order Application Development

Development/ Install. QA Documentation User Manual Technical/ Administration Manual CMS/ CMDB

Level 0: ITIL Service Lifecycle

Service Design

+
Release Record

Validation Test Report

+
Service Catalogue

+
Release Policy

Purchase Request

Customer Agreement Portfolio

Overview: Change Management


CMS/ CMDB Service Validation and Testing Test Model


Service Operation
Processes outside the IT Organization ITIL Processes outside Service Transition Service Transition Processes Service Transition Processes ITIL Processes outside Service Transition Processes outside the IT Organization

Request for Change (RFC) Service Operation

Definitive Media Library (DML)

Validation Test Report

CMS/ CMDB

Change Model

+
IT Service Management Customer Process

+
Change Record Change Schedule Technical/ Administration Manual Change Request to CMS Structure Service Asset and Configuration Management CMS Change Policy User Manual

Projected Service Outage (PSO)

Customer Process

Service Transition

External Supplier Process

+
Superior Processes

External Supplier Process

CMS/ CMDB

CMS/ CMDB

Definitive Media Library (DML) Continual Service Improvement

Change Evaluation Report Project Portfolio Status Report

Definitive Media Library (DML)

Service Strategy Change Proposal Service Strategy

Continual Service Improvement

+
Request for Change (RFC) Service Design Package (SDP) Service Design

+
All information originating from Service Management processes is input for the Knowledge Management process. Displaying all inputs within this Overview Diagram is therefore not practicable.

CMS/ CMDB


Change Record

Suggested Process Improvement Knowledge Management Service Knowledge Mgmt. System (SKMS)

Change Management Policy


Change Model Service Design


Change Management Support Change Model

Service Catalogue

Change Schedule

Enterprise Architecture (EA) Risk Management Policy

Change Evaluation Report

RFC Template

CAB Agenda Template

Change Schedule

Request for Change (RFC)


Assessment of Change Proposals Change Proposal

Service Operation

Back to Front Page

Service Operation

Incident Record

Change Schedule

Major Incident Review

Continual Service Improvement

Change Evaluation Report RFC Logging and Review Assessment and Implementation of Emergency Changes Suggested Process Improvement

Continual Service Improvement

Change Record

Change Record

+
Change Evaluation Change Evaluation Report

+
Change Schedule

Change Evaluation

Change Record Change Assessment by the Change Manager Change Record Minor Change Deployment

Change Record

Change Evaluation Report

Change Model

Change Record

Level 1: ITIL Core Disciplines


Project Mgmt. (Transition Planning and Support)

Project Mgmt. (Transition Planning and Support)

Project Plan (Service Transition Plan) Project Portfolio Status Report

Change Schedule Change Assessment by the CAB Change Record

+
Change Model

Change Evaluation Report

Application Development

Application Development Change Scheduling and Build Authorization Change Record

+
Change Record

+
Release and Deployment Management

Change Evaluation Report


Release and Deployment Management

Release Policy

Change Deployment Authorization Change Record

Change Schedule

+
Release Record

+
Service Validation and Testing Post Implementation Review and Change Closure Change Model

Change Evaluation Report

Service Validation and Testing

Validation Test Report

+
Service Asset and Configuration Management CMS/ CMDB

CMS/ CMDB

Service Asset and Configuration Management

+
CMS Change Policy

Knowledge Management

Back to Front Page

Knowledge Management

Level 2: ITIL Main Processes

Process Details: Assessment of Change Proposals

Process Owner Change Management Policy Change Management Support

Superior Processes

Change Manager

IT Service Management

Change Schedule

+
Change Model Service Asset and Configuration Management Change Schedule Change Management Support Service Transition

CMS/ CMDB

Assessment of Change Proposals

+
Service Strategy Change Proposal Process Objective: To asses Change Proposals which are typically submitted for significant Changes by Service Strategy. The purpose of assessing Change Proposals is to identify possible issues prior to the start of design activities. Change Proposal

RFC Logging and Review

Change Management

+
Service Catalogue

Service Design

Enterprise Architecture (EA) Risk Management Policy

Back to Front Page

Resource Check proposal for completeness and practicability Change Proposal to be assessed. Determine required CAB members Circulate documents for preparation State reasons and document rejection Notify Change Proposal initiator of rejection Change Proposal rejected.

