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A Corua Lugo Ourense Pontevedra

Galicia

Spain

CONTENTS Introduction Capital cities and towns Santiago de Compostela A Corua Betanzos Ferrol Mondoedo Lugo Ourense Tui Pontevedra Vigo 1

13 17 20 20 21 21 24 27 28 30

Dublin

United Kingdom
London

Ireland

Touristic routes The Monastery Route 32 Ras Baixas 34 Costa da Morte 35 Ras Altas and Maria Lucense 36 Ribeira Sacra 38 The Road to Santiago 40 Leisure and shows Useful information 42

Paris

France

Cantabrian Sea

GALICIA
Madrid

47

Portugal
Lisbon

Spain

Atlantic Ocean Ceuta


Text: Jos A. Ferreiro Pieiro Translation: Hilary Dyke Layout: OPCIN K, Comunicacin Visual, S.L. Photographs: TURESPAA Picture Library, TURGALICIA Published by: Turespaa Secretara de Estado de Comercio y Turismo Ministerio de Economa Printed by: Grafoffset, S. L. D.L. M-00000-2000 NIPO: 380-01-031-X Printed in Spain First edition

Mediterranean Sea Melilla

Morocco

Motorway Expressway National Road Primary basic network road Secondary basic network road Local road Railway Road to Santiago State hotel Monasteries

Monument Historical ruins Nature Park Nautical sports centre Camp site Golf course Spa Airport Ski resort World heritage site

C
Cabo Ortegal

Estaca de Bares

Cario Cedeira Valdovio San Sadurnio


651

Porto do Barqueiro

Ortigueira Viveiro

Cervo
549

Atios

Burela

A GIJN 94 km

Cabo Prior

Meirs
P

A S R I
Islas Sisargas Cabo de San Adrin

Ourol

Ferreira (O Valadouro)
1033 Xistral

Foz
Barreiros

Benquerencia
P

Tapia de Casariego
634

Ferrol Ares Sada


Moruxo

Neda Fene
Caaveiro

As Pontes de Garca Rodrguez


Os Cabreiros Tardade
P

Ribadeo Vegadeo
Lourenz
1201

Lourenz Mondoedo

Castropol

Coaa

Navia

A CORUA

G A L A I C O

Cabo Viln

Malpica de Oleiros Cain Arteixo Bergantios Bergondo Monfero Monfero Ponteceso Rapadoiro Laracha Viga Cambre Betanzos Irixoa Carballo Carral Laxe Mabegondo Coristanco VI 550 Cerceda Camarias Baio 595
A-9

Pontedeume P. N. FRAGAS Mio DO EUME

Boal

634

A Pontenova
640

La Garganta

Illano Santa Eulalia de Oscos Grandas Pesoz

Vilalba
Paraxes Castro

Pola de Allende

Meira

Cabo Tourin

Muxia

Vimianzo
Dolmen Cabaleiros

Mesn do Vento Santa Comba


569

Teixeiro

Curtis Sobrado dos Monxes

Guitiriz Baamonde Rbade Outeiro de Rei

Meira A Fonsagrada
Marentes

Viladonga
1029 Pradairo

Dumbria Corcubin Fisterra


Cabo Finisterre

Ordes
634

Cee Mazaricos
641

Emb. de Fervenza
Dolmen de

Corredoiras

Negreira

Portimouro

LUGO
Friol
Nadela

Castroverde O Cadabo O Corgo


Cerceda

Ventanueva

Sobrado dos Monxes

A Serra Corveira de Outes Carnota Muros

Brin

Melide

Guntn de Pallars
540

r a d e ca re s

Santiago de Compostela

Arza
547

Navia de Suarna Baralla Becerre

Palas de Rei

1969 Miravalles

Ramallosa Noia Louro Merza Padrn Porto do Son A Estrada Castro de Pontecesures Barona Rianxo 640 525 Silleda Catoira A Pobra Boiro 550 Laln do Caramial Vilagarca Cuntis Bretal Aciveiro de Arousa P. N.COMPLEJO DUNAR A-9 Caldas Forcarei DE CORRUBEDO Y LAGUNAS de Reis DE CARREGAL Y VIXAN Vilanova Santa Uxia Cerdedo Cambados de Ribeira

I Z O

Portomarn Monterroso

Agolada

640

Sarri Taboada Chantada

Samos

VI

876

Samos Ferrera

O Piornedo ie A S s O Pedrafita do Cebreiro

Fabero

Vega de Espinareda A LEN 119 km

Ribas de Mio Bveda do Incio

Vega de Valcarce
Pico Piapaxaro 1607

E L B I E R Z O
P

Oseira

Isla de Slvora

O Grove

I. de la Toja

Armenteira Poio
P

Soutelo
541

1014

Oseira

Carbadelo (A Barrela)
San Vicente

Beariz

Combarro
Isla de Ons

PONTEVEDRA
550

O Carballio

San Cristovo de Pombeiro de Cea

Pantn

Monforte de Lemos
120

Folgoso do Courel
Sierra

Co de O

l ure

Cacabelos Villafranca del Bierzo Carracedelo Ponferrada

Baiona

Nigrn O Porrio Gondomar


PARQUE NATURAL MONTE ALOIA

A-55

Ponteareas Caldelas de Tui As Neves


P

Celanova
Celanova
540

Allariz
Xunqueira de Amba
525

Santa Eufemia

Vilar de Barrio

z d Gabin 1707 M aci a ne z de Man


P. N. MONTE INVERNADEIRO

S I A
B

Sanxenxo Marn Bueu


Aguete
A-9

Ponte-Caldelas San Clodio Soutomaior Redondela Mondariz Avin Leiro Ribadavia 1151 Meln

Maside San Amaro


120 A-52

Sober Nogueira de Ramun


Santa Cristina de Ribas de Sil

Quiroga A Ra
Freixido
536

Moaa
Islas Ces PARQUE NATURAL ISLAS CES

OURENSE
Esgos

A Pobra de Trives

O Barco

Puente de Domingo Flrez

Cangas Vigo
Bouzas
A-52

A Caiza Vilasobroso

Arnoia Cartelle Meln Cortegada A Merca

Xunqueira de Castro O Bolo Espadanedo Caldelas Manzaneda Maceda Montederramo 1778 Baos MANZANEDA Manzaneda de Molgas o Seixo Viana do Bolo

A
J

Pea Trevinca

A Veiga

2124

S
N

A BENAVENTE 76 km

Oia

Tui Valena

Pazos

Mono
1373

Ribadelago

Oia Tomio A Guarda Caminha


0 10 20 30 40 km
812

Bande
Baos Santa Comba
1415

Xinzo de Limia Cualedro


Santa Comba de Bande

A Gudia Laza
1291 Pea Nofre

Puebla de Sanabria
Padornelo
1262 Corraes

Vern Baltar
1575
P

A Mezquita

Lobios
1755

PARQUE NATURAL BAIXA LIMIA - SERRA DO XURS

Larouco

532

CARTOGRAFA: GCAR, S.L. Cardenal Silceo, 35 Tel. 914167341 - 28002 MADRID - AO 2000

Feces

BRAGANA

VIANA DO CASTELO

Introduction
The country of Finis Terrae and the way of the stars
From the ages of darkness to the discovery of America, the world was flat. The sun came up in the Orient, in the Empire of the Rising Sun, and died in the Occident (occidere, to kill), becoming fiery red as it sank into the Atlantic. It set over the Finis Terrae of the Romans (where they erected the ara solis, or altar to the sun), the coast of the dead and the woods of the Celtic Druids, the present Costa de la Muerte, or Death Coast. The rising and the setting of the sun are two cosmic shows taking

place on the confines of the continent of Eurasia. Every night, hundreds of Chinese and tourists climb to the top of the Tai Shan mountain in eastern China to watch the sun rise from among the clouds beneath them. Every evening for millions of years, the Galician coastline witnessed the drama of the descent of the sun into the shadowy sea, the sea of unfathomable chasms which no sailor was brave enough to ply. Nowadays, however, the observer enjoys the magnificent beauty of a firmament flooded in a symphony of orange, pink and purple hues. Eventide is the skys moment of glory, as the sun sets and night falls.

Cape Finisterre. A Corua

The Milky Way also reaches Finisterre. In prehistoric times, this, the Way of the Stars, was set between parallels 42 36 and 42 46 as a route of civilisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, clearly the result of the advanced knowledge of astronomy and astrology coming from the cultures of the Middle East. There are still archaeological remains of this route, along with a number of place names deriving from the word estrella, or star. Thus, on both sides of the Catalonian Pyrenees, we find Pic dEstelle, Puig dEstelle, Puig de les Tres Estelles and Les Esteilles; and, in Navarra, both in Basque and in Spanish: Estella or Lizarra, and Lizarraga (star cluster). The symbolism of stars is reflected in the discovery of the tomb of St. James the Apostle, or Apstol Santiago (a motionless star drew the attention of the eremite, Paio)

and, on the grave of Charlemagne, two rows of stars point significantly in the direction of Compostela. Although the Road to Santiago comes to an end at Compostela, some pilgrims carry on to Finisterre as a way of recalling the Way of the Stars (the scallop, the shell carried by the pilgrims, is a maritime symbol of the goddess, Venus).

