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Formalletters arewritten for a varietyof reSisons - e.g.

to present information, to make anapplication, to recommend someone or something, to complain, to apologise, etc. Informal letters are written for similar reasonsbut are usually writtento people youknow. Them,ain difference betweenformaland informallettersis the language that youuse.Inall cases, it isessential that the styleof the letterisappropriate for the targetreader. A lettershouldcontain:

b. Lookat the situationsbelowand,for eachone, imaginethat you haveto write a letterexpressing yourobjection.Usethe phrases aboveto suggest sentences that would be suitable.
A Youhavejust seena TV documentary which wasvery criticalof yourhometown. B You have recentlyheardthat the collegewhere you studyEnglish isplanning to increase its fees. ( The governmenthasannounced plansto closedown the onlyremaining hospitalin yourtown. D The local authoritieshave recentlyreleasedplansto builda newofficecomplex on fieldsnearyourhome. E You recentlyread an article accusingpeople in your .countryof not caringaboutthe environment.

An introduction in whichthe reason for writingisclearly stated.Informalletters, it isoftennecessary to statewho youare. A mainbodyin whichthetaskiscovered according to the instructions given. Each differentissue should bediscussed in a separate paragraph. Youusuallybegineachmain bodyparagraph with a topicsentence. Examples and/or explanations arethenadded insupporting sentences. A conclusion in whichyourestate the mainpointsof the letterand/or stateanopinion. Forformalletters, anyaction youwanttakenshould beclearly statedat the endof the letter.In informal letters, youusually endbysending your wishes andperhaps asking theQther person to writeback.

Understanding the Rubric


PartOneof the CAEWriting paperis.a compulsory writing taskwhich isbasedon readinginput. It is important that you follow the instructionscarefully and usethe informationyou aregiven.Youmust write between180and 220words.

a. Read the rubricandreading inputbelow,paying careful attentionto the underlined wordsand phrases.
Your Englishclassrecentlyread the article below,

~ Vocabulary
1
a. Usethe phrases givento fill in the gapsin the sentences below,asin the example. takeissue with in additionto this isconcerned voicemyconcern about to expressed the opinionthat with regard viewscontained whichappeared in
I wouldalsoliketo take issue withthe statement madeby yourjournalistthat the studentsof the collegeare to blamefor thissituation. 2 3 I amwritingto complain aboutthe article.................... yesterday's issue of yournewspaper. I amwritingto ............................................................ the proposed changes to the educationsystemin the district. 4 The .............................................................................. in yourreportwereextreme andunfounded. 5 Thewriter the projectwasa failure. ........

. .
.

takenfroman international students'magazine. Many members of your classfelt that the commentsin the articledid not applyto yourcountry.Yourteacherhas askedyou to write to the editor of the magazine. explaining why you feel the article is not representative of yourcountry. Writeyourletter in 180-220 words.

According to the resultsof our recentSUIVey, peoplethe worldoverarehappywith theirlives. 9 out of 10peoplesaidtheywerehappywith thelevelof education availableto them. Overthreequarters of thosewho responded are happy

withtheir jobs. The majority ofpeople arehappy withcitylife.


Although theywouldnot sayno to moremoney,most
people claim that they have enough to live comfortably.

22

, you should consider the enormous progress that hasbeenmade. 7 the effect on the public,I feelthat thiswill be considerable. 8 Asfar asthe committee , they havedoneeverythingin their power to seethat this unfortunate eventisnot repeated.

Publictransport is,peoplesay,excellent.

chone, ~xpressing o suggest

:: '~owtick (I') the appropriateboxesin the statementsbelow.

Dear Sir/Madam, , am entitled recently students with the writing 1) the article 'Everything's just perfect, thanks!' which appeared in your magazine. My fellow and I wish to express our disagreement views contained in the article.

'o~ should write:

a :ormalletter 0 ch was very where you closedown


SO'Tleone you know

an informalletter 0

~ :sgoing to be read by:

someone youdon't know 0

J,Jrreasonfor writing is to:

ed plansto lur home.