Change Manager

Schedule CAB meeting

Change Proposal must be rejected

If required, consult with the initiator prior to rejecting the Change Proposal.

Depending on the nature of the Change Proposal to be assessed by the CAB.

CAB meetings may be a mix of formal and electronic meetings, depending on the complexity of the issues to be discussed.

Provide CAB members in advance with information, in particular the Change Proposal and any supporting documents. Change Proposal may be authorized

This possibly includes suggestions on how to modify the proposed Change before it can be re-submitted.

Document Change Proposal authorization

Add the Change Proposal to the Change Schedule Change Proposal authorized.

Resource Change Advisory Board (CAB) Assess risks associated with the Change Proposal Assess risks related to Business processes on the client side. Services. Important parts of the infrastructure. If required, consult with technical experts. Assess the proposed schedule for implementation Assess risks related to Check if there are any reasons to object to the proposed implementation date (e.g. conflicts with the existing Change Schedule). Determine any required modifications to the Change Proposal

Determine if Change Proposal must be escalated

Escalation of Change Proposal not required.

Decide if Change Proposal may be authorized

If the assessment leads to the conclusion that a higher level of authority is required to authorize the proposed Change (e.g. proposal must be authorized by IT Management or the Business Executive Board).

Change Proposal to be escalated (e.g. to IT Management).

Get approval from higher level of authority

If required, consult also with the proposal's initiator.

Level 3: Sub-Processes

The High Level View shows the ITIL Service Lifecycle and its most important external relationships on one single page Zooming in by clicking the corresponding process object, the viewer is presented an overview of the Service Transition process. This diagram illustrates what Service Transition is about: It includes all sub-processes with their interrelationships, as well as all the interfaces to processes outside of Service Transition. Zooming in once again leads to an overview of Change Management and finally to a detailed process flow for the Change Assessment by the CAB process, which also includes a complete list of inputs and outputs, and linked checklists/ document templates.

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ITIL Core Principles


The ITIL Process Map consistently adheres to two important ITIL principles. Having these in mind will help to understand each processs meaning within the ITIL Service Lifecycle.

Structure of Agreements
The layered structure of ITIL agreements ensures that the IT organization is aligned with the business needs:

Business
Customer Process
i

IT Service Management

Required Service Levels (agreed within SLA)


Service Level Management

Required Service Levels

Required Service Levels (agreed within OLA)


Service Operation

Service Operation

External Service Supplier

Required Service Levels (agreed within UC)


External Supplier Process
i

Service Level Agreements (SLAs) define the service requirements from the business perspective

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Operational Level Agreements (OLAs) and Underpinning Contracts (UCs) make sure those service requirements are matched from within the IT organization

Triggers for Action


All of an IT organizations activities should be strictly focused on providing business services as required by the customer. As a consequence, there is only a limited number of events which can trigger the introduction of a new service or the modification of an existing one:

Business
New or modified service required

IT Service Management
IT Service Management

Agreed service levels are not achieved and service must be improved

Better ways to provide a service become available

A new service is required, either because a customer is requesting it or because Service Portfolio Management decided that a new service must be created Service levels which are already agreed cannot be achieved in this case the service must be redesigned to fulfill the commitments Better ways to provide a service become available, for example in the form of new technologies or improved external service offerings the service will be redesigned in such cases to make it more economical

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How the ITIL Process Map was created from the ITIL Books
Our decision to create the ITIL Process Map was based on the insight that books are not ideally suited to describe complex bodies of knowledge - like ITIL. Hence, the ITIL Process Map takes a different approach to presenting ITIL Best Practice in the form of a clearly structured and layered Reference Process Model. It provides overview diagrams to illustrate the ITIL big picture and allows drilling down into details where necessary.