Land and sea


For the millions of foreigners who think that Spains landscape is like the one described in the Quixote and for the millions of tourists who are familiar with Mediterranean Spain, Galicia is another world. It is the land of the Atlantic, of the thousand rivers, of leas and autochthonous forests, with an overwhelming assortment of fresh, succulent shades of green. This is nature in its pure state, the understructure of biodiversity, with unique species which can only be described as metaphors: from the goose barnacles, appearing like geological gnarls on the seabeaten rocks, to the river lamprey, a true, prehistoric, living fossil, not to mention the ecological wonder of

Ra de Corme y Laxe. A Corua

thousands of horses roaming free in the mountains.

With a surface area of 30,000 km2, undulating relief and wide valleys, Galicia is the oldest land on the Iberian Peninsula. The high mountain ranges, situated on the eastern side, are the result of tectonic movements producing the Cebreiro, Ancares, O Caurel, Manzaneda and Trevinca mountains, with altitudes ranging from 1,000 to 2,000 metres. Reminiscent of Mount Olympus, it is from these ranges that rivers like the mighty Sil come gushing down through gorges and canyons. Below the lofty peaks clad in oak, yew, beech, hazel and holly, lies the shoreline with its Mediterranean-like vegetation of mimosas, camellias, gardenias,

orange, lemon and palm trees, set against a background of leas glistening in countless shades of green, maize fields, woods of chestnut, pine and birch, the furze and the broom, and the vineyards, with their rich spectrum of colour where yellow blends into red. Mingling in with all these sights are the farming areas of the traditional Galician smallholdings: market gardens, meadows, cereal fields, pastures and wooded hills. As the traveller reaches the shore, further delights lie in store along the 1,300 km of coastline. To begin with, the unusual geographical feature known as the rias, broad inlets forged by the sea. Found only in Galicia, they constitute the most interactive of symbioses between sea and land, providing unique biological conditions for fish and shellfish and an unbeatable setting for pleasure sailing. Temperatures are mild: between 18C and 23C in summer and no lower than 8C in winter. However, the engaging, tender beauty of the rias stands in contrast with the open sea, a contrast which is also reflected in Galicias 700 beaches, where there is a great difference
Cross at Finisterre

between the ones that are exposed to the open sea and those lining the rias, which are peaceful and sheltered. The sand is ideal in colour, going from white to golden, bathed by waves of all shapes and sizes: anything from unruly breakers for windsurfing and surfing to gentle ripples. In terms of environmental quality, every year, about 40 Galician beaches receive the European Blue Flag award. Another striking contrast is to be found in the vast sandbanks, such as the beach at Carnota, stretching into infinity, or the moving sand dunes at Corrubedo in Ribeira (A Corua), broken off here and there by spectacular cliffs like the ones belonging to the Sierra da Capelada, where the highest cliff in Europe, Vixa

da Herbeira, with a sheer drop of 612 metres, proudly stands. Lastly, several groups of islands, surrounded by the turquoise waters of the Atlantic Ocean, are situated at outlets of the Ras Baixas: the Ces, Ons and Slvora by the rias of Vigo, Pontevedra and Arousa, and the Sisargas, just opposite the cape known as Cabo San Adrin in Malpica (A Corua). Of great scenic beauty, the islands are home to gods, octopus, seagulls and cormorants and are the coveted destination of summer holidaymakers, day-trippers, bird-watchers and yachtsmen.

A scattered population and the art of travelling


Another of the special characteristics of this land is that its inhabitants, totalling nearly

Pallozas in O Cebreiro. Lugo

Pazo de Oca. A Estrada. Pontevedra

three million (Galicia is the fifth autonomous community in terms of population), with a density of 92.6 per km2, are scattered into 30,000 population nuclei, half of the overall figures for Spain. Although part of the rural population has been drawn more recently by the industries based in the towns and cities, historically speaking, Galicias population has tended to be scattered. In a world where no virgin territory remains to be discovered, Galicia offers the traveller the excitement of uncovering the secrets of its vast terrain. To do this, he must leave the motorways and venture onto the regional roads that wind their way round the mountains, reduce speed to 40 or 50 km/h and drive with the windows down to take in the fresh smell of the hay and the shadiness of

the ferns. He may rest assured that he will come across idyllic spots which will arouse all his senses, find himself visiting an out-of-the-way Romanesque or baroque church or plunged into the merrymaking of a fiesta or a popular fair. When it is time for a meal, he is advised to try one of the traditional eating houses, unpretentious yet welcoming with their stews, fries and casseroles. He must not be surprised if the innkeeper, with a somewhat peculiar sense of salesmanship, starts complaining that it is too late to serve food or indeed, that there is none left. Just nod and take a seat. You will have a meal fit for a king! As for accommodation, you will never be far away from one of the 253 rural tourism hostels, which have been tastefully

Fortified hamlet at Santa Tecla. Pontevedra

refurbished. Here, you will again encounter the luxury of simplicity, or the simplicity of luxury. The traveller will also find curious features that form an inherent part of the Galician countryside: pazos (ancestral homes), hrreos (granaries) and cruceiros (crosses). Pazos (from the Latin palatium) are an original type of ancestral home. A total of 640 have been catalogued, some of which are in the towns, although the majority are situated here and there in the country areas. All styles are to be found, baroque being the commonest. However, at the very least, they all have a small garden, a chapel, an hrreo or a dovecote. Some of them operate as state hotels

(paradores) or private hotels and 34 are engaged in rural tourism. The hrreo, a typical construction in the area, is used to ripen and dry maize. Some of them, like the ones at Carnota and Lira, measure up to 35 metres in length. At Combarro, there is a varied group of these granaries, lined up in perfect formation as they overlook the Pontevedra ria. Cruceiros have existed since the thirteenth century at crossroads, the porticoes of churches, anywhere, in fact, as the commemoration of a misfortune or an expression of gratitude. Elaborate or plain, they are used as places of worship, meeting points or a

spot to go and have a chat. The most noteworthy cruceiro is the one at Ho, Cangas (Pontevedra) and the oldest, dating back to the fourteenth century, is to be found at Melide (A Corua), on the Road to Santiago.

History and signs of identity


In the period between the sixth and ninth centuries B.C., IndoEuropean peoples, with some Celtic traces, arrived in Galicia. The bulk of the Celts, however, would not appear until the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., when they settled in the westernmost regions of Europe. The dolmens, a form of tomb found all over Galicia, belong to the Neolithic period, while the petroglyphs, or rock carvings, now enthusiastically reproduced because of the popularity of Celtic symbology, go back to the

Petroglyphs at Mogot. Pontevedra

Bronze Age. The culture of the castros, or fortified hamlets, also dates back to the Bronze Age, reaching its height in the Iron Age and lasting through Roman domination, that is, a full millennium. The most spacious, best excavated ones are at Baroa (A Corua), on a peninsula jutting out spectacularly into the ocean; at

Granary at Carnota. A Corua

Santa Tegra, at the outlet of the River Mio; and at Viladonga, at Castro de Rei, Lugo. So it happened that, since the times of dolmen culture, down through the Romanesque and the baroque, stone became Galicias most representative building material. It is seen in city buildings and on the streets paved with granite slabs, so typical of Galicias towns. Galician granite was used on the facades of the European Parliament building at Strasbourg, the Council of Ministers premises at Brussels and the city halls of Tokyo and A Corua. Romes legacy included constructions, walls, roadways, bridges, lighthouses, baths, in addition to law and the soft cadence of the Galician language. Galicia was enormously influenced by Roman culture. Nevertheless, the Celtic and the Roman reflect two opposing influences: fantasy and realism,

Atlantic mists and Mediterranean sunlight. It is perhaps because Galicia is an Atlantic rather than a Mediterranean land that historians like Murgua exalted the Celtic, non-Latin aspect as the foundation of its historical personality. Later considered as being overloaded with romanticism and myth, this thesis was reviewed. Then again, the Celtic reappears sporadically, forming part of the cultural identity of Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Cornwall, Brittany.... with bagpipe music, now at the height of popularity, and fantastic literature. Galician bagpipers play their part in this Celtic show, blowing with determination to attain the 70 decibels of their highly demanding instruments. The oral tradition common to these peoples lives on, enveloped in magic and mystery, spells, apparitions, fantastic beings, absences, nostalgia, all of which are the themes of endless

Meloxo. Ra de Arousa. Pontevedra

Monastery of Santa Mara. Armenteira. Pontevedra

Shrine of As Ermidas. Ourense

popular legends from Santa Compaa to San Andrs de Teixido, the shrine which is most highly revered in ancient legends and animistic cults: thither you must go alive as otherwise, you will go as a dead man turned into an animal, perhaps a reptile. Among the varied forms of Galician literature is the one known as exalted fantasy, where there is no frontier between the lived and the dreamed. lvaro Cunqueiro is its greatest exponent. In the Middle Ages, from the days of the first Compostelan archbishop, Diego Gelmrez, Santiago became one of Europes leading cultural centres on account of the pilgrimages. At the same time, a burgeoning urban network appeared, along with a class of tradesmen and craftsmen in towns and hamlets.

It is from this period that the rich legacy of Romanesque architecture and sculpture comes. The fifteenth century witnessed the revolt of the Irmandios, when the bourgeoisie and the peasantry rose up against the feudal lords, assaulting their castles. Although the lords property was guaranteed by the Catholic Sovereigns, they lost responsibility for justice and their fortresses were rendered ineffective. While a few castles have been conserved, the majority are in ruins, bearing witness to this period. In the seventeenth century, the population grew with the arrival of maize and the potato from Spanish America. Rustic property in the hands of the Church and the nobles was rented out to the peasants,

giving rise to the longstanding smallholding system, which todays traveller will observe in an unmistakable landscape. With the eighteenth century came a boom in maritime trading, the textile industry and fish-salting, while the Marquis of Sargadelos built the first blast furnace of Spains industrial revolution. In Santiago, the Churchs high income enhanced the remarkable flourishing of Galician baroque and the ubiquitous appearance of pazos. The smallholding system, high population density and poor communications for the transport of products to the exterior triggered massive emigration from Galicia in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, subsequently replaced by an exodus from the countryside to

the cities and industrial areas, now backed by an efficient communications network. Galicia is now one of the three historical communities in the total 17 autonomous communities created under the Spanish Constitution of 1978. In its Autonomous Statutes, passed in 1980, two official languages, Galician and Spanish, are established, together with the scopes of responsibility of the autonomous government and parliament.