0 makean application0 ecommend someone or something 0 complain0 ~"()Iogise


:'esent information

Jple in your 1t.

orderto follow the instructions you shouldwrite a e~er agreeing0 disagreeing 0 with the articlein --e reading input.
~

_ -co the boxesbelowto showwhich of the pointsare 5U ~ble for inclusion in thisletter.Givereasons. Ne do not feelthat mostpeoplearehappy .viththeirlives.

)mpulsory Iput. It is nscarefully (aumust

0
0

for one, am very unhappy with my life.

thinkyoursurvey isa big lie. 'v1any peoplein mycountryhavecomplaints aboutthe education system.
',10st of us are happy with our jobs.

0
0

w,paying rdsand
article belo'h, 3gazine. Man. nmentsin thE ,urteacherhas the magazine ticle is no.

~ significant percentage of uswould moveif '/e could.

0 0 0

~ck of moneyisamongthe mostcommonly reported complaints. 8Jr publictransportsystem isseriously J'lder-funded andour roadsareheavily co'lgested.

2) , we find it difficult to believe that such a large number of people are satisfied with the education system and with their working conditions. This is certainly not the case here, where many people have complaints about the poor standards of education.3) , lack of job satisfaction is known to be among the greatest causes of stress in this country. 4) , it certainly is not true that most people are happy with public transport. S) , one of the most commonly heard complaints is that there are insufficient buses and trains. It is a well-known fact that our public transport system is seriously under-funded and our roads are heavily congested. And, as far as city life is concerned, a significant percentage would move if they had the opportunity. 6) , we feel it is unrealistic of you to claim that most people have enough money to live on. Were this so, widespread poverty would not be an issue. 7) , we found your article to be extremely subjective. We look forward to reading more objective reporting in future issues. Yours faithfully,

--a ysing the Model

. .

~~"3SeS

cae ,-"Ie modelon the right and usethe words/ to fill in the gaps.Suggest alternatives

- G' could be used in their place. Then answer the ':"..e7 0n5 that follow.

M<1t W~el\tQ1\.
Mark wiseman

_--e ore secondly finally to conclude - ~ first of all with reference to


y, peopleth.
:'.:''S~f'eintroduction clearly statethereason forwriting?

ith thelevel
1ed are hap:-

:.GO: ocher'information isincluded inthe firstparagraph? - :::CS the firstsentence of eachmainbodyparagraph


::arlJ

state thetopicof thatparagraph?

.life. , money, m
~ comfortav.

- -'::- doesthewritersupporteachof these sentences? .~cr point(s) fromthe reading inputdoesthe writer =eGress in eachparagraph? -c xes the writer conclude the letter?

Howstronglydoesthe writer feelabout the pointshe makes? Findexamples of wordsor phrases whichhelped youto decide.Thensuggesthow the letter couldhave beenwritten moreor lessforcefully. 5 Complete thefollowing sentences using ideas of yourown. I find it difficultto believe that ................................

it certainly isnot truethat ...................................... It isa well-knownfactthat ..................................... I feelit isunrealistic................................................

23

,...

~lr

--

~.

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Writing:

Formal and Informal Letters (1)

:)

Formaland InformalStyle
How formal your letter needs to be depends on the

:)
6

Topicand Supporting Sentences


a. Readthe following paragraphs and saywhether
eachone containsanexplanation, anexample, or both. Then think of an appropriate topic sentence for each one. The first one has been
done for you.
A To begin with, there is a pressing need for renovation be done to the college buildings. work to

target reader and the reason for writing. It is very important to maintain the same level of formality throughout your letter .~n other words, you should not mix very formal expressionswith veryinformalones). Studythe guidelines. Formal style includes:

sophisticated

formal linking

vocabulary

impersonal tone

more frequent

The library, in particular,

use of the passive voice


devices

complex grammatical constructions


vocabulary

advanced

Informal

style includes:

has not been decoratedfor severalyears and is sufferingfromserious damppatches. [Example] If work is not carriedout soon,there isa veryrealdangerthat someof the bookscouldbedestroyed. [Explanatian] B ...................................................................................
...................................................................................

colloquial (spoken) and idiomatic English

personal

tone!

direct address lessfrequent useof the passivevoice . less complex grammatical constructions

. simple linking devices

less advanced vocabulary

contractions

Look at theformalexpressions ontheleft,which have allbeen takenfromthemodel. Matchthem with theirless formalequivalents.
II
J

It certainly makes it easier for students to seehowwell theyareprogressing. Thereareotherbenefitsaswell; for example, exams giveyouthat extramotivation you need in order to learnnew vocabulary or grammar items.