Differences between a Book and a Process Model


The latest set of ITIL books contains some 2000 pages of Best Practice recommendations, while our Reference Process Model consists of about 20 overview diagrams and some 100 detailed process flows, plus more than 80 checklists and templates. The ITIL Process Map is therefore not so much about presenting every single detail in a different format rather, it depicts the essential contents in an easily accessible and understandable way. A Reference Process Model is also subject to stricter rules. By definition, it must explicitly state which activities are to be carried out in what order, and what outputs are to be produced for subsequent processes. Redundancies are not allowed any activity occurs only once within a well-defined process, with clearly assigned responsibilities for its execution. Books, in contrast, can get away with being less strict. Statements like Risk must be analyzed and managed during all stages of Service Transition are perfectly suitable for books. When developing a process model, however, it must be precisely defined how and when risks are analyzed and who is responsible for the execution. In short, creating the ITIL Process Map meant extracting the essentials from the ITIL books, sorting out redundancies, and translating the text-based content into clear-cut activity flows. This required a lot of expertise and effort - the present version of the ITIL Process Map took us about 2 years to develop. IT Process Maps GbR, 2013 -8-

Where the ITIL Process Map goes beyond the ITIL Books
While we followed the books as closely as possible, we decided in some instances to introduce improvements or clarifications which assign clear responsibilities and make it easier to implement the processes:

Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications Service Strategy
Strategy Management for IT Services Service Portfolio Management Financial Management for IT Services Demand Management Business Relationship Management

Processes within the ITIL Process Map Service Strategy


Strategy Management for IT Services Service Portfolio Management Financial Management for IT Services Demand Management Business Relationship Management

ID

Notes on Differences

1
1.1 --

1.2

--

1.3

--

1.4

--

1.5

--

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications Service Design
Design Coordination

Processes within the ITIL Process Map Service Design


Design Coordination

ID

Notes on Differences

2
2.1 ITIL states that the main triggers for Design Coordination are Requests for Change and the creation of new projects. There is also the concept of Change Proposals, which according to ITIL allow service design activity to begin once they are authorized. In this context, the ITIL Process Map takes the following approach: Design Coordination starts once Service Portfolio Management has chartered a new service and obtained approval for a Change Proposal from Change Management. A project is initiated at the same time, and Project Management calls upon the Design Coordination process for the detailed planning of the design stage. Once the Service Design Package is complete, one or several RFCs are submitted to Change Management for evaluation and authorization.

Service Catalogue Management Service Level Management

Service Catalogue Management

2.2

--

Service Level Management

2.3

The ITIL books suggest that complaints and customer satisfaction are managed through both Service Level Management and Business Relationship Management. In the ITIL Process Map, complaints and customer satisfaction are managed as part of Business Relationship Management. Service Reviews are conducted as part of Continual Service Improvement.

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
--

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


Risk Management

ID

Notes on Differences

2.4

ITIL calls for coordinated risk assessment exercises, so we assigned clear responsibilities for managing risks by introducing a specific Risk Management process. Having a basic Risk Management process in place will also provide a good starting point for applying best-practice Risk Management frameworks like M_o_R (as recommended in the ITIL books) --

Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management

Capacity Management Availability Management IT Service Continuity Management

2.5

2.6

--

2.7

ITIL provides some guidance on the invocation of ITSCM plans in Service Design. In Service Operation, however, it also states that restoring services is an operational activity. The ITIL Process Map takes the approach of dealing with major incidents, including disaster events and the invocation of ITSCM and recovery plans, through the Incident Management processes, especially Handling of Major Incidents.

Information Security Management

Information Security Management

2.8

Since the ITIL Process Map has a Risk Management process in place, Risk Management identifies and assesses all the risks that would be faced by services, including information security risks. Our Information Security Management process addresses the management of information security risks, including their mitigation.