Nature for mountain and park-lovers, ornithologists and backpackers


Mountainous areas The highest mountain ranges are Sierra de Os Ancares and O Courel (Lugo), and the massifs

Coat of arms of the Autonomous Community of Galicia

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Bird-watching on Isla del Faro. Islas Ces. Pontevedra.

of Manzaneda and Trevinca (Ourense). Manzaneda boasts a ski resort while Os Ancares is known for its national hunting reserve. All four mountain chains, with their beauty spots and autochthonous forests, are ideal for backpacking and climbing. Teixedal de Casaio, in Trevinca, is the finest yew forest in the south of Europe. In Os Ancares, O Piornedo has been officially declared a historical-cultural ensemble on account of its pallozas, prehistoric dwellings with Celtic traces. In a primitive economy, the palloza would be home, stable and store all at the same time. Oval in shape, a tall framework of wooden beams stands on a low stone wall, with a thatched roof of straw made from rye.

Nature parks There are six nature parks in all: the group of sand dunes at Corrubedo and the lakelets of Carregal and Vixn, situated in Ribeira (A Corua); Baixa Limia Serra do Xurs (Ourense); the Ces Islands, facing the Vigo ria; Monte Aloia (Tui, Pontevedra): Fragas do Eume, in the valley of the River Eume, accessible by the road from Pontedeume (A Corua); and Monte Invernadeiro, close by the Sierra de Manzaneda (Ourense). Bird-watching The craggy coasts of A Corua draw the migratory birds that fly in from the ocean: terns, seagulls, gannets and cormorants, perching on tiny bits of jutting rock before soaring into the skies. Estaca de Bares and Cabo Viln are the

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strategic bird-watching points, both of which have been declared natural reserves of national interest. In the ecosystems of marshlands and coastal estuaries, the commonest birds are ducks, coots, oyster catchers, curlews and cranes.

Backpacking routes In Galicia, eight long walks have been catalogued in compliance with international standards, along with 27 short ones, i.e., no longer than 50 km, taking less than two days.

Cathedral. Santiago de Compostela

Capital cities and towns


The capitals of the four provinces are: A Corua, Lugo, Ourense and Pontevedra. The capitals of the Ancient Kingdom of Galicia are seven in total: Santiago de Compostela, A Corua, Betanzos, Mondoedo, Lugo, Ourense and Tui. The circle is completed with two more recently developed towns: Vigo and Ferrol.

Colegio Fonseca. Santiago de Compostela

Santiago de Compostela
It is one of the three cities to represent the history of Spain as a confluence of three civilisations: Santiago, the city of stone, European, Romanesque and baroque, symbolising the Christian world; Granada, the symbol of Moslem culture; and Toledo, the Christian, Arabic and Jewish all in one. Declared by UNESCO as a world heritage site and as Cultural City of Europe in the year 2000, Santiago has a university that dates back five centuries. The capital of the Autonomous Community of Galicia, it is now undergoing a period of urban expansion and cultural enrichment, with the founding of new museums and the birth of the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra of Galicia.
Pazo de Raxoi. Santiago de Compostela

A visit to this city, where it is just as likely to be rainy as it is to be sunny or changeable, starts off at the cathedral (1). With its eleventh century Romanesque structure, complete with triple nave, apse and radiating chapels, the triforium and the sculptures, it is the acme of pilgrims temples. Of particular note is the Prtico de la Gloria, the most finely finished iconographic monument of mediaeval sculpture. It is the work of Maestro Mateo, also responsible for the mediaeval stone choir, most of which has just been rebuilt. Beneath the high altar, the crypt contains the remains of the Apostle

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Cathedral State hotel Pazo de Raxoi Colegio de San Jernimo Pazo de Gelmrez Colegio Fonseca Casa del Cabildo (Town Hall) Casa de la Parra Casa de los Cannigos Convent of San Paio de Antealtares 11 Casa de la Troya 12 Monastery of San Martn Pinario 13 Convent of San Francisco

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Parque de la Herradura Colegio de San Clemente Pazo de Bendaa Church of Santa Mara Salom University Church of San Fiz de Solovio Church of San Agustn Convent of Santo Domingo de Bonaval 22 Centro Gallego de Arte Contemporneo 23 Church of San Miguel dos Agros 24 Museo de las Peregrinaciones 25 Collegiate Church of Santa Mara la Real del Sar Tourist information office
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in a beautiful silver urn. In the museum, a huge censer, known as the botafumeiro, is kept. At liturgical festivities, the censer is swung spectacularly down the transept up to the topmost point of the vault. Unlike other cathedrals, hemmed in by a maze of narrow streets, Santiago Cathedral stands amid spacious squares: Obradoiro, Plateras, Quintana and Azabachera. In Obradoiro, the squares gradient is accentuated by the horizontalness of its other monuments: the fifteenth century, plateresque Hospital de Peregrinos (2), now a state hotel with a superb chapel and inner courtyards; the neoclassic, Frenchflavoured Pazo de Raxoi (3); the Colegio de San Jernimo (4), now the university rectory, with a fifteenth century frontispiece and a cloister; and the Romanesque Pazo de Gelmrez (5). This wealth

of styles is made complete with the Renaissance Colegio Fonseca (6) and its splendid cloister and turret. Las Plateras boasts the oldest of the frontispieces, belonging to twelfth century Romanesque. Opposite stands the baroque Casa del Cabildo (7), or town hall. In the square known as Plaza de Quintana, the cathedrals holy door (Puerta Santa), opened only in Holy Years, is situated. Close at hand, the imposing Torre del Reloj forms part of a triple baroque ensemble in conjunction with Casa de la Parra (8) and Casa de los Cannigos, crowned by graceful chimneys (9). The sharpest counterpoint lies in the bare paving covering this huge square, the straight flight of steps running across it and the austere, solid, endless wall of the Convent of San Paio de Antealtares (10). For contrast, the visitor is advised to go round San Paio and its

Colegio de San Jernimo. Santiago de Compostela

Collegiate Church of Santa Mara la Real del Sar. Santiago de Compostela

sacred art museum and then round the nearby Casa de la Troya (11), where the student atmosphere still prevails. Lastly, Azabachera. The facade is baroque, with a neoclassic influence. Opposite stands the second most important monument after the cathedral, the Benedictine monastery of San Martn Pinario (12), now a seminary. With a baroque church and an astonishing open high altar of unique beauty, the monastery flaunts a host of styles. Not far away is the Convent of San Francisco (13), with a spacious baroque and neoclassic church and hostel.

A second route might well begin at Parque de la Herradura (14), where the best panoramic view of the city is to be had. As we come out, we find ourselves admiring the well-balanced factory of the seventeenth century Colegio de San Clemente (15), to take a stroll afterwards round Plaza del Toral, with its baroque Bendaa pazo (16), towards the colonnades of Ra do Vilar and Ra Nova, where the twelfth century Romanesque Church of Santa Mara Salom (17) is situated. The neoclassic structure of the university (18) contrasts with the hustle and bustle of the neighbouring marketplace, wedged between two churches, the Romanesque San Fiz de Solovio (19) and the baroque San Agustn (20). Going along Ruela das nimas, we enter another world, one of pazos and churches from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, to come out at the convent known as Santo Domingo de Bonaval (21),
Aerial view of the port. A Corua

Collegiate Church of Santa Mara do Campo. Tower of Hercules. A Corua A Corua

housing the Ethnographic Museum Do Pobo Galego. The convent church contains the mausoleum of distinguished Galicians. Adjacent, the Centro Gallego de Arte Contemporneo (22), by the architect lvaro Siza, provides the ensemble with a second, more modern identity. In the surrounding area, there is a rich store of seventeenth and eighteenth century convents. Back in the centre again, the infinite spectrum of styles is embodied in the neoclassic Church of San Miguel dos Agros (23) and the Pazo Don Pedro or Gothic House, which accommodates the Museo de las Peregrinaciones (24). Outside the city, it is a must to visit the Collegiate Church of Santa Mara la Real del Sar (25), a Romanesque gem renowned for the unusual leaning pillars that support the naves. www.citcompostela.es www.santiagodecompostela.org www.xacobeo.es www.aytocompostela.es

A Corua
This is the open, cosmopolitan city par excellence, where nobody is a stranger. It is of fervent liberal tradition, showing a spirit of modernity in its urban structures and life styles. The people of A Corua have always lived in harmony with their city. The old town is like a closely-knit Romanesque ecosystem, consisting of the Church of Santiago (1), the oldest; the Church of Santa Mara do Campo (2), with its attractive portico; and the Convent of Santa Brbara (3), forming another unusual small square. The house/museum of the writer, Emilia Pardo Bazn, the neoclassic palace where the military headquarters, Capitana General, are located, the baroque Convent of Santo Domingo (4), the romantic Garden of San Carlos, where the tomb of the English general, Sir John Moore, is situated, and the Military Museum (5), all stand as proof of a citys steady, historical evolution from a mediaeval outpost.
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Casa del Hombre (Domus) Casa de las Ciencias and Planetarium Fine Arts Museum Church of las Capuchinas Church of San Nicols Church of San Jorge Palacio Municipal Tourist information office