---

---

...6!.

--

c .................................................................................
.................................................................................

1 I amwriting 2 sucha largenumbe 3 lfWefind it difficultto believe that 4 express my


disagreement

a sayhow muchI disagree b chance c IthoughtI'd dropyoua line


d e everyoneknows which was called so many it can't be right that wrong
doesn't have enough

Forinstance, youcouldsignyourself up for a course of lessons in a new sport,or evendanceclasses - why not?Butthe thing to remember isthat, however hard it isin the beginning, youwill soonseethe benefit. b. Now suggest what kind of letters the paragraphs above could be taken from.

5 6 7 8

is seriouslyunder-funded f inaccurate g a significant percentage it is a well-known fact h i

9 opportunity entitled 1110 ..

money j
a lot of people

---

Readthe following topic sentences. Then, using the prompts given, write supporting sentences to complete each paragraph. Remember to keep the style consistent throughout each paragraph.
a As far as myself and my fellow students are concema success in examinations is a very important part of -'processof learningEnglish.

a. Readthe sentences l5elowand saywhetherthey areformal or informal.Thensuggestwho the target readermight be.
It is a well-known fact that the school is seriously under-

. indication ofprogress incentiveto study


funded. 2
3 4 5 b

. qualificati
that 0

I strongly disagree with your reporter's claim quality of life is improving.

Inthe articlewhichwascalled'A National Disgrace',the


information was wrong. A lot of people would do this if they had the chance. It can't be right that so many people believethis. I am writing to express my disagreement with the opinions in last night's 'Agenda' on BBG. C

. stress. crime . financial difficulties


I'm sure you')) find a lot of things in this magazine you're interestedin.

sectionson Sport/music . interestingletterspage


up-to-date information
d Thanks very much for giving me the chance to Set; -( you run the club.
I

24

b. Now,usingphrases from Ex.4, and making other necessary changes, re-writethe sentences in a different style.Discuss the effectsthat the different styleswould haveon the readers.

useful experience . great atmosphere

fresh ap;:-' ..

Beginnings and Endings


whether or Imp/e, c s been
FORMALLETTERS INFORMALLETTERS Informalletters usuallybegin and end with first namesin the followingway: DearJohn,-+ Lotsof love,Susan DearMargaret -+Takecareandwrite soon,Bill. Informalletterscanbeginwith the reason for writing, e.g. I thoughtI wouldwriteto letyouknowaboutthisfantastic new course that's being offered. Alternatively, theycanbeginwith an informalgreeting, e.g. How are youdoing? The closingcommentdependson the content of the letter e.g. Write soon andletmeknow whatyouthinkJWhy don'tyougive it a tf}'?/etc

-=-~oer that formal lettersbeginandendwith either: - e .:;..- ~adam,-+ Yoursfaithfully, or


~- 'rslMs Smith, -+
Yours sincerely,

ionworkto particular, us and is ,]If work is angerthat marian} ................. ................. !e howwell ,fitsaswell; tivationyou x grammar

- aetters beginwiththereason for writing- e.g.Iamwriting to


~:o'm you .../complainabout .../apologisefor .../applyfor .../etc -=. - 0" IOU can include one or more of the following: ~': au are - e.g. lam writing on behalfof my Englishclass... =:?e"~e to something you have seen or read - e.g. I am writing in

yourarticle inlastTuesday's issue ofEducation News. ~-::'''52 iO

e: :::0' place,time, peoplespoken to, etc, e.g. ... while I was


-~;; ~g the seminarsfor studentson 4th May. '=' ~-~
,

Of' the

reasonforwriting,letterscan end withone or

-e 'o'lowing:
ofthe mainbody

~~ry

=-:'O~:Or)of the reason for writing ~~'an~


::'2'e"ce
=.

to future action

:: es5lon of gratitude

................. ................. r acourse of asses - why oweverhard e benefit.

~::- ire beginnings and the endings


...