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
--

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


Compliance Management

ID

Notes on Differences

2.9

Compliance is an increasingly important topic for IT organizations; this called for introducing a specific Compliance Management process Having a well-defined architecture blueprint in place is very important for IT organizations; as a consequence, we defined a specific Architecture Management process --

--

Architecture Management

2.10

Supplier Management

Supplier Management

2.11

Service Transition
Change Management Change Evaluation Transition Planning and Support

Service Transition
Change Management Change Evaluation

3
3.1 --

3.2

--

Project Management (Transition Planning and Support)

3.3

The Transition Planning and Support process was renamed and enhanced to provide a fullfeatured Project Management process; this will also provide a good starting point for introducing best-practice Project Management frameworks like PRINCE2 or PMBOK (as recommended in the ITIL books) The ITIL books do not cover Application Development in detail and, as a consequence, do not provide for this process; a complete ITIL Process Model, however, must at least show the interfaces between Application Development and the other Service Management processes, so we decided to introduce a basic Application Development process.

--

Application Development and Customization

3.4

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
Release and Deployment Management Service Validation and Testing Service Asset and Configuration Management Knowledge Management

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


Release and Deployment Management Service Validation and Testing

ID

Notes on Differences

3.5

--

3.6

--

Service Asset and Configuration Management Knowledge Management

3.7

--

3.7

--

Service Operation
Event Management

Service Operation
Event Management

4
4.1 ITIL allows for the available response options to be tailored to the needs of specific organizations. The ITIL Process Map uses the approach that Exception Events may trigger the creation of an Incident Record. If Problems or RFCs need to be opened in response to an Event, this will be done by Incident Management while dealing with the Incident.

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
Incident Management

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


Incident Management

ID

Notes on Differences

4.2

ITIL states that Incident Management is about restoring services as quickly as possible, by either resolving the underlying causes or applying a workaround, while Problem Management is about diagnosing and resolving the root causes of Incidents. Individual organizations, however, are given some freedom regarding the precise rules on when to invoke Problem Management from Incident Management. The ITIL Process Map adopts the following approach: Incident Management focuses on restoring services as quickly as possible. If an Incidents underlying cause can be fixed within the committed resolution time using a preauthorized minor change, then Incident Management will make the change to do so. Otherwise, the Problem Management process will be invoked.

Request Fulfilment Access Management Problem Management

Request Fulfilment

4.3

--

Access Management

4.4

--

Problem Management

4.5

The ITIL books explain several problem analysis techniques and highlight in what situations the various techniques may be applied. These contents are not reproduced in the ITIL Process Map. For further explanations on the ITIL Process Maps approach to implementing the interface between Problem and Incident Management, see the notes above on Incident Management.

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
(Function: IT Operations Control)

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


IT Operations Control

ID

Notes on Differences

4.6

ITIL treats IT Operations Control as a function. The ITIL Process Map uses an IT Operations Control process to describe the IT Operations Control activities which are not covered by any other ITIL process (see p. 18: Processes vs. Functions) ITIL treats Facilities Management as a function. The ITIL Process Map uses a Facilities Management process to describe the Facilities Management activities which are not covered by any other ITIL process. (see p. 18 : Processes vs. Functions) ITIL treats Application Management as a function. The ITIL Process Map uses an Application Management process to describe the Application Management activities which are not covered by any other ITIL process. Application Management activities embedded in other processes are shown with the Application Analyst as the responsible role. As a result, the RASCI matrix provides an overview of where Application Management activities take place (see also p. 18 : Processes vs. Functions).

(Function: Facilities Management)

Facilities Management

4.7

(Function: Application Management)

Application Management

4.8

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
(Function: Technical Management)

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


Technical Management

ID

Notes on Differences

4.9

ITIL treats Technical Management as a function. The ITIL Process Map uses a Technical Management process to describe the Technical Management activities which are not covered by any other ITIL process. Technical Management activities embedded in other processes are shown with the Technical Analyst as the responsible role. As a result, the RASCI matrix provides an overview of where Technical Management activities take place (see also p. 18 : Processes vs. Functions).