The visitor may enjoy a ride along the Paseo Martimo, or promenade, which encircles the city centre, by taking one of the tourist trams that run on Saturdays and holidays all year round and every day in summer. Starting at the Castillo de San Antn (6), a sixteenth century fortress and history and archaeology museum, the tram continues to Torre de Hrcules (7), the only lighthouse of Roman origin still in operation. Next, on to Casa de los Peces, or the aquarium (8), and Casa del Hombre, or Domus (9), which, together with the science museum, Casa de las Ciencias, and the planetarium (10), located in Parque Santa Margarita, exhibits the latest discoveries about the sea, mankind and the world. A third trip combines the fine arts museum, Museo de Bellas Artes (11), the baroque Churches of Las Capuchinas (12), San Nicols (13) and San Jorge (14) with the Palacio Municipal (15), in the impressive Plaza de Mara Pita. We finish off with a delightful stroll along Marina and its typical windowed galleries, Calle Real, past the obelisk to arrive at one of the best areas for inns and tapas bars, the streets known as Estrella, Olmos and Galera. More recent examples of A Coruas cultural and touristic activities are to be found in the
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Promenade. A Corua

Plaza de Mara Pita. A Corua

Domus. A Corua

Galician Symphonic Orchestra, the headquarters of the Pedro Barri de la Maza Foundation, the Unin Fenosa Museum of Contemporary Art and Monte San Pedro, just reconditioned to provide a spectacular view of the entire city. www.dicoruna.es www.turismocoruna.com

Church of San Francisco. Betanzos

Cathedral Church of de San Xulin. Ferrol

Betanzos
One of the seven capitals of the Kingdom of Galicia and a historical-artistic ensemble, the town is situated at the back end of the Betanzos ria, where the water of the sea meets the fresh waters of the Mandeo and Mendo rivers. Betanzos character has been created by three Gothic churches: Santiago, Santa Mara do Azogue and lastly, San Francisco, which contains the most charismatic of mediaeval tombs, such as that of Prez de Andrade, held up by the two animals which were the symbol of his lineage, the wild boar and the bear. Also worthy of note are the pazos known as Bendaa, Taboada and Torre Lanxs, not forgetting a somewhat surprising park, O Pasatempo, whose builders, emigrants returning from Spanish America, were a few steps ahead of the modern concept of the theme park. Finally, we must taste the light, fruity wine of Betanzos at any of the rustic taverns, whose only
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distinguishing feature is a branch of bay leaves hanging on the door. www.betanzos.net/html/indice.htm

Ferrol
Because of its ideal conditions as a natural harbour, Ferrol became the main shipyard in the north of Spain and the location of the navys maritime department. In the past, two large castles poised on the narrow mouth of the ria made it invulnerable to attacks by sea. A new city of neoclassic design, unique in Galicia, was created, with straight, parallel streets. The neoclassic is also found in the Cathedral Church of San Xulin, the Church of San Francisco and the Chapels of Dolores and Angustias. From the park known as Jardines de Herrera, situated between the state hotel and Capitana, or military headquarters, a full view of the city is to be enjoyed and, just three km away, in Serantes, the ria may be surveyed from the Church of Chamorro.

Galicia for sacred art. The seventeenth century bishops palace is also of interest. The visitor should fall in with the slow pace of the area surrounding the cathedral to admire the superb instances of nineteenth and twentieth century civil architecture, the magnificent Fuente Vieja, the small Jewish quarter, the seminary and the eighteenth century pazo, now used as the town hall. He should also find the time to go round two rather quaint districts: los Remedios and los Molinos. www.diputacionlugo.org/indice.html

Cathedral of Mondoedo

The military facilities at Los Arsenales, where there is also an interesting naval museum, should not be forgotten, nor should the visitor miss the boat trips to Mugardos (Castillo de A Palma) and to the Castillo de San Felipe, or the cruises along the ria in summer. www.ferrol-concello.es

Lugo
In no other Spanish city is the legacy of the Romans more compelling. The wall was built at the time of the Roman Empire on the juridical convent of Lucus Augusta, one of three in the vast province of Gallaecia. The others are at Astorga, Len and Braga, Portugal. Thus Lugo is the oldest urban settlement in Galicia. The Roman wall (1) at Lugo, now a world heritage site, is the only one whose perimeter remains in tact. It is a formidable military construction about 10 metres high and 4-5 metres wide, forming a circle of almost 2.5 km, a walk which should be completed by anyone visiting the town. The wall
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Mondoedo
Situated in the wide, open valley pointing towards the Cantabrian Sea, Mondoedo is one of the most evocative capitals of the Ancient Kingdom of Galicia. At the cathedral, now a national monument, the primitive Romanesque frontispiece with its exquisite rose window and the baroque towers are still in a good state of preservation. In the interior too, there is a combination of styles: a ribbed vault supported by pointed arches, murals from the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and a baroque high altarpiece. The museum is perhaps the best in

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Cathedral. Lugo

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distinguishes Lugo from any other city as a reminder of an ancient civilisation and as a privileged vantage point from which to admire the squares, streets and panoramic views. From here, the visitor may go on an imaginary tour of the citys roofs and peep down onto patios, interior gardens, small market gardens, windowed galleries, kitchens... Lugo is not known for privacy. It is inside this walled enclosure, now pedestrianised, that the tour of the city takes place, starting off at the cathedral (2) with its magnificent neoclassic facade.

The triforium and the three naves are flooded in the humid penumbra that is so peculiar to Galician Romanesque, heightened in the walnut choir which was elaborately carved by Francisco de Moure. Then there is the polychrome granite statue of the patron saint, Virgen de los Ojos Grandes, standing in the fifteenth century chapel of the same name. The virgins face reflects the vigour and freshness of a Galician peasant girl. A splendid piece of architecture is to be admired on the north facade, with an ogival portico and a majestic, thirteenth century Pantocrator.
River Mio. Lugo

Cathedral. Lugo

Roman bridge. Ourense

The style of the facades of the Bishops Palace (3) and the City Hall (4) is a sober, well-balanced baroque. Passing the wine and tapas bar area, Calle da Cruz, Plaza do Campo and Ra Nova, we arrive at the Gothic Church of San Francisco (5) and the Provincial Museum (6), where there are interesting pieces from Roman and Pre-Roman times (torques by Burela and Viladonga) and from primitive Christianity (a labarum by Quiroga), together with ethnological displays and collections of paintings. Outside the city, the park named after Rosala de Castro (7) affords a full view of the River Mio Valley and its spa, where hot springs flow into Roman baths. Just 10 km along the Santiago road, there is a short turn-off leading to Bveda, the most enigmatic of Galicias sights. No precise information is available about its date (somewhere between the fourth and seventh centuries), or about its purpose: is it a nymphaeum, a spa, a memorial? The visitor is struck by
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the delicacy of the relief, the feminine dances, the vault, columns and pond, and is left with a taste of mystery which makes the trip all the more exciting. www.fegamp.es/clugo.htm www.lugonet.com www.diputacionlugo.org/indice.html

Ourense
Ourense is the capital city of the province with the greatest number of catalogued monuments belonging to the Artistic Heritage of Spain. The city grew up round the Roman bridge (1) and Las Burgas (2), hot springs held in such great esteem by the Romans. Originally a crossroads and resting place, the city thus began its march through history. The bridge, an architectural wonder, crosses the River Mio as it flows along to form part of the cityscape. At La Burga de Abaixo, the nineteenth century neoclassic fountain, complete with three figures and jets, is well worth a visit while, at

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La Burga de Arriba, the seventeenth century common fountain is to be admired. The old town: the space now occupied by Plaza Mayor was once a field where fairs were held. Other squares have been named after the produce sold at the various fairs: do Trigo (wheat), do Ferro (iron), do Sal (salt). The City Hall (3) boasts a classicalstyle facade, a low portico and an inset balcony, all finished off with a coat of arms and a clock.