:: 2"1d identifythe techniqueswhich


~ ::Eer used. Then say which letter: -!::"'lal -: :: newspaper =:: "g for a job

As I'vesaid,this reallyistoo gooda chanceto let

slipby.I honestlydon't thinkit willbe verydifficult for you of all peopleto qualify.Sowhynot giveit a
go? Writeand let me know how you get on. Sayhelloto everyone for me, Lotsof love, Jill

~n,using the

\\

Icesto
) keepthe

raph.
are concernea

.ooster,

:._
"'"
__

.riting in my capacity as secretary of

tant

part of tt>

::- ~e socialclubto say how concerned 2 = ~c readabout the decisions taken at


1->

-'"-_m ttee meeting held on the fourth of y

I hope that you willconsiderme for the post. I enclosea copyof my CV,togetherwith two letters of reference. I lookforwardto hearingfromyoucmd
having the opportunityto discussthismatterfurther. Yours faithfully,

. qualificati<r
claim that 0\.0

--~:II';g to let you know about a marvellous


~ _-:,. is magazine th:..

KateLowe that I have heard about and that I


3 I trust you will give this issue your urgent considerationand will take the opinionsof the students into account. Thankingyou in anticipation on this matter. for yourcooperation

~~

::::. ",C,y what you're looking for.

page

:hance to see -

n:t, "9 to express my interest in the :' part-time libraryassistant that I saw - -2': - Cu' newsletter dated 13th June.

YOu~
Graham Wiseman

~
25

B . fresh appr

"

- -

~-~--

- - -----------

Writing:

Formal and Informal Letters (1)

Discuss
9
Readthe rubricsand underlinethe keyinformation.
Then answer the questions that follow.

-",

: .

You recentlyreadthe article below in a magazine. You feel very stronglyabout the content of the article andhave decided to writeto theeditor ofthe magazine whichpublished the article. Writeyourletter in180-220 words.

IT'S A STUDENT'S LIFE


by Englishin Action writer,JamesFaraday Theylive off other people'smoney.Theydon't even know the meaning of the word 'work'. And
they contribute nothing at all to society. Who am I talkingabout?Students,of course. As far as I'm concerned, t~day's students are lazy, unproductive individuals who do nothing but sit around all day listening to CDs and spending their parents' hard-earned money. Then, when that's all gone, they turn to the taxpayer to support them in their livesof luxury. I wouldn't mind, but they dare to complain that they are overworked and that they suffer from stress. All I can say is that they are going to have a shock when they finally enter the real world. Then they'll realise what work and stress really mean.

One of your classmates, who has only recently movedto the area,gavea classpresentation about the town/citywhereyouall live.Youfound that the informationin the presentation badly represented the areaandyouhavedecided to write an e-mailto your classmate explaining what you think and how you feelaboutyourtown/city. Writeyoure-mailin 180-220 words.

4
5

Howwill youbeginandendyourletter?
What information will you include in the main body?

6 Thinkof appropriate topic sentencesfor your


main body paragraphs. How will you support

yourtopic sentences?

1 Whatdo youhaveto write? 2 Who is/are the target readers? 3 Howformal does yourwritingneedto be?

10

Portfolio: Usingthe informationyou have learnedin this unit, write one of the tasks you discussed above.

26

EscapeArtists
I
I

4_
_ead-in
~t does the title of the unit mean? In what X'ISe is each picture an escape? What might the :eop~e be escaping from? :~ ;ou ever feel the need to escape from one or --ere of the following? How do you do it? : .scuSsin pairs.

Listento a radioreportabout how peoplein the UKresponded to the questionnaire in Ex.2aand completethe sentences.

. ."Iagelife the weather


.:~.::.-~Jwork

family/friends

routine

1 People aged preferclubbng 2 Thetheatrewasmorepopularwith ............ 3 Whenstayingat home,over .. ::Ecentof peoplesaidtheyusually . 4 Theaverage person spends about............ per monthon entertainment.

::---plete the questionnaire below and compare ::".ra'1swers to your partner's, adding details.

c. What do you think the results of a similars~r.e" would be in your country? Discussin pairs.

Haveyou ever been on any of the following types of holiday?

c. 5 an idealnightout for you?(Tickmorethanone


..r- : 'Oll wish.)