Continual Service Improvement


----

Continual Service Improvement


Service Review Process Evaluation Definition of Improvement Initiatives CSI Monitoring

5.1 5.2 5.3

--

5.4

CSI is focused on the improvement of two elements of Service Management: Services and Processes. This focus is not clearly reflected by the processes suggested in the ITIL books, so while staying true to the ITIL principles the ITIL Process Map adopted a different process structure: Service Review and Process Evaluation with the aim of finding improvement potentials, plus Definition of Improvement Initiatives and CSI Monitoring to design and monitor specific improvement activities.

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Alignment of Processes: ITIL Books and the ITIL Process Map


Processes as per the official ITIL publications
7-Step Improvement Process

Processes within the ITIL Process Map


--

ID

Notes on Differences

The "Seven-Step Improvement Process" presented in the ITIL books is in fact the description of a methodology which can be universally applied to identify shortcomings in services and processes and to implement improvements. The principles it contains are applied in a number of ITIL processes, most importantly in Service Design (e.g. in the Service Level Management, Capacity Management, and Availability Management processes). As a result, the "Seven-Step Improvement Process" cannot be treated as a standalone ITIL process, and there is no such process in the ITIL Process Map. The "SevenStep Improvement" principles, however, are included in a checklist.

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Processes vs. Functions


In various parts of the books, ITIL refers to "Functions" rather than "Processes". For instance, Incident Management is introduced as a Process and Facilities Management as a Function. By definition, a "Function" is an organizational entity, typically characterized by a special area of knowledge or experience. Examples would be a team operating the SAP environment, a software development department, or (to name a Function outside of the IT organization) a Human Resources (HR) department. "Processes", in contrast, are clusters of activities which produce a defined outcome, like the Incident Management process. Several Functions may have a part in a Process (the Service Desk and the SAP operating team might both have to perform activities within the Incident Management process). Much confusion stems from the fact that in the real world there are often "Functions" and "Processes" with identical names: For example, the Facilities Management team (a "Function") will perform a set of facilities-related activities, which as a whole are called the Facilities Management process. In a process model like the ITIL Process Map, the challenge is to represent activities performed by functions as well as information flows involving functions (for example, inputs provided by Application Management to other processes). Most process modeling notations (like BPMN) readily allow to model information flows between processes, but offer no obvious guidance on how to model such flows between processes and functions. The ITIL Process Map therefore implements the ITIL functions as ad-hoc2 processes in order to be able to show complete information flows to and from those functions. As a result, the ITIL Process Map features a Facilities Management process even though, strictly speaking, the ITIL books define Facilities Management as a function.

As per BPMN, "ad-hoc" processes "do not contain a complete, structured BPMN diagram description from start event to end event [... and] may also contain data objects and data associations. (Source: Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) version 2.0 - Specification, as of January 2011)

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The 2007 and 2011 Editions of ITIL


As explained earlier, ITIL has undergone a review, resulting in the publication of the ITIL 2011 Edition in July 2011.

How to adapt your Processes to ITIL 2011


The latest set of books contains no entirely new concepts, but the aim of the update was to "resolve errors and inconsistencies in the text and diagrams across the whole suite". Unfortunately there are only summaries of the changes available, but no detailed information on what exactly was changed where in the books. Our own experience suggests that, apart from the bigger changes highlighted in the available summaries, a large number of improvements and clarifications were made on a smaller scale. As a result, the best way to adapt to the new 2011 edition is to obtain the change summaries from the official ITIL web sites, and to benchmark your existing processes against the latest guidance. To support you in this task, the following section provides a list of the changes applied to the ITIL Process Map while adapting it to ITIL 2011.

