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university

Fit

for Life
Listento five people talking about health problems. Put the number of the speaker by each health problem. Then, match the health problems with the treatment(s) they tried.

ge learniJ";

Lead-in
es and I

.
'" ....

Lookat the title of the unit.What do youthink it

means?
Speaker a. Look at the pictures. Which could be connected

~
q;x:xrO

to the following aims? Discussin pairs.


f

':

. . . . . .

D D ~

indigestion
post-viral depression

to eradicate disease to keepfit to prevent illhealth


to promote teamwork

to relax to diagnose illness

. . .

to imposeselfdiscipline
to

cultivatea competitive

D D

sportsinjury achingmuscles headaches

spirit
to improvequalityof life to increaselifeexpectancy

~~
(/)

~~-

tions

b. What sports do you do? What sports do you like watching? How does watching a sport compare with active participation?Tellyour partner.

Now listenagainand sayhow eachpersonfelt about their medical proble~ and why. Choose from this list.

a. What do you thinkthe most importantfactors in keepinghealthyare? Rankthe followingin order of importance,and discusswith a partner.

desperate
frustrated

gloomy embarrassed

worried

IDa

Paraphrasethe followingquotations.

Which do you agree with? Why? Discussin pairs. 'Tne sovere1gn invigorator of tne body is exercise, and of all the exerciseswalking is best: Thomas Jeffman (USpresident) 'Health is a blessingthat money cannot buy.' 'zaakWalton (English writer) 145

diet exercise conventional alternative medicine other

medicine

A: I thinkdietandexercise go handin hand,don'tyou? B: Absolutely, but everyone getsill from time to time and needs medicine. I still thinkconventional medicine is the
... bestoptionbecause

Reading - Part4

a. Youwill reada text about four great medical discoveries. Beforeyou read,discuss the following with a partner.
Loo.~at the title of the text. Who isthe title quoting? What did he discover? In what situation did he utter 'eureka'? 2

Look at the introduction and the titles of the four texts.


What do you know about these discoveries? Why were they important? Which do you think was the most important?

3 The followingphrasesare taken from the text. Which


discovery do you think each one refers to? Guess, then read the text quickly to see if you were correct. a) ... used for temporary headache relief... b) ... the technique of introducing material under the skin ... c) the fundamental ingredient of most antibiotics ... d) ... recognised that the veins in the human

THECIRCULATION OF I ), I THEBLOOD ,",c.


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}
..} ~.;:.

. William Harvey (1578-1657) J undertook groundbreaking research J~

body had one-wayvalves...

into the circulation of the blood and

the function of the heart. He dispelled the contemporary belief that blood was propelled through the body by a pulsing action in the arteries; instead, he argued, the heart was at the centre of the circulatorysystem. While at the University of Padua in Italy, Harvey was tutored by the scientist and surgeon Hieronymus Fabricius. Fabricius recognised that the veins in the human body had one-way valves,but was puzzled as to what their function could be. It was Harvey who went on to solve the riddle. In 1628,he published his
findings in a book entitled An Anatomical Study of the

b. Forquestions 1-15, choose fromthe answers A-D.

A Thecirculation of the blood B Thesmallpox vaccine ( Penicillin D Aspirin

.~

Which discovery

. .

...
1 2 3 ....... 4 ....... 5 ....... 6 7 ....... 8 ....... 9 ....... 10 .......
...

hinders various natural functions of the human

body?
was based on popular wisdom? was based on the work of a contemporary? dulls the body's mechanism for feeling pain? significantly reduced the mortality rate? was largely accidental? forced doctors to think about the body in a different way? was made by the employee of a pharmaceutical company? had been made before but escaped attention? had a mixed response from the scientific community?

Motion of the Heart and of the Blood in Animals. His discovery was received with great interest and accepted in England at once, although it was greeted with some scepticismon the Continent. Apart from offering insight into the function of ~ the heart, Harvey's work also debunked misconceptions about the role of the liver, the brain and the blood itself. His discoveryleft scientists with no choice but to reconsider the vast majority of medical theories which were up until tp.en accepted, 25' and to place medicine on a new footing. In effect, it was the beginning of modem medicine.