::; 'merat a restaurant D


r letter?

- e concert

Clubbing Theatre ::;:hler ................................................................

adventure backpacking camping cruise hiking package pony-trekking sailing sightseeing skiing touring
With a partner, discuss:

je in the main ncesfor your I yousupport

t?" ou.stayin for the evening, howdo yourelax? ~e :hanoneitemif youwish.) D Cooking D Radio dleogames D Internet DReading
::-iI'er ................................................................
~

What might be the good and bad pointsof the arx::'2


'2'3tge'low muchdoyouspend on entertainment

Which do you agree with? Why? Discuss in pairs. 'Some people, for the sake of getting a living, forger to live:
MargaretFuller (USjournalist & essayist

I you have of the tasks

typesof holiday? Inwhatwayscanholidays exhaust ratherthanrefres"~What itemsareessential for goingon holiday?

Paraphrasethe followingquotations.

.,. -..:r;tr'

.-an 20

D
D

20-50 morethan 100

;Ir- ~ t NQuidbeginwith dinnerat a restaurant,

:<\perpetual holiday is a good working definition of heW George Bernard Shaw (Irishdramatist andwriter)
27

I
Reading - Part3

a. Youwill readan extractfrom an articleon lR.R. Tolkien's The LordoftheRings. What do you know about The LordoftheRings? Haveyou readthe bookor seenanyof the films?What did you think of them? Discuss in pairs. b. Before youread,lookat the title andthe introduction to the article. Which of the following statements do you expectthe writer to agree with? Discuss in pairs.
1 2 3 4 Many academics thinkThe Lord ofthe Rings isanoverrated novel. The Lord oftheRings ismorerealistic thanotherfantasy novels. Thereason whythe bookissosuccessful ishardto explain. Thebook's styleisveryunusual for a 20thcenturynovel.

c. Now readthe articleto check your answers. d. Readthe passage and for questions1-7,choosethe answer(A, B,C,or D)which you think fits bestaccording to the text.

---

----

The

..

dismiss

A classicof our times or an esrapist yarn? Although its popularity is unparalleled, some intellectuals The Lord of the Rings as boyish fantasy. Andrew O'Hehir defends Tolkien's 'true myth' as a
modern masterpiece, and attempts to discover the secret of its success.