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition)


Changes in Service Strategy
Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Strategy
ITIL Process
Strategy Management for IT Services

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


In the 2007 edition of the ITIL Process Map, strategic assessments and the development of the service strategy were performed under Service Portfolio Management. ITIL 2011 has introduced a clearly defined set of strategic processes, including Service Management for IT Services. Consequently, the process model has been expanded to include a process of the same name. The new role Service Strategy Manager has been introduced to support the IT Steering Group.

Service Portfolio Management

Following the introduction of the Strategy Management for IT Services process, Service Portfolio Management has been re-focused to cover activities associated with managing the Service Portfolio. New checklists for Change Proposals, Service Charters and Service Models have been added.

Financial Management for IT Services Demand Management

-/-

The previous edition of the ITIL Process Map treated Demand Management as part of Capacity Management. Since the latest guidance includes clarifications on the differences in scope between Demand and Capacity Management, a dedicated Demand Management process has been introduced as part of Service Strategy. The role Demand Manager has been introduced to perform the activities in the Demand Management process.

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Strategy


ITIL Process
Business Relationship Management

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


Business Relationship Management has been introduced as a new process in ITIL 2011, and the process model has been expanded accordingly. The role Business Relationship Manager has been introduced to perform the activities in the Business Relationship Management process. The latest guidance places customer satisfaction surveys and the management of complaints as part of Business Relationship Management. As a result, the corresponding processes have been moved from Continual Service Improvement to Business Relationship Management.

Changes in Service Design


Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Design
ITIL Process
Design Coordination

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


Design Coordination has been added as a new process, in line with the latest guidance. Design Coordination is now responsible for coordinating the design activities carried out by other Service Design processes. The process interfaces have been adapted following the introduction of the Design Coordination process. Service Level Management has been completely redesigned following the introduction of the Design Coordination process. Coordinating activities have been removed. Service Level Management is now mainly responsible for gathering requirements, as well as monitoring and reporting with regards to agreed service levels.

Service Catalogue Management

Service Level Management

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Design


ITIL Process
Risk Management, Capacity Management, Availability Management, IT Service Continuity Mgmt., Information Security Mgmt., Compliance Management, Architecture Management Supplier Management

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


The process interfaces have been adapted following the introduction of the Design Coordination process.

The process interfaces have been adapted following the introduction of the Design Coordination process. The Supplier and Contract Database (SCD) has been renamed to Supplier and Contract Management Information System (SCMIS), in line with the terminology used in the latest ITIL edition.

Changes in Service Transition


Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Transition
ITIL Process
Change Management

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


The structure of the Change Management process has been modified to highlight that significant Changes require authorization at different points in their lifecycle. New sub-processes have been added to assess Change Proposals and to implement minor Changes. Change Management now submits major Changes to the Change Evaluation process for a formal assessment. Change Scheduling has been revised so that the detailed planning of a Change and the corresponding Release is performed by Release Management. Change Models have been given a more prominent role in Change Management, being used not only for Standard Changes (low-risk Changes on an operational level), but also for recurring significant Changes.

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Transition


ITIL Process
Change Evaluation

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


The Change Evaluation process has been added, following a clarification in the ITIL books that the purpose of this process is the evaluation of major Changes. The Change Evaluation process is called upon by the Change Management process at various points in a Changes lifecycle to perform a Change assessment.

Project Management (Transition Planning and Support)

Project Management has been revised to highlight that its main responsibility is to coordinate the various service transition projects and resolve conflicts. Projects are initiated when Service Portfolio Management has chartered a new or substantially changed service. The Project Management process now calls upon other processes, for instance Design Coordination and Release Planning to perform planning activities on a detailed level.

Release and Deployment Management

A dedicated sub-process for Release Planning has been added, which is called upon from Project Management to perform the detailed planning of Release build, test and deployment. Minor Release Deployment has been removed, as the latest ITIL guidance specifies that minor Changes are implemented by Change Management without the involvement of Release Management. Additional interfaces to Project Management have been added to make sure that Project Management is constantly provided with current planning information

Service Validation and Testing

Additional interfaces to Project Management have been added to make sure that Project Management is constantly provided with current planning information. The process interfaces have been updated to reflect the new structure of the Service Transition processes. The checklists CMS/ CMDB and DML have been completely revised to better explain the concept of the Configuration Model and its use in the context of defining the DML.