At the Archaeological Museum (4), housed in what used to be the Bishops Palace, now with a Baroque frontispiece, the visitor will find interesting collections, from the Palaeolithic to the castro culture, both Roman and mediaeval, along with some Renaissance works. At the top of the nearby flight of steps, he will see the Church of Santa Mara Madre (5), in an exquisite baroque style. We enter the cathedral (6) by the south door, which is of particular interest as an example of the Romanesque moving towards the Gothic, together with other, later styles. The Prtico del Paraso, complete with its original polychromy, brings to mind the Prtico de la Gloria at Santiago Cathedral. The ornate Chapel of Santo Cristo, a reflection of impressive realism, and the high altarpiece, are masterpieces. When leaving the cathedral, one should pause a while to admire the spectacular dome above the

Street in old town. Ourense

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tempted to stroll along the streets and go down to the River Arnoia. Close by is the fascinating Romanesque Church of Santa Mara de Augas Santas. www.inorde.com

Tui
Church of Santa Eufemia. Ourense

transept. The surrounding area is also the epicentre of social life for the young people of Ourense. The baroque facade of Santa Eufemia, next to one of Galicias most noteworthy Renaissance palaces, Oca-Valladares (7), and the Cloister of San Francisco (8), a historical-artistic monument, should most certainly be included on the visitors itinerary. Just 21 km along the Madrid road stands age-old Allariz, where the Romanesque Church of Santiago and the Real Monasterio de Santa Clara, with a baroque cloister, are to be found. The visitor is

Situated by the River Mio, which marks the border with Portugal, Tui is a historical-cultural ensemble and one of the capitals of the Ancient Kingdom of Galicia. The outward appearance of border towns is always hardened by the friction arising at frontier posts and, in the case of Tui, this was aggravated by the Moslem razzias and the Norman raids. Thus it became a fortified, walled town, with a cathedral which is reminiscent of a castle. At night, when this cathedralcum-fortress is lit up, the sight of it from the Portuguese side of the Mio is quite spectacular. Of special interest are the Church of San Telmo and the Convents of
Cathedral. Tui

San Francisco, Monjas Encerradas and Las Clarisas (belonging to the Order of St. Clare). At Santo Domingo, the baroque altarpieces are astonishing: the one portraying the Battle of Lepanto is beyond description. The narrow, old quarter, with its mediaeval atmosphere, is full of pretty nooks and crannies, emblazoned houses and remains of the wall. The area affords splendid views of the Mio and Portuguese riverbank, as indeed does the nearby nature park known as Monte Aloia, of great scenic value. www.riasbaixas.org

centuries, when the port was alive with vessels carrying fish and other goods and the business activities of craftsmen and merchants prospered inside the walled enclosure. With the disappearance of both port and wall, in the old quarter, the splendour of former times has waned, leaving in its wake a number of striking religious monuments and an ensemble of civil architecture replete with colonnades, squares, pazos, emblazoned houses and simple dwellings built of hewn stone. It is all admirably preserved, making for a delightful provincial capital to be enjoyed by all. A tour of the city might start at Plaza de Espaa (1), where elegant nineteenth century buildings are occupied by the local corporation and the provincial council, contrasting evocatively with the ruins of Santo Domingo (2), which date

Pontevedra
Pontevedra (from ponte vella), situated at the back end of the ria of the same name, at the confluence with the River Lrez, had its heyday from the thirteenth to the sixteenth

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Barn, now a state hotel (6). Close by is the Renaissance Basilica of Santa Mara (7). www.riasbaixas.org www.concellopontevedra.es www.fegamp.es/Cpontevedra
Basilica of Santa Mara. Pontevedra

Vigo
A new town which has evolved over the last 150 years, Vigo is now Galicias most densely populated city. A nucleus of magnificent modernist buildings standing against a background of spectacular mountain scenery, spattered right to the top with cottages and tiny farms, is the focal point of the conurbation. A busy, lively city, Vigo has, from its beginnings, drawn its strength from an excellent natural harbour, a fishing and canning industry, shipbuilding and, more recently, the car industry. To acquire an insight into this world, the first thing to do is to stand and survey it from the superb look-out points, or miradores, at O Castro and A Gua. Another unforgettable

back to the fourteenth century and are now classified as a national monument. Then comes the shrine dedicated to La Peregrina (3), the patron saint of Pontevedra, with a slender baroque facade. Not far away are Plaza da Ferrera, surrounded by remarkable buildings, and the Gothic Convent of San Francisco (4). The Provincial Museum (5), the most comprehensive of its kind in Galicia and one of the most exceptional in Spain, is housed in four buildings adjoining the typical Plaza da Lea. As we wend our way through other squares, da Pedreira, da Verdura, de Mndez Nez, do Teucro and Cinco Calles (where there is an eye-catching cruceiro), we reach the pazo, Casa do

sight may be enjoyed by passengers on the express train from Madrid as, in the glow of the early morning sun, it approaches the Bay of Vigo, which unfolds before ones eyes like a revelation. The visitor should commence his tour at the port, where boats depart for the nature park, Parque Natural de las Islas Ces, Cangas (with its fine beaches) and Moaa. Just by the port is the old fishermens district, Berbs, and the market, Mercado da Pedra, with pavement stalls selling oysters and seafood. It is also worth visiting the cathedral church and its wealth of mosaics. In the triangle formed by Puerta del Sol Coln Urziz, the splendid architecture of modern building is to be admired, the most representative construction being the Garca Barbn Cultural Centre by the architect, Antonio Palacios. At the museum, Pazo-Museo Quiones de Len, an impressive archaeological
Ra de Vigo

View of the old town. Vigo

collection is on display, together with paintings going from European baroque to the best of modern Galician painting. The gallery is encircled by Parque de Castrelos, made up of engaging neoclassic gardens with trees over a hundred years old. www.riasbaixas.org www.vigoc.es

Touristic routes The Monastery Route


Leaving to one side the monasteries situated in the 10 cities described so far, we shall now take a look at those of greatest interest in each province. All of them are situated in places of extraordinary beauty, in age-old woods and fertile valleys, on riverbanks or looking out to sea.

Nestling in the nature park, Fragas do Eume, the crumbling outward appearance of the monasteries of Caaveiro and Monfero has a strong romantic flavour about it, accentuated by the age of Caaveiro (tenth century) and the majestic interior of Monfero, where the baroque church is in a better state of upkeep and the Renaissance cloister has been restored.

LUGO
Another of the great monasteries, Samos, is an obligatory stoppingoff place on the Road to Santiago. Belonging to the Benedictine Order since the twelfth century, it is a mixture of styles, harmoniously combining Romanesque, Gothic, Renaissance and baroque structures. Meira and Lourenz differ in style. The church at Meira is a gem of Romanesque and Renaissance architecture, while Lourenz is baroque. Meira is 35
Sobrado dos Monxes. A Corua

A CORUA
One of the great Galician monasteries, Sobrado dos Monxes, in the lands of Melide, is the oldest Cistercian abbey in Spain. Visiting it is like going on a journey in time, passing through the twelfth century chapter house and kitchen, the Renaissance vestry and the monumental baroque church, with a sumptuously decorated facade. There is also a hostel.

Monastery of Celanova. Ourense

Monastery of Samos. Lugo

km from Lugo, on the N-640 road. Lourenz is just 12 km from Mondoedo.

OURENSE
Oseira is 34 km from Ourense and is reached by the Cea turn-off on the N-525 road. Founded by Cistercian monks in the twelfth century, it features a Romanesque church with three naves, a transept and an elaborate chancel consisting of five chapels. With the air of a cathedral, it boasts an arresting baroque facade. The chapter house is a reflection of the transition from Gothic to Renaissance and the various buildings are linked by three cloisters. There is also a hostel. Celanova, 23 km from Ourense along the N-540 road, started off in the tenth century as a retreat for coenobites and a remarkable Mozarabic chapel still stands today as a reminder of that time. The chapel is concealed amid the splendour of the new Benedictine monastery, commenced in 1506. It has a baroque frontispiece, a prepossessing choir and profusely decorated cloisters. There is also a hostel.
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For a taste of contrast between an imposing monastery and a small, primitive church, stepping back in time to the Visigothic period of the seventh century, the traveller should make his way to Santa Comba de Bande, where an unrepeatable experience awaits him. Santo Estevo and Santa Cristina de Ribas de Sil are situated on the Ribeira Sacra. At San Estevo, one senses magnificence and power. The church, of delicate, Cistercian design, has two high altarpieces, one Renaissance and the other, Romanesque, built of stone. The monasterys interior is enhanced by three magnificent cloisters. At Santa Cristina, somewhat smaller in size, the attractive Romanesque church and the remains of the Renaissance cloister overhang a steep slope. The unusual bell tower would seem to levitate over the treetops of the chestnut forest which keeps the monastery from view. San Clodio (Leiro) and Meln are baroque, with interesting Cistercian churches. They are both in the area of Ribadavia, whose fine churches

and eleventh century Jewish quarter should not be missed. At San Clodio, the hotel has recently been refurbished. Xunqueira de Amba is on the Allariz turn-off (A-52 road), 28 km from Ourense. The visitor is pleasantly surprised by the original features of the Romanesque church, the splendid ashlaring on the choir and the ogival cloister.
Baiona. Pontevedra

PONTEVEDRA
Poio. Just 4 km from Pontevedra, of particular note are the baroque facade on the church, the churrigueresque altarpiece, the cloister with its baroque fountain and the original staircase. A huge hrreo stands in the kitchen garden. There is also a hostel. Armenteira is 20 km along Va Rpida, passing through Sameira and Monte Castrove. In a setting of great beauty, the monastery dates back to the twelfth century and its structure bears the Cistercian mark of austerity. From the thirteenth century onwards, features typical of peninsular architecture were introduced, such as the octagonal cupola over the transept, which has a trace of the Mudjar. The churchs trisected facade is finished off with a fine rose window. There is also a hostel. Aciveiro (Focarei). Situated in a mountainous area, the Romanesque church and baroque facade are now being restored.
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Oia. Just 35 km long the coast from Vigo, this is one of the few monasteries situated by the sea. The church is a supreme example of Cistercian architecture and the facade is baroque. The choir, built beneath a handsome ribbed vault, is also to be admired.

Ras Baixas
These are the southernmost of the rias and are also the largest. Moreover, they have the added advantage of a mild, subMediterranean microclimate. Our tour will keep to the coastline, taking the C-550 down to the border with Portugal. From north to south, the first ria is Noia-Muros, named after the areas two main towns, both of which are seafaring and mediaeval in origin. The northern side of the ria is more irregular, with sheltered coves and jutting cliffs, while the southern side is straighter and more exposed. This side is particularly interesting on account of two archaeological sites from the megalithic past, the castro, or fortified hamlet, at Baroa and the dolmen at Axeitos.