. . .
146
...

Vocabulary Practice a. Explainthe highlightedwords in the passage.


b. Whichwords in the text comefrom ancient Greekor Latin? 3

gave its name to a method of preventive 11 ....... medicine?


involved experimenting on human beings? contradicted previous theories? is used to treat various infections? particularly helped urban populations? 12 13 14 15 ....... ....... ....... .......

Text Analysis '3 a. Answerthe following questionson the first


section(TheCirculationof the Blood).

~I

PENICilLIN
In the early 1920s, the British scientist Alexander Fleming reported that a product in human tears could make bacterial ceUs dissolve. But Fleming's finding, which he called lysozyme,would prove to be a dead end in the search for an efficaciousantibiotic,since it typically destroyed nonpathogenic bacterial ceUs as wen as harmful ones. Fleming's second discovery, though, would be one of medicine's greatest breakthroughs. In 1928, he discovered another antibacterial agent, quite by chance. Returning from a weekend away, 10 Fleming looked through a set of plates on which he had been growing bacteria cultures. On one of them, he found that colonies of the Staphylococcus bacteria had dissolved. He noticed that bacterial cells had disintegrated in tin area next to the mould growing on the plate and hypothesized that a product of the mould had caused it. That 15 product was penicillin, the fundamental ingredient of most antibiotics, now the standard treatment for infections. While Fleming generaUy receives credit for discovering penicillin, he in fact merely rediscovered it. In 1896, the French medical student Ernest Duchesne had discovered the antibiotic properties of 20 Penicillium, but failed to report a connection between the fungus and a substance that had antibacterial properties, and Penicillium was forgotten in the scientific community until Fleming's rediscovery.

ica1

THE SMAllPOX VACCINE


Born on 17th May 1749, Edward Jenner was the creator of the smallpox vaccine. It has been estimated __ _n that the task he ..oed has led to the saving of more ~uman lives -= ;he work of any other person. Smallpox was J:IOSt feared and greatest killer of Jenner's time. .:jay'sterms it was as deadly as cancer or heart .:e. It killed 10% of the population, rising to ill towns and cities where infection spread -=-umthe early days of his career Edward Jenner _ --een intrigued by country-lore which said that ~c who caught cowpox from their cows (a mild
w

xl

",.~

1 in the at the

10
A bitter powder from the bark of a willow tree was first used by Hippocrates in the 5th century B.C., to treat aches and pains. Many centuries later, Felix Hoffman, an industrial chemist, synthesised the substance salicylic acid, and in 1893 he developed a commercial process for its production. In 1897, Hoffmans' superiors at Bayer and Company named this product Aspirin. Now, about 20 billion tablets of aspirin are consumed in Britain each year. Aspirin works by reducing the body's production of prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are enzymes that influence the rate and direction of a chemical reaction. In trying to protect the body when cells have been damaged, prostaglandins trigger fever (by acting on brain centres) and swelling, prevent blood vessel dilation and increase the sensitivity of pain receptors. Taking aspirin can relieve many of the effects of prostaglandins. It is used for temporary headache relief, muscular aches and pains, toothaches and arthritis. It is also effective in the tteatment of fever and inflammation, and is known to reduce the risk of strokes and heart attacks.

Har'e" mym... in~ :zIed_ e;,'-u bed h..

15

~ection whichclearedup by itselfafter a few


20

~ ~ ebr~ 'IS : rit: cep:o.... frec-..

could not contract smallpox. In May 1796, a "''''.:D3id consulted Jenner about a rash on her He diagnosed cowpox, and at the same time ...edthat he would put the old wives' tale to the He scratched the maid's hand with a scalpel, $ected several of his patients with cowpox. As ..d anticipated, and undoubtedly to his great none of them caught smallpox. ...ccinationwith cowpox became compulsory in and the technique of introducing material _~ the skin to produce protection against .-t: became universally known as vaccination, a ... derived from the Latin name for the cow ~ ,.in Jenner's honour.

'-

10

25

15

30

20

Discussion
Whatis 'the riddle'referred to in line 14?
a,"Cre'" .