Service Asset and Configuration Management

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Changes in Service Operation


Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Operation
ITIL Process
Event Management

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


Event Management has been updated to reflect the concept of 1st Level and 2nd Level Correlation. The process flows have been updated to reflect the more detailed guidance in the ITIL books.

Incident Management

Guidance has been improved on how to prioritize an Incident, including the addition of a new checklist Incident Prioritization Guideline. Additional steps have been added to Incident Resolution by 1st Level Support to explain that Incidents should be matched (if possible) to existing Problems and Known Errors. Incident Resolution by 1st Level Support and Incident Resolution by 2nd Level Support have been considerably expanded to provide clearer guidance on when to invoke Problem Management from Incident Management. The emphasis is now on restoring services as quickly as possible, and to seek the help of Problem Management if the underlying cause of an Incident cannot be resolved with a minor Change and/or within the committed resolution time. Incident Closure and Evaluation now states more clearly that it is important to check whether there are new Problems, Workarounds or Known Errors that must be submitted to Problem Management.

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Operation


ITIL Process
Request Fulfilment

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


The Request Fulfilment process has been completely revised to reflect the latest guidance. Request Fulfilment now consists of an overview diagram and five sub-process diagrams, to provide a detailed description of all activities and decision points. Request Fulfilment now contains interfaces with Incident Management (if a Service Request turns out to be an Incident) and Service Transition (if fulfilling of a Service Request requires the involvement of Change Management). A new checklist Service Request Record has been added to provide a clearer explanation of the information that describes a Service Request and its life cycle. A new checklist Service Request Model explains the concept of Request Models in more detail.

Access Management

An interface between Access Management and Event Management has been added, to emphasize that (some) Event filtering and correlation rules should be designed by Access Management to support the detection of unauthorized access to services. A dedicated activity has been added to revoke access rights if required, to make this point clearer. It has been made clearer in the Request Fulfilment and Incident Management processes that the requesters authorization must be checked.

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Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Service Operation


ITIL Process
Problem Management

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


A new sub-process Proactive Problem Identification has been added to emphasize the importance of proactive Problem Management. In Problem Categorization and Prioritization, it has been made clearer that categorization and prioritization should be harmonized with the approach used in Incident Management, to facilitate matching between Incidents and Problems. The concept of recreating Problems during Problem Diagnosis and Resolution is now more prominent. Problem Diagnosis and Resolution has been completely revised to provide clearer guidance on how this process cooperates with Incident Management. Note: The new ITIL books contain an expanded section on problem analysis techniques and examples for situations where the various techniques may be applied. Please refer to the official ITIL publications for more details.

IT Operations Control

IT Operations Management has been renamed to IT Operations Control, to improve alignment with the ITIL books. IT Facilities Management has been renamed to Facilities Management, to improve alignment with the ITIL books. A new process Application Management has been added, showing Application Management key activities. The Application Analyst role has been added to a number of processes where Application Management expertise is required. The RASCI Matrix has been adjusted accordingly.

Facilities Management

Application Management

Technical Management

A new process Technical Management has been added, showing Technical Management key activities. The Technical Analyst role has been added to a number of processes where Technical Management expertise is required. The RASCI Matrix has been adjusted accordingly.

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Changes in Continual Service Improvement


Changes to the ITIL Process Map (2011 Edition): Continual Service Improvement
ITIL Process
Service Review

Differences with the ITIL Process Map (2007 Edition)


The previous version of the ITIL Process Map contained a Service Evaluation process with sub-processes responsible for dealing with customer surveys, complaints, and service reviews. Since customer surveys and complaints are now being dealt with as part of the new Business Relationship Management process, Service Evaluation has been refocused on service reviews. -/ The CSI Register has been introduced as a central document or database where all improvement opportunities and initiatives are recorded. The CSI Register has been introduced (see above).