The Corrubedo Nature Park, consisting of a great expanse of sand dunes and lakelets, looks straight out to sea. With its leading port at Vilagarca, Ra de Arousa is the widest of all. It is also the birthplace of great writers: the Valle-Incln House/Museum is in Pobra do Caramial and the Rosala de Castro House/Museum is in Padrn, along with the foundation of the winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature, Camilo Jos Cela. Points of interest on the southern side include Torres del Oeste in Catoira, used to ward off Normans and Arabs; the panoramic view from Monte Lobeira (Vilagarca); the Fefians pazo in Cambado; and the island, A Toxa (O Grove), a spa and luxury tourist resort. On Ra de Pontevedra stands Sanxenxo, a tourist resort with a first-class beach. Moving inland, we find the Monastery of Armenteira; Combarro, with its curious collection of hrreos; and the Monastery of Poio, affording panoramic views. The distinguishing feature of Ra de Vigo, the deepest of the rias, is that it opens up into the spacious
Ra de Noia-Muros

cove of San Simn. It is crossed by the spectacular Rande Bridge. Passing Vigo, we drive by the superb Amrica beach to arrive in Baiona, a historical ensemble of great interest to sightseers and also a tourist resort, complete with nautical sports centre and state hotel. Continuing southwards, we observe the Monastery of Oia overlooking the sea and come to the end of our trip at A Guarda, on the outlet of the River Mio, where the impressive castro, Monte Santa Tegra, awaits us.

Costa da Morte
This is the route quoted in the myth about the end of the world. It is the coast of the dead and the forests of the Celtic Druids; it is where the sun meets its death and

Cabo Viln lighthouse. Costa da Morte

is the ultimate resort of seagulls. It is also the coast of shipwrecks, the scourge of sailors and fishermen. On the countless steep cliffs, the silhouettes of lighthouses (Viln, Tourin, Fisterra...) loom in the mist that rises from the sea, cladding them in ghostly beauty. There are three rias on this part of the coastline: Corcubin, Camarias and Corme-Laxe. They are all sheltered by jutting rocks, high hills and cliffs: Cabo Fisterra (Cape Finisterre) and Monte do Pindo at Corcubin; Punta da Barca and Cabo Viln at Camarias; and, at Corme-Laxe, Cabo Insua and Punta Roncudo, where the best goose barnacles to be found are beaten by the rough waves of the sea. Delightful fishing ports, where the bright colours of the houses match those of the boats, seem to stand in defiance of this dramatic coast. Ra de Camarias is famous for its handmade lace and the legends surrounding the Shrine of Virgen de la Barca, in Muxa. When visiting Ra de Corme-Laxe, the Dombate dolmen and the Barreiro castro should be included on the agenda. Off the rias, Malpica de Bergantios is another picturesque fishing town with higgledy-

piggledy houses looking as if they have risen from the rocks. Opposite lie the imposing masses of the rocky, now uninhabited Sisargas Islands, a refuge for birds and fauna.

Ras Altas and Maria Lucense


Here we have an amazing mixture of attractions. Apart from the cities already described (A Corua, Betanzos and Ferrol), there are three towns with a vast store of monuments: Pontedeume, Viveiro and Ribadeo, along with two other indispensable stops: the Marin pazo and gardens (A Corua) and the Church of San Martio de Mondoedo (Lugo), the original seat of the diocese, near Foz. Charming seafaring towns alternate with countless, lovely beaches, some of which have to be seen to be believed (Mio, Cabana, Foz, Castro, As Catedrais) and plunging cliffs like Cabo Ortegal, Estaca de Bares and Mirador da Herveira in the Sierra Capelada. These mountains, where nature is as yet untamed, are the home of herds of wild horses roaming free and the location of magical San Andrs de Teixido. Lastly, the

Redes

Gate of Charles V. Viveiro

visitor should go to the Sargadelos factory (Cervo, Lugo), where the famous porcelain is made. Setting off from A Corua, the first rias to come into view are the ones at Golfo Artabro (A Corua, Betanzos, Ares and Ferrol). The shoreline is jagged, low and rocky, with an ever-changing landscape which may be admired from boat, car or train. Few are the places in the world where one can enjoy as delightful a train journey as the one from Betanzos to Ferrol. Seaside resorts are to be found at Sada, Mio, Oleiros, Pontedeume and Ares. Pontedeume, with its old quarter, bridge, Church of Santiago and the Gothic tower of the Andrade family, is most certainly worth a visit.

Towards the north lie a number of rias: Cedeira, Ortigueira, Barqueiro, Viveiro, Foz and Ribadeo. With the exception of Ra de Foz, they are all wider, with craggy areas, although splendid expanses of sand open up in the interior. In addition, there are excellent look-out points from which to survey the headlands that dominate the scene. In Maria Lucense, the towns of Viveiro and Ribadeo show signs of their mediaeval origins, evidenced in the case of Viveiro by the three gates remaining from the wall, one of which has been declared a national monument. In Ribadeo, the bourgeoisie left numerous nineteenth century buildings, such as Casa de los Moreno and the

Sisargas Isles

palace of the Marquis of Sargadelos, now occupied by the local corporation.

Ribeira Sacra
Known by this name (lit.: sacred bank) since 1127 on account of its many retreats for coenobites, anchorites grottoes and houses of prayer, Ribeira Sacra spreads over 30 km into the canyon of the River Sil, between the provinces of Lugo and Ourense, upstream of the confluence of the Mio and the Sil. The spirit of the anchorites and their quest for solitude and seclusion has lived on miraculously until the present day. It can be sensed in the Romanesque art of churches and monasteries, whose shady interiors create an atmosphere of the profound and mysterious. In contrast to this, outside, Mother Nature dazzles us with lofty escarpments plummeting into the green waters of a river that winds its way round endless meanders. Man has also made a great contribution to the scenery in the form of terraces for vine-growing, quite a feat on such steep slopes. This out-of-the-way region has always been a haven thanks to the wildness and ruggedness of its terrain, which have succeeded in keeping the hand of modern civilisation at bay. On the Ourense side of the bank, the visitor can combine the enjoyment of panoramic views of
38 Castro Caldelas

the Sils canyons from the look-out points at Vilouxe, Balcns de Madrid and Cristosende with visits to the unusual monasteries of Santo Estevo and Santa Cristina de Ribas de Sil, described previously. In Lugo, he should visit Sober and its Romanesque Churches of Lobios, Pinol and Canabal, with elaborate splayed frontispieces and slender bell gables, not forgetting the eighteenth century shrine at Cadeiras. Also overlooking the Sil is the Monastery of San Vicente de Pombeiro (Pantn), where the church, with its asymmetrical facade, and the old priory may still be admired. In a larger, concentric circle described by the C-536 (province of Ourense), stands the baroque Santuario de As Ermidas, in a deep gorge crossed by the River Bibei, from whose depths the sanctuarys tall towers would appear to be struggling to rise. At Castro Caldelas, emblazoned houses and white, windowed galleries cluster together round the castle, Castillo de Lemos. Surrounding a superb central courtyard, the towers look across to the lands of Monforte, beyond the

Sil. Then come the Monastery of Montederramo, a fine example of Herreras work, and the Renaissance and baroque Monastery of Xunqueira de Espadanedo, with a Romanesque church. And finally, one of Galicias oldest monasteries, the sixth century, pre-Romanesque San Pedro de Rocas, with chapels and tombs dug out of the rock on the mountainside, in a stunning setting of granite and woodland. On the Lugo side, the N-120 completes the arc, the prominent feature being Monforte de Lemos, the capital town of the powerful Condado de Lemos. Of the thirteenth century fortress, the keep still stands, next to the Monastery of San Vicente del Pino, complete with an eighteenth century cloister. At the museum belonging to the convent, Clarisas, there is an exhibition of works by Gregorio Fernndez. The main monument is Colegio de la Compaa, known as Galicias El Escorial on account of its sober Herrera style and large size. Inside the church, crowned by a majestic dome, the visitor might pause to
Colegio de la Compaa. Monforte de Lemos

admire Francisco de Moures walnut altarpiece and, in the museum, works by El Greco, Andrea del Sarto and Van der Goes. Pantn is another town replete with sights to be seen: in addition to the previously described Monastery of San Vicente de Pombeiro, here we find the Cistercian Monastery of San Salvador de Ferreira, with a church remarkable for its decoration; the Church of San Miguel de Eir, unusual because of its military and defensive functions; the Church of San Fiz de Cangas, reflecting the transitional Gothic style; and the fifteenth century Castillo de Maside. The Ribeira Sacra circle is completed by the Belesar and Peares Reservoirs looking onto the Mio with superb Romanesque monuments, such as the Monastery of Santo Estevo de Ribas do Mio. The departure points for a trip round the region are Ourense and Monforte. Nowadays, the motorist, apart from visiting towns, monuments and look-outs, may take a trip on the catamarans

which afford an indescribable view as they sail up and down the Sil and the Mio. The area, ideal for backpacking and horse riding, also has a solid network of rural tourism hostels. Catamarans June 1 to October 12 The rest of the year: minimum 15 people Viajes Pardo, Juan XXIII, 1 32003 Ourense 7 988 21 04 60/63 Fax: 988 21 04 63 Hemisferios Viajes Estacin Autobuses 27002 Lugo 7 982 254 545 Fax: 982 23 13 07
Church of San Miguel Eir. Pantn

Compostela; the Council of Europe has declared it Europes First Cultural Itinerary; and it has been declared a world heritage site by UNESCO. The phenomenon consisted of the bedazzling arrival of pilgrims when, in the ninth century, the tomb of the Apstol Santiago (James the Apostle) was discovered in Santiago. At the time, Iberia was largely dominated by Islam, which was then at its height and by far superior to inchoate European civilisation. The pilgrims came from Bruges, Amsterdam, Gdansk, Budapest and Zagreb. Others came from Lisbon, from Bari in Southern Italy and from Arhus in Denmark. They took the new routes which were appearing on the map of Europe to converge in Spain, mainly on what was known as the French road. There were other, minor routes, such as the Portuguese, the Northern and the English Roads. For the first time, Europe was acquiring an awareness of its own self, giving rise to a profound religious, cultural and economic osmosis.