InJanuary 1997,reporter Susan Jeffreys oftheLondon Sunday Times Answering this question properly wouldprobably require a book informed a colleague thatJ.R.R. Tolkien's epicfantasy The Lordof the rather thanan article. Butit seems thatthe cruxof the matter liesin 35 Rings hadbeenvotedthe greatest bookof the 20th centuryin a Tolkien's wholehearted rejection of modernity andmodemism. Thisis readers' pollconducted by Brnain's Channel 4 andthe Waterstone's whatsopowerfully attracts some readers, andjustaspowerfully repels 5 bookstore chain.Hercolleague responded: 'What?Hasn? Ohdear. others. InhisbookJ.R.R. Tolkien: Author of theCentury, T.A.Shippey Dear ohdearohdear.' expands onthisnotion byarguing thatTolkien sawhisrealm of MiddleAttitudes in America arearguably morerelaxed about thiskindof earthnot as fictionor invention, but as the recovery of something 40 tt\\\\~. ~Q Q\\~~tQmt\\~ I\m~t\"o.\\~(!\I"o.t~(! ,,\o.c:,c:,~c:, ~Y,\)t~c:,c:,~(! ffi\l,,\\ genuine tnat nadbecome burted be\\eat\\ ka,\\me\\\'" o~tair-; \o.\eo.\\d dismay whena 1999pollof American online bookshop Amazon.com nursery rhyme. 10 customers choseTheLordof the Ringsas the greatest booknot 'However fanciful Tolkien's creation of Middle-earth was,'Shippey merely ofthecentury butofthemillennium. Tolkien's bookis sodeeply writes,'he did not thinkthat he was entirely making n up. He was ingrained in popular culture,afterall, that a greatmanyof today's 'reconstructing', hewasharmonising contradictions in his source-texts, 45 American academics andjournalists probably still havethosedog- sometimes hewassupplying entirely newconcepts (likehobbns), buthe eared paperbacks they read avidly in eighth grade with their wasalsoreaching backto animaginative worldwhichhebelieved had 15 hallucinatory mid-1970s cover art,stashe.d somewhere intheattic. once really existed, atleast inacollective imagination.' Furthermore, members oftheU.S.intelligentsia fullyexpect to have Thebookisalsodeeply grounded inTolkien's linguistic expertisetheirtastes ignored, ~notopenly derided, bythepublic atlarge. Tosome heinvented whole languages for hischaracters. Sometimes hebecame 50 American intellectuals n seems grat~ing,even touching, thatso many so absorbed inthecreation of languages, in fact,thatheputthestory millions ofreaders willhappily devour aworkascomplicated asThe Lord nselfasidefor monthsor yearsat a time, believing he couldnot 20 of theRings. Whatever onemaymake ofn,n'sa morechallenging read continue untilsomequandary or inconsistency in his invented realm thanGoneWiththe Wind(runner-up in the Amazon survey), not to hadbeen resolved. ButTolkien's immense intellect anderudition is not mention Harry Potter andtheSorcerer's Stone (fifthplace). thesource of hissuccess; wnhout hisstorytelling gm,The Lordof the 55 Hugely amMiousin scope,TheLordof the Ringsoccupies an uncomfortable position in 20thcentury literature. Tolkien's epicposes 25 asternchallenge to modem Inerature anditsdefenders. (Tolkien onhis critics:'Some whohave read thebook, or atanyratehave reviewed n, havefoundn boring, absurd, or contemptible; andI haveno cause to complain, since I have similar opinions oftheirworks, orofthekinds of writingthatthey evidently prefer.')Yet TheLord of the Ringshas 30 enjoyed massive andenduring popularity. Itwouldseem thatTolkien's work suppliedsomethingthat was missing amongthe formal innovations of 20thcentury fiction,something for whichreaders were ravenous. Butwhatwasn,andwhywasn important? Rin~s wouldb~Intlemore thana curiosity. ~ndthisgift. ~eems to stem straight fromhisrefusal to break fromclassical andtraditional forms. Tolkien himse~ oftenspokeof hisworkas something 'found'or 'discovered', something whose existence wasindependent of him.It's wisetotreadlightly inthissortof interpretation, butn seems clearthat 6C hebelieved hisworkto besomething given, something revealed, which contained a kindof truthbeyond measure. Asa result, hisdetails have theweight of reality, linguistic andotherwise, andbecause of thishis greatsweepof story feels real as well; you might say that his imaginary castlesarebuiltwnha certainamountof genuine stone.65 Other writers' fantasy worlds aremade up.Tolkien's is inherited.

----

28

I
4 WhatwasTolkien's reaction to criticism of The Lord of the Rings? A Hefelt it wasunjustified. B He wasn'tbothered by it. ( Hecouldn'tunderstand it. D Hepartlyagreed with it. S Accordingto Shippey, Tolkienbelievedthat the world he described A wasfull of unresolved contradictions. B wascompletely accurate, historically. ( wasimaginative but not purefantasy. D wasasincredible ashissources. 6 Makingup languages for The Lordof theRings A helped Tolkien to takethe storyforward. B wasmoreinteresting to Tolkien thanwritingthestory. ( wassometimes ratherfrustratingfor Tolkien. D resulted in lengthyinterruptions to Tolkien's writing.

o check

for the whichyou ng to the

7 Accordingto the writer of the article,the detailsin Tolkien's work A aresometimes ratherdifficultto follow. B makethe storyseem morerealistic. ( includesomemodernelements. D canbeinterpreted in manydifferentways

uals 'as a

~uire a book natterliesin 35 nism. Thisis 'erfully repels fA Shippey m ofMiddleIf something ... airytaleand

Vocabulary Practice

Explain the highlightedwords in the text.

Text Analysis

(as,'Shippey up. He was .source-texts. .;." Ibbits), buthe believed had

a. Whatdoesthe writer meanby the underlined


parts?
Tolkien's bookisso deeply inarained in popularculture...
(II. 11-12)

ic expertise ~she became :;

-= ':',ytthe Rings wasvoted the greatestbookof the


- -e 3'1S-/Yere annoyed. "" -ce (!I,dn'tbelieveit. ~ 'CEffcJnd the fact shocking.

