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Jurusan Teknik Sipil
Universitas Brawijaya Malang
Principal Plane
At any point in a strained material, there are three planes, mutually
perpendicular to each other, which carry direct stresses only and no shear
stress. It shows that out of these three direct stresses one will be
maximum the other minimum and the third an intermediate between the
two. These particular planes, which have no shear stress are known as
principal planes
Principal Stress
The magnitude of direct stress, across a principal plane, is known as
principal stress
Method for Stresses on Oblique Section
• Analytical method
• Graphical method
Analytical Method for Stresses on an Oblique Section of a Body
Subjected to a Direct Stresses in One Plane
Consider rectangular body ABCD of uniform crosssectional area and unit
thickness subjected to a principal tensile stress.
Let,
P = tensile force
A = cross sectional area
Θ = angle which the oblique section makes with normal cross section EF
u
u
o cos
sec A
P
A
P
A
P
= = =
The intensity of tensile stress across the section EF:
The magnitude of tensile stress on section EF will be less than p,
because the resisting section has a bigger area. But this stress is
neither normal nor shear stress for section EF. Since the failure of this
body will occur either by tension or by shear , it is therefore essential to
know the normal and tangential stresses across the section EF.
u cos P P
n
=
Normal stress across the section EF,
u u u
u
u
2
cos cos cos
sec
cos
p
A
P
A
P
Area
Force
p
n
= = = =
Tangential / shear stress across the section EF,
u u u
u
u
2 sin
2
cos sin
sec
sin p
A
P
A
P
Area
Force
p
t
= = = =
Normal stress across the section EF will be maximum when cos
2
θ = 1 or θ
= 0°
Shear stress across the section EF will be maximum when sin 2θ = 1 or θ
= 45° and 135 °
Maximum tangential stress:
2
1
2
2 sin
2
p p p
p Max
t
= × = = u
Resultant stress:
2 2
t n R
p p p + =
A tension member is formed by connecting with glue two wooden scanting
each 7,5 x 15 cm at their end which are cut at an angle of 60°. The member is
subjected to a pull P. Calculate safe value of P if permissible normal and
shear stress in glue are 14 kg/cm
2
and 7 kg/cm
2
respectively.
Solution :
2
cm 5 , 112 15 5 , 7 = × = Area
Angle of the joint with the normal
Θ = 90°  60 ° = 30 °
kg P
cm
kg
p p
p p
cm
kg
p p
p p
cm
kg
p
cm
kg
p
t
n
t n
1 , 1819 5 , 112 17 , 16
17 , 16 30 cos 30 sin 7
cos sin
67 , 18 30 cos 14
cos
7 14
2
2
2
2
2 2
= × =
= ÷ =
=
= ÷ =
=
= =
u u
u
Analytical Method for Stresses on an Oblique Section of a
Body Subjected to a Direct Stresses in Two Mutually
Perpendicular Direction
Consider rectangular body ABCD of uniform crosssectional area and
unit thickness subjected to mutually perpendicular principal tensile
stresses on the face AB, CD, and AD, BC. Also consider an oblique
section EF on which we are required to find out the stresses.
Let,
p
1
= major tensile stress on the face AD and BC
p
2
= minor tensile stress on the face AB and CD
P
1
= tensile force on the section EF (such that P
1
= p
1
x BC)
P
2
= tensile force on the section EF (such that P
2
= p
2
x GF)
Θ = angle which the oblique section makes with normal cross section EG
Tensile force perpendicular to plane EF
u u
u u
sin cos
sin cos
2 1
2 1
GF p BC p P
P P P
n
n
× + × =
+ =
Tensile force tangential to plane EF
u u
u u
cos sin
cos sin
2 1
2 1
GF p BC p P
P P P
n
t
× ÷ × =
÷ =
Normal Stress across the section EF
( ) ( )
u
u u
u u
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
2 cos
2 2
2 cos 1
2
2 cos 1
2
sin cos
sin /
sin
cos /
cos
sin cos
sin cos
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2 1
2 1
2 1
p p p p
p
p p