The Road to Santiago


The road is the pilgrimage of he who wishes to walk by himself until he finds himself. Shirley MacLaine Lying at the origin of civilisations and religions, the journey is one of the great myths of humanity. The flight from Egypt for the Jews, the protection of Mohammed for the Moslems, the journey to Bethlehem for the Christians, mark the starting point of the cohesion of these peoples. The Jacobean route played the same role in the formation of Europe. The German thinker, Goethe, said that Europe is not complete without a pilgrimage to

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Luthers criticism of the pilgrimages, the constant warfare in Europe and eighteenth century rationalism led to the roads decline, although the tradition of covering it by foot was never entirely lost. In fact, of the three major pilgrims routes of the Middle Ages (Rome, Jerusalem and Santiago), only that of Santiago survived. Nevertheless, towards the end of the twentieth century, the age of science and technology, an event similar to the one witnessed in the tenth century took place: curiously enough, Europe took to the road again, firstly on the occasion of St. James Year (1993) and again in 1999, when the mysticism of the road and of Holy Year (a privilege granted to Santiago Cathedral by the Pope in 1122 in the days of Archbishop Gelmrez) came together. Why has there been a revival of this old road? Because, it has been said, Europe needs it. Indeed, in a world submitted to the pressure of machines and huge cities, the road symbolises the ascesis of travelling by foot, when man adapts his pace to that of nature and the cosmos, to dawn, daytime, eventide and night. For parallel to the road to be travelled physically runs another, interior road to be travelled introspectively. Keeping to the pace as one walks along is
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inseparable from the spiritual quest. Physical movement, spiritual journey. Moreover, at a time when intellectuals are looking for the common roots of the European and Christian civilisations, the road acquires its full value as a PanEuropean symbol and foundational journey which the pilgrims enact and experience directly. The heritage to be found all along the road takes us back to the world of Cluny, of the Cistercian Order, of the Templars and old Christianity, while the scenery, well off the beaten track, is just as Mother Nature made it. Truly, travelling the road means a return to ones origins and this, for many, broadens the horizons of the present. The road is ecumenical. Not only is it joined by more and more Catholics but also by Protestants (thus overcoming the longstanding opposition to pilgrimages) and members of other denominations, along with agnostics and walkers moved by a whole range of reasons. In view of the three emerging values which are thought to become prevalent in the new century individual fulfilment, spirituality and romanticism the future of the Road to Santiago, the perfect setting for the expression of these tendencies, looks bright.

Leisure and shows


Fiestas and fairs
Galicias calendar of events bubbles over with one fair and romera (festival at a local shrine) after another. The fairs cover a wide range of items: cattle, cheese, fowl, game, eau de vie, honey...., with the pulpeiras cooking octopus (pulpo) in huge copper cauldrons. The visitor should make sure that he takes part in the ritual of buying his portion and then going under the awnings, where bread and wine are served on long tables lined with wooden benches. The romeras take place at churches, shrines and oak forests in the 3,500 parishes on the appropriate saints day: Mass, followed by a procession, rockets, lots of good food and dancing. The most magical are the ones held at San Andrs de

Teixido (September 8) and Nuestra Seora da Barca, Muxa (A Corua), on the last Saturday in August. Here, the participants, standing on the shoreline, put the mysterious healing powers of huge legendary stones to the test. At Caneiros de Betanzos (August 18), a compact fleet of vessels sails upstream to the field where the fiesta is held, while aboard, a banquet is served to the sound of music. Among the fiestas evocative of the past are the Ortigueira Celtic Festival in July; the Vikings Landing at Catoira (the first Sunday in August); Festa da Historia de Ribadavia (the last Saturday in August); and the one commemorating the arrival of La Pinta at Baiona (Pontevedra) Arribada de la Carabela La Pinta during the first week in March. Those interested in arts and crafts will find sheer delight in floral carpets on the streets of Ponteareas at Corpus Christi. All the fishermen together celebrate the Virgen del

Festive figures: peliqueiros

Branding wild horses

Carmen (July 16) by decorating their boats and forming a procession as they sail out to sea. Religious fiestas of note, not dedicated to patron saints, include Easter Week at Ferrol and Viveiro. Lastly, there are fiestas to celebrate the solstice (bonfires all over Galicia on the eve of St. Johns Day, June 23-24) and the harvest, from roasted chestnuts to grape-picking. There are, however, two celebrations that stand out from the rest because they are so deep-rooted in Galician custom: the carnivals and the branding of wild horses. The carnivals are Galicias most universal fiesta, with android figures representing deep tribal differences. They smack of the pagan, the ancestral and the earthly and bear no relation to other carnivals. They are like a journey through magic and colour, in which the travellers ignore the old rites of the mask.
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Each region has evolved its own costume, which is always showy, exotic or anachronic: a mixture of Napoleonic, Florentine, Goyastyle, Aztec and Maya uniforms. Amid all these figures, in Ourense, there is a magical triangle which constitutes the quintessence of the fiesta: Vern, Xinzo de Limia and Laza. The Curros de Caballos de Salvajes or Rapa das Bestas is also an ancestral spectacle. As far back as 2,000 years ago, the Greek Strabo described it as follows: With horns and shouting, they chase the beasts round the mountains until they finally round them up. Some are slaughtered and used as food while others are taken to be saddled and used as warhorses. Every year, the liturgy of rounding the horses up and taking them to the curro, or corral, takes place. Then comes the rapa das bestas, a bustling scene in which man

struggles with animal and finally brands the horses and cuts their manes. The youngest are returned to the mountains. The curros are held between May and August at 13 places in the provinces of Pontevedra, A Corua and Lugo. Two of them have been declared Fiestas of Touristic Interest: Sabucedo, A Estrada (Pontevedra), the first Saturday, Sunday and Monday in July; and Candaoso, San Andrs de Boimente, Viveiro (Lugo), the first Sunday in July. The fiesta of A Capelada, Cedeira (A Corua) takes place on the last Sunday in June, in the magical mountains of the same name.

Seafood

game is included, a dozen-and-ahalf different vegetables, a dozen wines, half-a-dozen eaux-de-vie and a vast range of delectable cheeses, fruits and desserts. With such variety to choose from, the traveller can order something different at every meal and even then, he may not have time to try everything: hake, turbot, bass, angler, sole, bream, cod, ray, conger eel, gilthead, horse mackerel, red mullet, sardines...., along with freshwater fish like trout, lamprey, salmon, salmon trout, elver, eel and shad; and, an absolute must on the best tables, the technicolour of seafood, which makes ones taste buds blossom and stimulates the mind: oysters, spider crabs, crabs, lobster, spiny lobster, goose barnacles, clams, shrimps... . Inland produce adds consistency to variety: pork is the key ingredient of a wholesome stew,

Galician cuisine
In Galician cuisine, the ingredient reigns supreme and the message is to keep it plain and simple. It suits present-day tastes to perfection, stressing natural and traditional flavours. In addition, it is varied in foodstuffs and species, as lvaro Cunqueiro pointed out: in the Christian cuisine of the West, there is no larder as complete as that of Galicia. This is no exaggeration: there are over 80 varieties of saltwater fish, over half a dozen varieties of freshwater fish, a dozen crustaceans, almost twice as many shellfish, 15 meats, or more if

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enriched with the flavoursome Galician potato and bitter turnip tops, washed down with local red wine. Then there is the game: partridge, woodcock, rabbit, starling, roe deer, wild boar and duck. The dishes born of this cuisine are known for their strong personality: octopus feira, pies, goose barnacles, lamprey, Padrn peppers, Villalba capon, shoulder of pork, bouillabaisse, the San Simn and the soft, breast-shaped cheeses, the Santiago tart, filloas... many of which now form part of the menu at non-Galician restaurants. One of the secrets is that these Atlantic products are prepared in olive oil, the mainstay of the Mediterranean diet. Oil, paprika and garlic are combined to make the star sauce, which is served both with fish and with vegetables. Hake en ajada or a la gallega are prime examples.

The wines are an indispensable complement: Albario, Ribeiro, Valdeorras Monterrei and Ribeira Sacra figure among the best white wines; and lastly, the eau de vie which is made from marc and used in the spectacular rite known as the queimada, where the liquid is set alight and served at the end of any good meal.

Handicrafts
The widespread preference for the natural has had a lot to do with the revival of handicrafts, worked in stone, clay, wood, wicker, linen and jet, not forgetting the long-standing tradition of gold and silverware. Stonemasons work with granite at the quarries or on the spot, at export outlets. The quality of the clay endows ceramics with a special value, from the cottage industries (Buo, Niodaiguia, Bonxe, Guindivs-Sober) to the famous Sargadelos. Nowadays, furniture is a major industrial

Sargadelos ceramics

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item. Wood becomes a work of art in the form of bagpipes and hurdy-gurdies made by craftsmen who are hard put to meeting growing demand. Wicker and straw basketry is on sale at all the fairs and a street full of basket-makers runs through the old quarter in Vigo. Linen and cotton are used to make delicate bobbin lace in Camarias. The Celtic influence lives on in gold and silverware, both in jewellery and in knick-knackery. It is a particularly creative skill and the craft of emigrants: Galicians are legion in jewellers guilds. Jet, the good luck charm of pilgrims, has been associated with Santiago since mediaeval times.