... so manymillionsof readers will happilydevoura work ascomolicated as ... (II. 18-20)

3 The book is alsodeeplygroundedin Tolkien's linguistic

putthestor, he couldnot Ivented realm rudition is noi. ,eLordof the eems to ster" anal forms. ing'found'0.' intof him.It's ~ms clear tha; !vealed, whic"
ISdetails ha'-e

(I.49) . expertise... 4 It'swiseto tread lightly in this sort of interpretation...


(II.59-60) b. Read the first paragraph again and in pairs. act out the dialogue between SusanJeffreys and her colleague.

_
~

~fT'ICS

disagreed.
the Statesthan in the UK.

::E secondparagraph that The Lord of theRings


-::_~
n

- """'1;:schools throughoutthe world. -cr(ec.a~ed byacademics andjournalists. =c:: school children.


... S"lr a:JOUtGoneWith the Wind?
~ """''C '=

Jseof thisI';~ say that f.;: lenuine store Iherited.

:>opJlar thanThe Lord ofthe Rings. """''C'= ::na!lenging thanThe Lord ofthe Rings.
):'"E :i.ace

recently? What did you like or dislike about them?


Discuss in pairs.

Discussion
What works of fiction haveyou read

behindThe Lord of theRings.

~ -;: u'w' TheLordof theRings.

29

--

..

Escape

A: How would you feel if your best friend said he had tickets for a sold-out rock concert? B: Fantastic. I'd be really excited! A: Would you like to see a film that was said to be 'the scariest film of all time? B: No way! I'd be absolutely terrified.

~ Weekend Pleasures
- --~.
1 a. Underlinethe correctword in the sentences. What kind of 'escape'arethey relatedto?
going on a fishingtrip on a picnic
to the cinema to a rock concert on a cruise to a fitness centre
I

a. Tick(I') the boxesto form phrases.Can you think


of one more phrase to go under each heading? book I I
I I I I
I

do

have take

time to relax It easy an on-lioe crossword a soothing bath tickets for a match an extravagant dinner
I

hiking
to a museum/gallery

I
After I was assigned my own personal (instructor, advisor, tutor), he showed" me around the gym and explained how the equipment worked. 2 3 4 The fishing (tent, hostel, lodge) was convenientlylocated within walking distanceof a well-stockedlake. We enjoyed a lovely packed lunch in the refreshing (isolation, barrenness,solitude) of the fragrantwood. The group opened their concert with a rousing
I I

a party

close friends over a table for two a weekend break

, -

b. Discuss your weekend plans with your partner.


A: B: What have you planned for the weekend? I'm not sure, but on Friday night I thought I might...

(rendition, edition, translation) of the hit song that had made them famous.

5 The film was a real (cliff-hanger,blockbuster, box


office hit) - it had the audience gasping in suspense till the very end. 6 After his 1Q-mile (pilgrimage, trek, voyage) over rough

Pastimes
a. Underline the word which best completes each sentence. To what pastime is each group of words related? Can you add one more word? After missing an easyshot, the playerthrew her ~net/ racket/court/umpire) angrily onthe ground. He spends hoursin his (ca01era/darkroom/lens/tripod) every evening developing rollsof film. Place yourfootinthe (saddle/stirrup/bit/bridle) andswing yourotherlegoverthe horse's back. Because of herfearof heightsandthe swingingmotion of the seats, Lindahasneverbeenpersuaded to get on a (carousel/roller coaster/bigwheel/waterslide). My grandmotheris a fanatic about her favourite (documentary/chatshow/soap opera/cartoon); she laughsand crieswith the actorsas though they were realpeople. Be sure you drain the spinachin the (whisk/grater/ saucepan/colander) before you spread it over the sheets of pastry.

terrain, John was glad to see the inn come into view. 7 The (dean, curator, prefect) showed the visitors the new exhibits collection. 8 We stood on the (platform, pulled away from the pier. deck, stage) of the liner as it that had been donated to the permanent

2 3 4

b. How would you feel? Read the

examples, then

use the language box to discuss in pairs the activities in Ex. 1a.
JExpressing Feelings

Positive

Negative

I'd be reallypleased/excited! delighted. I'd be overthe moon! I'd be on top of the world! I'd be extremelythrilled!