p
p p p
GF
GF p
BC
BC p
p
EF
GF p
EF
BC p
p
EF
GF p BC p
EF
P
p
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
÷
+
+
=
÷ + + =
+ =
×
+
×
=
×
+
×
=
× + ×
= =
Tangential Stress across the section EF
( )
( )
u u u
u u u u
u
u
u
u
u u
u u
2 sin
2
cos sin
cos sin cos sin
sin /
cos
cos /
sin
cos sin
cos sin
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
2 1
p p
p p p
p p p
GF
GF p
BC
BC p
p
EF
GF p
EF
BC p
p
EF
GF p BC p
EF
P
p
t
t
t
t
t
t
÷
= ÷ =
÷ =
×
÷
×
=
×
÷
×
=
× ÷ ×
= =
Resultant stress:
2 2
t n R
p p p + =
A point in a strained material is subjected to two mutually
perpendicular tensile stress of 2000 kg/cm2 and 1000 kg/cm2.
Determine the intensities of normal and resultant stress on a plane
inclined at 30° to the axis of the minor stress.
Example :
Solution :
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
0
2
1
1750 60 cos
2
1000 2000
2
1000 2000
2 cos
2 2
1000
30 2000
cm
kg
p
p p p p
p
cm
kg
p
cm
kg
p
n
n
=
÷
+
+
=
÷
+
+
=
=
= =
u
u
Tangential stress
( )
( )
2
2 1
433 60 sin
2
1000 2000
2 sin
2
cm
kg
p
p p
p
t
t
=
÷
=
÷
= u
Resultant stress
2
2 2
2 2
8 , 1082 433 1750
cm
kg
p p p
t n R
= + = + =
Analytical Method for Stresses on an Oblique Section of a Body
Subjected to a Direct Stresses in One Plane Accompanied by a
Simple Shear Stress
Consider rectangular body ABCD of uniform crosssectional area and
unit thickness subjected to tensile stress in one plane accompanied by
a shear stress across the face AD, and BC. Also consider an oblique
section EF on which we are required to find out the stresses.
Let,
p = tensile stress on the face AD and BC
q = tensile stress across the face AD and BC
Θ = angle which the oblique section makes with normal cross section EF
From the geometry , we find that the horizontal force acting on AD
÷ × = AD p P
1
Vertical force acting on AD
 × = AD q P
2
Horizontal force acting on GF
÷ × = GF q P
3
Normal Force across the section EF
u u u cos sin cos
3 2 1
P P P P
n
+ + =
Tangential Force across the section EF
u u u sin cos sin
3 2 1
P P P P
t
+ ÷ =
Normal Stress across the section EF
( ) u u
u u u
u u u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u u u
u u u
2 sin 2 cos 1
2
cos sin 2 cos
cos sin cos sin cos
sin /
cos
cos /
sin
cos /
cos
cos sin cos
cos sin cos
2
2
3 2 1
3 2 1
q
p
p
q p p
q q p p
GF
GF q
AD
AD q
AD
AD p
p
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
p
EF
P P P
EF
P
p
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+ + =
+ =
+ + =
×
+
×
+
×
=
+ + =
+ +
= =
Tangential Stress across the section EF
( )
u u
u u u
u u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u u u
u u u
2 cos 2 sin
2
1
sin cos 2 sin
2
1
sin cos cos sin
sin /
sin
cos /
cos
cos /
sin
sin cos sin
sin cos sin
2 2
2 2
3 2 1
3 2 1
q p p
q p p
q q p p
GF
GF q
AD
AD q
AD
AD p
p
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
p
EF
P P P
EF
P
p
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ =
×
+
×
÷
×
=
+ ÷ =
+ ÷
= =
The planes of maximum and minimum normal stress maybe found out by
equating the tangential stress to zero
p
q
q p
q p
2
2 tan 2 cos 2 sin
2
1
0 2 cos 2 sin
2
1
= ¬ =
= ÷
u u u
u u
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
1
2 2
1
4
2 os
4
2
2 sin
4
2 os
4
2
2 sin
q p
p
c
q p
q
q p
p
c
q p
q
+
÷
=
+
÷
=
+
+
=
+
+
=
u u
u u
There are two principal planes, at right angle to each other. Their inclination
with the normal cross section being θ
1
and θ
2
such that:
Values of Principal Stresses maybe found out by substituting the above value
of 2θ
1
and 2θ
2
in equation:
( )
2
2
1
2 2
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
1
1
1
2 2
4
2
1
2
4
2
4 2
2
2 sin
2
2 cos
2
2 sin 2 cos 1
2
q
p p
p
q p
p
p
q p
q
q p
p p
p
q
p p
p
q
p
p
n
n
n
n
n
+