Green tourism ranges from rural accommodation at pazos and cottages to backpacking, horseback and cycling tours, canoeing and rowing on rivers and reservoirs. There is also plenty of river fishing and hunting, not only small game but also deer, roe deer, fallow deer and wild boar, under the auspices of the game reserve, Reserva Nacional de Ancares. As for snow sports, Manzaneda is the only ski resort in the northwest of the peninsula, while for those wishing to release adrenalin, bungee jumping, paragliding, rafting, climbing and abseiling are other options. Lastly, golf, with three 18-hole courses: A Zapateira (A Corua), Domaio (Moaa, Ra de Vigo) and Mondariz (Pontevedra); and six 9-hole courses: Aero Club Santiago; Rois; A Toxa; Aero Club Vigo; Montealegre Ourense and Club de Golf Lugo.

Sports
The ras are the ideal setting for sailing, aquatic motor sports, fishing, water-skiing, scuba diving and yachting. No other coast can compete as regards good sailing days and safety. Surfing and windsurfing may be practised from beaches exposed to the open sea (Pantn, Valdovio and San Jorge, Ferrol), while there are 24 operative nautical sports centres and 70 ports, mainly fishing, for boarding, landing and mooring.

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USEFUL INFORMATION
Coming and going
Two expressways link up with the central plain: the A-52 through Ourense to PontevedraVigo, and the A-6 through Lugo to A Corua. The Ferrol-Vigo A-9 motorway runs into the Tui expressway (A-55), to connect with the A-3 from Oporto and the Lisbon-Oporto A-1. Other main access routes include the A-70 from Asturias via Ribadeo and the N-120 from Len via the Sil Basin to Monforte and Ourense. BUS STATIONS: A Corua: Caballeros, s/n 7 981 23 90 99 Ferrol: Paseo Estacin 7 981 32 47 51 Lugo: Praza Constitucin 7 982 22 39 85 Ourense: Carretera Vigo 7 988 21 60 27 Pontevedra: Alfreces Provisionales, s/n 7 986 85 24 08 Santiago: San Caetano, s/n 7 981 58 77 00 Vigo: Avda. Madrid s/n 7 986 37 34 11 GALICIAS AIRPORTS A Corua 7 981 18 72 00 Santiago Information 7 981 54 75 00 Vigo 7 986 26 82 00

RAILWAYS RENFE 7 91 328 90 20 FEVE (narrow gauge railway). El Transcantbrico General Rodrigo, 6. 28003 Madrid. 7 91 553 09 11 91 533 70 00. Fax: 91 553 91 97 www.feve.es A seven-day tourist trip from Bilbao to Ferrol or viceversa, sleeping on the train, daily coach trips, meals at selected restaurants. San Sebastin-Bilbao and Ferrol-Santiago by coach.

Accommodation and Congress Halls


Having doubled in the last 10 years, accommodation has improved both in quality and in quantity, as shown by the fact that a good number of establishments, especially the first-class ones, have been built only recently. At the present time, there is accommodation for 33,306 guests at 455 hotels. There are nine paradores, or state hotels, headed by the standardbearer of the state network, Hostal de dos Reis Catlicos, in Santiago. Pousada de Portomarn, on the Road to Santiago, is owned by the Autonomous Government of Galicia. The decade of the nineties witnessed the promotion of rural tourism, which is the essence of inland tourism, with 253 superb pazos and cottages. A total of 22

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spas reflects the wealth of springs of medicinal mineral water. A Toxa and Mondariz stand out for their modern therapeutical and fitness techniques, coupled with games, and their threefold function as spa, golf course and conference centre. With landscapes like the ones found in Galicia, camping is yet another way of enjoying nature. There are 32,261 places available at 107 camp sites. Galicia also caters for conferences and conventions at its modern congress halls, situated in A Corua, Santiago and Pontevedra, Garca Barbn in Vigo, the pavilion at A Toxa and other conference facilities at modern hotels. Galicia Rural Tourism Booking Office 7 981 54 25 27 Fax: 981 54 25 09 e-mail: webrural@xunta.es STATE HOTELS Booking Office Requena, 3. 28013 Madrid. 7 91 516 66 66 Fax: 91 516 66 57 www.parador.es e-mail: info@parador.es Baiona (Pontevedra) 7 986 35 50 00, fax 986 35 50 76 Cambados (Pontevedra) 7 986 54 22 50, fax 986 54 20 68 Ferrol (A Corua) 7 981 35 67 20 fax 981 35 67 20 Pontevedra 7 986 85 58 00 fax 986 85 21 95 Ribadeo (Lugo) 7 982 12 88 25 fax 982 12 83 46 Santiago (A Corua) 7 981 58 22 00 fax 981 58 22 00
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Tui (Pontevedra) 7 986 60 03 09 fax 986 60 21 63 Vilalba (Lugo) 7 982 51 00 11 fax 988 41 20 17 Verin (Ourense) 7 988 41 00 57 fax 982 51 00 90

TOURIST INFORMATION International dialling code: 34 TURESPAA 7 901 300 600 www.tourspain.es TURGALICIA 7 981 54 25 00 www.turgalicia.es GALICIAN TOURIST OFFICES: Madrid: Casado del Alisal, 8 7 91 595 42 14 A Corua: Drsena da Marina 7 981 22 18 22 Ferrol (A Corua): Plaza Camilo Jos Cela 7 981 31 11 79 Lugo: Praza Maior, 27 (Galeras) 7 982 23 13 61 Ourense: Curros Enrquez, 1 7 988 37 20 20 Pontevedra: Xeneral Gutirrez Mellado, 1 (Galeras) 7 986 85 08 14 Ribadeo (Lugo): Plaza de Espaa 7 982 12 86 89 Santiago (A Corua): Ra do Vilar, 43 7 981 58 40 81 Tui (Pontevedra): Ponte Tripes 7 986 60 17 89 Vigo (Pontevedra): Cnovas del Castillo, 22 7 986 43 05 77 Vilagarca de Arousa (Pontevedra): Juan Carlos I, 37 7 986 51 01 44

TELEPHONE NUMBERS OF INTEREST Medical emergencies 061 National police 091 Emergencies 112 Tele-Route (state of the roads) 900 12 35 05 SPANISH TOURIST INFORMATION OFFICES ABROAD
Canada. Toronto Tourist Office of Spain 2 Bloor Street West Suite 3402. Toronto, Ontario M4W 3E2 7 (1416) 961 31 31, fax (1416) 961 19 92 www.tourspain.toronto.on.ca e-mail: toronto@tourspain.es Great Britain. London Spanish Tourist Office 22-23 Manchester Square. London W1M 5AP 7 (44207) 486 80 77, fax (44207) 486 80 34 www.tourspain.co.uk e-mail: londres@tourspain.es Japan. Tokyo Tourist Office of Spain Daini Toranomon Denki Bldg.4F. 3-1-10 Toranomon. Minato-Ku. TOKYO-105 7 (813) 34 32 61 41, fax (813) 34 32 61 44 www.spaintour.com e-mail: tokio@tourspain.es Russia. Moscow Spanish Tourist Office Tverskaya 16/2 Business Center "Galeria Aktor" 6th floor Moscow 103009 7 (7095) 935 83 99, fax (7095) 935 83 96 www.tourspain.ru e-mail: moscu@tourspain.es Singapore. Singapore Spanish Tourist Office 541Orchard Road. Liat Tower # 09-04. 238881 Singapore 7 (657) 37 30 08, fax (657) 37 31 73 e-mail: singapore@tourspain.es

United States of America. Los Angeles Tourist Office of Spain 8383 Wilshire Blvd, Suite 960. Beverly Hills, California 90211 7 1(323) 658 71 88-658 71 92, fax 1(323) 658 10 61 e-mail: losangeles@tourspain.es Chicago Tourist Office Of Spain Water Tower Place, suite 915 East. 845, North Michigan Avenue. Chicago, Illinois 60-611 7 1(312) 642 19 92, fax 1(312) 642 98 17 e-mail: chicago@tourspain.es Miami Tourist Office of Spain 1221 Brickell Avenue. Miami, Florida 33131 7 1(305) 358 19 92, fax 1(305) 358 82 23 e-mail: miami@tourspain.es New York Tourist Office of Spain 666 Fifth Avenue 35 th floor. New York, New York 10103 7 1(212) 265 88 22, fax 1(212) 265 88 64 www.okspain.org e-mail:nyork@tourspain.es EMBASSIES IN MADRID Canada: Nuez de Balboa, 35. 7 91 431 43 00, fax 91 431 23 67 Great Britain: Fernando El Santo, 16. 7 91 319 02 00, fax 91 308 10 33 Japan: Serrano, 109. 7 91 590 76 00, fax 91 590 13 21 Russia: Velazquez, 155. 7 91 562 22 64, fax 91 562 97 12 United States of America: Serrano, 75. 7 91 587 22 00, fax 91 587 23 03

Spain
SECRETARA DE ESTADO DE COMERCIO Y TURISMO

MINISTERIO DE ECONOMA

SECRETARA GENERAL DE TURISMO TURESPAA

EUROPEAN COMMUNITY European Regional Development Fund

Galicia