I'd be really frightenedlbored/ disappointed. I'd be scared to death. I'd be bored stiff. I'd be absolutely terrified.

, -

30

ehadtickets

-.a~ do you likedoing in your free time?Use ::---ases fromthelanguage boxto disc~ss in ::a"'5,asin the example.
Preferences

id to be 'the

S'_:he truth. I think : :re" ~"1p collecting to

. .

Negative
I don't like skating at all.

I like skiingfar better. Television doesn'treallyhold

In you think heading?

:. like reading :~-= ~...al" -Hatching TV. '='2""2 I'd prefer to ...:- ;pJd music

myinterest.I'dmuchrather
goto thetheatre. I'm afraid potteryisn't my cupof tea.Iprefersculpting. I don't think I'd fancythat. However. embroidery might be nice.

-- - -ax

- cr
'='

: o' the piano.

:-:::;(2,II'dsooner
.2: <t'aI1goto the

. . . . . . . ..

It'squitea(n) book. not quiterelaxing enoughfor bedtimereading. After the seven-hour climb.the mountaineers wereabsolutely exhausted.

Ifyou'renotupto strenuous sports. trya(n).............

activitylikegentlewalking. To reachsafety.the survivors were faced with the prospect of a fifty-miletrekthroughuncharted jungle. The temperatures of the lake makeit unsuitable for snorkelling without a wetsuit. Although it wasslightly............................................ we enjoyed our sleigh-ride enormously. The conditionsmade the racetrackverywet andslippery. If the weatherremains.............................................
I'm goingto plantmygardenat the endof the week.

crossword

Ibath a match

~ iJullike doinginyourspare time?

~...

Ilike... What about you?

a. Study the theory box. Then fillin the gaps with an appropriate adverb from the theory box.
Most adjectivescan be made more emphatic by using adverbs with them, e.g. really/very good, absolutely/totallyamazing.Someadverbscollocate with both gradableand non-gradableadjectives, e.g. reallygood/amazing. However,not all adverbs and adjectives collocate.e.g. very/really interesting, Not t9tBUy iRtefe&tiR.
1 2 3 4 5 fantastic unparalleled absurd intelligent exhilarating

- -- '., n'dfancythat.However, ...etc.

Igant dinner

Idsover

rtwo

d break

. ::
-- ~

p your Word Power -~ "tensity.Use themto complete thesets

-. - .0:.:. eG:.w'es below have been grouped in order of .,:-"'"':cces whichfollow. Useeachadjectiveonly

)ur partner.
:

.;--'(~wc11ble<raUcous<deafening

6
7 8 9 10

might...

- ; (tkjl/y<wintry<freezing--; : : "::elrting<distressing<harrowing Jpleteseact' groupof oreword?


- .::s.:Jld

disappointing brilliant commercialised intense soothing

..~ ~'!! - - . ...,. - I'j .... ..J~_ .";J:I ..


of the fisherman'svoicewas barelyaudible
' '-e ~oar of the waterfall.

..

threw her (00;. ld. om/lens/tripoe )ridle)andsv-

b. In pairs, use phrases from Ex.Sa to ask and answer questions about the best and worst CDs you have ever heard/books you have ever read, etc.

- E:::.~olle's laughter ~ :: eelthe romantic atmosphere of the elegant ~,,-.,mt.


- .::5'~CIO was ~-,; a1:istworked at her sculpture. - '" ::.arof applause at the end of the concertwas
.

as the

Have youheardthenewEminem CD? Doyoumean'8-MileRd? Yes, andit'sabsolutely fantastic!

;wingingmo' J adedto get C'" er slide). t her favou a/cartoon). :. loughthey :: e (whisk!gra~ ~ad it over -

= its 'ull of violence -I foundthat seeing it was .::" a experience that :?"""EJJJt ofthecinema feeling completely drained. - 'elief. thelongtrainjourney wasmore...........
-=
~

than I hadexpected. as s.grtly to see .;=? :21'0ne else at the partywasyoungerthanme.


~ 'eallY ~ to see the terrible e!rdured by people living in the shanty town.