Process Evaluation Definition of Improvement Initiatives

CSI Monitoring

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ITIL and ISO 20000


How ITIL and ISO 20000 are related
The basic principles behind ITIL and ISO/IEC 20000:2011 (abbreviated to ISO 20000 in this document) are very much in line. The key differences are: ITIL qualifications are available for individuals, whereas ISO 20000 is a certification scheme for organizations. ITIL is a rather detailed collection of best practices, while ISO 20000 is an international standard that sets out requirements for service quality management systems in IT organizations. When organizations say they are compliant to ITIL, very often this statement is not verifiable; a certification according to the ISO 20000 standard means there has been an objective assessment. Frequently, a certification according to ISO 20000 is sought after introducing ITIL, because it allows an IT organization to actually prove that it is a customer-oriented, efficient and effective supplier of IT services. A certification can thus be used for marketing purposes, or to gain access to customers and markets which require their service suppliers to be ISO 20000 certified.

Key ISO 20000 Requirements


ISO 20000 promotes the adoption of an integrated process approach to effectively deliver managed services to meet the business and customer requirements. ISO 20000 does not prescribe that its requirements must be met by following the ITIL recommendations, so there are many possible ways to achieve compliance. Introducing ITIL, however, is the most widely used approach for obtaining an ISO 20000 certificate. It is also important to prove that IT processes are documented, actively managed, and continually improved. The ITIL Process Map supports ISO 20000 initiatives in that it facilitates the creation of a high-quality process documentation which is at the center of any certification project. IT Process Maps GbR, 2013 - 28 -

ISO 20000 Requirements in Relation to ITIL Processes


ITIL was explicitly written to be aligned with ISO 20000, as the following table exemplifies: for every section in ISO/IEC 20000:2011, Part 1 (Mandatory Requirements) there are one or several related ITIL processes.

ISO/IEC 20000:2011 Sections and related ITIL Processes


ISO 20000 Sections 5
5.1 5.2

Related ITIL Processes

Design and Transition of new or changed Services


General Plan new or changed Services n/a Strategy Management for IT Services, Service Portfolio Management Design Coordination, Service Level Management and other Service Design processes Change Management, Change Evaluation, Transition Planning and Support, Release and Deployment Management and other Service Transition processes

5.3

Design and development of new or changed Services

5.4

Transition of new or changed Services

6
6.1 6.2 6.3

Service Delivery Processes


Service Level Management Service Reporting Service Continuity and Availability Management Budgeting and Accounting for Services Capacity Management Information Security Management Service Level Management Service Level Management IT Service Continuity Management, Availability Management Financial Management for IT Services Capacity Management, Demand Management Information Security Management

6.4 6.5 6.6

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ISO/IEC 20000:2011 Sections and related ITIL Processes


ISO 20000 Sections 7
7.1 7.2

Related ITIL Processes

Relationship Processes
Business Relationship Management Supplier Management Business Relationship Management Supplier Management

8
8.2

Resolution Processes
Incident and Service Request Management Problem Management Incident Management, Service Request Management Problem Management

8.3

9
9.1 9.2 9.3

Control Processes
Configuration Management Change Management Release and Deployment Management Service Asset and Configuration Management Change Management Release and Deployment Management

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IT Process Maps GbR Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Kempter & Dr. Andrea Kempter Am Hrnle 7 87459 Pfronten Germany Tel. + 49-8363-927396 Fax + 49-8363-927703 info@it-processmaps.com www.IT-ProcessMaps.com Member of itSMF IT Process Maps GbR, 2013

ITIL is a registered trade mark of AXELOS Limited. All processes and methods in our products were compiled with the greatest of diligence. Despite this fact, errors may not be ruled-out. IT Process Maps GbR therefore makes no guarantee nor accepts any type of liability for consequences, which may be associated with incorrect statements. Each user must decide in his own particular case, whether the illustrated procedures are respectively applicable to his own person or his business.

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