.

\

+ =
+ + =
+
+
+
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
u
u
u u
And,
( )
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
4
2
1
2
4
2
4 2
2
2 sin
2
2 cos
2
2 sin 2 cos 1
2
q
p p
p
q p
p
p
q p
q
q p
p p
p
q
p p
p
q
p
p
n
n
n
n
n
+

.

\

÷ =
+ ÷ =
+
÷
+
÷ =
+ + =
+ + =
u
u
u u
A point in a strained material is subjected to a compressive stress
of 800 kg/cm2 and a shear stress of 560 kg/cm2. Determine the
maximum and minimum intensities of direct stress.
Example :
Solution :
' 14 27 ' 28 54 2
4 , 1
800
560 2 2
2 tan
stress e compressiv to normal with the makes
plane plane principal which the angle
560
800
0 0
2
2
= ÷ =
=
×
= =
=
=
÷ =
u u
u
u
P
q
cm
kg
q
cm
kg
p
Minimum intensity of direct stress
2
2
2
1
2
2
1
2 , 288 560
2
800
2
800
2 2
cm
kg
p
q
p p
p
n
n
= +

.

\

÷
+
÷
=
+

.

\

+ =
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 , 1088
2
800
2
800
2 2
cm
kg
q p
q
p p
p
n
n
÷ = +

.

\

÷
÷
÷
=
+

.

\

÷ =
Maximum intensity of direct stress
Analytical Method for Stresses on an Oblique Section of a Body
Subjected to a Direct Stresses in Two Mutually Perpendicular
Direction Accompanied by a Simple Shear Stress
Consider rectangular body ABCD of uniform crosssectional area and
unit thickness subjected to tensile stress and shear stress. Consider an
oblique section EF on which we are required to find out the stresses.
Let,
p
1
= tensile stress on the face AD and BC
p
2
= tensile stress on the face AB and CD
q = shear stress across the face AD and BC
Θ = angle which the oblique section makes with normal cross section EG
From the geometry , we find that the horizontal force acting on AD
÷ × = AD q P
1
Vertical force acting on AD:
 × = AD q P
2
Horizontal force acting on GF: ÷ × = GF q P
3
Vertical force acting on GF: ÷ × = GF p P
2 4
u u u u sin cos sin cos
4 3 2 1
P P P P P
n
+ + + =
Tangential Force across the section EF
u u u u cos sin cos sin
4 3 2 1
P P P P P
t
÷ + ÷ =
Normal Force across the section EF
Normal Stress across the section EF
( ) ( )
u u
u
u
u
u u u
u u u u
u u u u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u u u u
u u u u
2 sin 2 cos
2 2
2
2 cos
2
2 sin
2
2 cos
2
2 cos 1
2
2 sin 2 cos 1
2
sin cos sin 2 cos
sin cos sin cos sin cos
sin /
sin
sin /
cos
cos /
sin
cos /
cos
sin cos sin cos
sin cos sin cos
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
q
p p p p
p
p p
q
p p
p
p
q
p
p
p q p p
p q q p p
GF
GF p
GF
GF q
AD
AD q
AD
AD p
p
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
p
EF
P P P P
EF
P
p
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
n
+
÷
+
+
=
÷ + + + =
÷ + + + =
+ + =
+ + + =
×
+
×
+
×
+
×
=
+ + + =
+ + +
= =
Tangential Stress across the section EF
( ) ( )
( ) u u
u u u u
u u u u u u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u
u u u u
u u u u
2 cos 2 sin
2
1
cos sin cos sin
cos sin sin cos cos sin
sin /
cos
sin /
sin
cos /
cos
cos /
sin
cos sin cos sin
cos sin cos sin
2 1
2 2
2 1
2
2 2
1
2 1
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
q p p p
q p p p
p q q p p
GF
GF p
GF
GF q
AD
AD q
AD
AD p
p
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
EF
P
p
EF
P P P P
EF
P
p
t
t
t
t
t
t
t
÷ ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
×
÷
×
+
×
÷
×
=
÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷
= =
( ) 0 2 cos 2 sin
2
1
2 1
= ÷ ÷ u u q p p
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
2
1
2 tan
2 cos 2 sin
2
1
p p
q
p p
q
q p p
÷
=
÷
= ¬
= ÷
u
u u
Maximum and minimum normal stress may be found out by
equating the tangential stress to zero
There are two principal planes at the right angles to each other. Their
inclination with the normal crosssection being θ
1
and θ
2
such that:
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
1
2
2
2 1
1
4
2 os
4
2
2 sin
4
2 os
4
2
2 sin
q p p
p p
c
q p p
q
q p p
p p
c
q p p
q
+ ÷
÷ ÷
=
+ ÷
÷
=
+ ÷
÷ +
=
+ ÷
+
=
u
u
u
u
Values of Principal Stresses maybe found out by substituting
the above value of 2θ
1
and 2θ
2
in equation:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
2
2
2 1
2 1
1
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
1
2
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
1
2 1 2 1
1
2 2
4
2
1
2
4
2
4 2
2
4
2
4
2 2
2 sin 2 cos
2 2
q
p p p p
p
q p p
p p
p
q p p
q
q p p
p p p p
p
q p p
q
q
q p p
p p p p p p
p
q
p p p p
p
n
n
n
n
n
+

.

\

÷
+

.

\

+
=
+ ÷ +

.

\

+
=
+ ÷
+


.

\

+ ÷
÷
+

.

\

+
=
+ ÷
× +


.

\

+ ÷
÷ ÷
+
+
=
+
÷
+
+
= u u
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2 1
2
2
2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1
2
2 2
4
2
1
2
4
2
4 2
2
4
2
4
2 2
2 sin 2 cos
2 2
q
p p p p
p
q p p
p p
p
q p p
q
q p p
p p p p
p
q p p
q
q
q p p
p p p p p p
p
q
p p p p
p
n
n
n
n
n
+

.

\

÷
÷

.

\

+
=
+ ÷ ÷

.

\

+
=
+ ÷
÷


.

\

+ ÷
÷
÷

.

\

+
=
+ ÷
÷
× +


.

\

+ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+
+
=
+
÷
+
+
= u u
The principal stress pn1 will be maximum whereas the stress pn2
will be minimum. The planes of maximum shear now be found
out. These planes are at right angles of each other and are
inclined at 45° to principal planes. The maximum shear stress will
be given by the relation:
2
max
2 1 n n
t
p p
p
÷
=
A point is subjected to a tensile stress of 60 N/mm2 and a
compressive stress of 40 N/mm2, acting on two mutually
perpendicular planes and a shear stress of 10 N/mm2 on these
planes. Determine the principal stresses as well as maximum shear
stress. Also find out the value of maximum shear stress.
Example :
Solution :
stress principal minor
stress principal major
10 stress Shear
40 stress Minor
60
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
=
=
=
÷ =
=
n
n
p
p
mm
N
q
mm
N
p
mm
N
p
2
2
2
1
2
2
2 1 2 1
1
61 10
2
40 60
2
40 60
2 2
mm
N
p
q
p p p p
p
n
n
= +

.

\

+
+

.

\

÷
=
+

.

\

÷
+

.

\

+
=
on) (compressi 41 10
2
40 60
2
40 60
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 2 1
2
mm
N
p
q
p p p p
p
n
n
= +

.

\

+
÷

.

\

÷
=
+

.

\

÷
÷

.

\

+
=
2
2 1
51
2
41 61
2
max
mm
N
p p
p
n n
t
=
+
=
÷
=
Maximum shear stress:
A little knowledge that
acts is worth infinitely
more than much
knowledge that is idle.
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