2. Whatdoesthe writermeanbythe phrase 'it wasgreeted with some scepticism' (II.18-19) 3 Explain thephrase 'place medicine ona newfooting'.(I.26)

a. Canyou think of anymoremedicaldiscoveries that havechanged the course of medical science?

b.

b. Work in pairs. Findother interestingphrasesin


the remaining three texts and explain them.

Imaginethat you areone of the scientistsin the text. Write diaryentriesfor the lastfew daysleadingup to your discovery, includingyour feelings.Readthem to the class. 147

:) The Human Body


1
a. Saywhereeachof the following body partsis located.Usea dictionaryif necessary.

c. Which of the doctors in Ex.2b is the man in th


cartoon supposed to see? In pairs, choose another doctor and think of a cartoon related them.

.'!\ cornea pupil eardrum earlobe airway


. nostril skull cheekbone jaw incisor . Adam'sapple collarbone palm spine . breastbone ribcage kneecap shin
Thecornea isthefrontlayerof theeye.

b. Whichof the following verbsdescribenormal processes of the humanbody?Whichdescribe processes associated with disease?

breathe wheeze yawn throb blink . cough swallow bruise digest scar

c. Usethe verbsin your own sentences to show their meaning.

:)
2

:) Doctor for a Day


3
Discussin pairs. Which of the treatments in the green box would be most suitable for each of the health problems? Multiple matching is possible. insomnia arthritis pulledmuscle indigestion eczemaconcussion fatigue bonefracture appendicitis

Health Problems
a. Matchthe conditionson the left with the complaintson the right.

. .

rash inflamedjoints blurred vision chest pain hoarseness

My voice is disappearing. Everythingis hazy. It hurts when I breathe.

I can't bend my kneesor my elbows.


I've got these red blotches allover my skin.

acupuncture medically approved diet physiotherapy regularexercise.homeopathy antibiotics hypnosis vitamintablets surgery creams sling/cast bedrest

. . .

-- --- - - -- --

A: / think that if someone isdiagnosed with concussion theymil;"

b. Which of these doctorsshouldthe peoplein


Ex.2a see?

definitelyhavesomebedrest. B: / agree.Bedrestcana/50beprescribed forpulledmuscles an; bonefractures.

Dr MarionPump
CARDIOLOGIST
.

:)
.4

Sports:

Odd-one-out

Dr MarkStare
OPHTHALMOLOGIST

t,
DR ELSAPIMPLE DERMATOloGiST

' .~

DRALANSTIFF

In pairs, find the odd-one-out in each set, then briefly explain why it doesn't belong in the group. Consult a dictionary if you wish.
rugby - motor racing- stopwatch - triathlon Stopwatch istheodd-one-out because all theothersaresports 2 referee judge- umpire- fan

Orthopaedic Surgeon

--,..--

3 jersey- shuttlecock - puck- ball


4 commentator - stands - manager - sponsor 5 grass- clay- executivebox - tarmac 6 helmet- sprain- shinguard - goggles

148
-

In it" 1;

6"

Ise 'elatec

Playing Areas
a. Matchthe sportsto the placesthey are normally played.Whichare individualsports?Which are indoor/outdoor sports?

:) Collocations
6
a. Match the pairs of adjectives to the nouns to form collocations.

I,I

rzly sis

. boxing badminton archery snooker . rowing go-kartracing wrestling

. synchronised swimming scubadiving . kayaking triathlon rockclimbing angling


. squash marathon hockey golf . weightlifting softball skydiving icehockey iceskating
-( .......................................................................... .......................................................................... .......................................................................... ..........................................................................
. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .

excruciating/nagging full/miraculous internal/massive contagious/mysterious on- the-spot/outpatient lightning/automatic rigorous/annual sportsfnasty

bleeding tests treatment injury pain recovery disease reflexes

:Ii-.; 1i1"" =--.::


:E'"

b. Now use some of the collocations to complete the sentences. Considering hisageandthe seriousness of hisillness, he reallydid makea(n) recovery. Luckily, I canreceive...................................................... treatmentandavoida longhospitalstay. Chrisisalways explaining that hewouldhavebeena star footballerif it hadn'tbeenfor an unfortunate............... injury. After a series of tests,my doctor assured methat therewasnothingwrongwith me. I'vehadthis painin mybackall afternoon.It'sreallyannoying. After being hit in the stomachwith the hockeypuck, the player wastakento hospital with ........................... bleeding. The disease hasbaffledscientists reflexes andincredible

. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .

2
. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . . .. . .. . .. . .. .

:,.,-:x.ors

, the
1of ti'e sible. tion
)end c' _ b. Look at the list of adjectives below and in pairs discuss which best describe the sports in Ex. Sa. Give reasons.

4 5 6

. demanding exhilarating hazardous rough


. extreme individual indoor adventurous
invigorating

)therap' ypnosis

A: I believethat squashis one of the most demanding sportsbecause youplay oneon oneandyou onlyhave yourownstaminaandstrengthto relyon. B: True, but I thinkthat wrestling andweightliftingarealso verydemanding because youneedto beverystrong.

for years. 8 Theboxer's

speedledto hiswinningthe heavy-weight title. C. Use the collocations you didn't use in Ex. 6b in your own sentences.

muscles a-

c. Answer the following questions.

,.'
'I

1 Whichsportsarethe mostpopularin yourcountry? 2 Do you preferteam sportsto individualsports?Why/ Whynot? 3 Should sportsbe partof the schoolcurriculum?

then e group

?rs are 5P::;

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Language Focus
7
Tick the boxes to form phrases. In pairs, use the Canyou think of one more phrases in sentences. phrase to go under each heading? 5 Of course you're nervous.It's not every day someone participates in the Olympic Games!

Catch

. DevelopContract
.

c. Usethe remainingidioms in sentences of J'::. Suffer a cold a fever a heartattack meningitis the flu pneumonia livertrouble a stomach bug hepatitis a mentalbreakdown whoopingcough measles
thecircumstances C suspicion)

own.

,t
'

.".

-;
,-

! :"

...

~ Fixed Phrases (phrases with


9
Replace the underlined with fixed phrases with under.

under)

:'
.
..

parts in the sentences bet:!

~!, I,

CnormalcondiO<r_

~
(pressure)
2 I'd liketo comeandplaybasketball with youbut I'verereally stressed at work thisweekandI justwant to 'a on Saturday. Usually.we don't allow non-members into the qHowever, it'sveryquiettonightsowe'll make anexcep:... thisonetime. P~t~fsaidh~'d \iK~to com~,but consid~ring the ..:. thingsare.he'dbetterstayhomewith hissickdaugr'= Sony, but youcan'tcomeintoth~sport's dub.You'r~ ~_ old enough. The doctor is being investiaated for writing out 'a prescriptions.

Idioms

a. Matchitems fromcolumns A andBto form idioms. Inpairs, guess whatthe idioms might mean. Doyouhave similar idioms inyour language?

-.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 be over be given a clean be black be fit as have butterflies in kick up scarethe life be of sound
have nerves

-.--.

3 4 5

a b c d e f

bill of health upper lip and blue


one's stomach

.-

keep a stiff

mind and body out of someone 9 a fiddle h one's heels i the hill j of steel

~
10
.

Words often Confused


Underline the correct word. In English, thereare manycommon(slogans/provem.. expressions/statements) about partsof the body,s:.: as"closeto myheart" and"seeeyeto eye". u' Thedoctor (insisted/ordered/persuaded/pressed) Paulshouldstayin bedfor at leastthreedays. The new gym is (fully/honestly/purely/truly) a fitl"~ fanatic's paradise. Jenner'sdiscovery of vaccinationliterally(convertec. transformed/altered/disguised) the course of medicine Tenyearsago I had a really(wrong/bad/faulty/critica accident with mymotorcycle andIhaven't ridden onesir<:i: Hetriedto relaxbytaking(deep/low/great/full) breat... but hewasfartoo nervous.

b. Now,rewrite the sentences below using some of


the idioms, in their correct form, from Ex. 8a. If you are both mentallyand physically fit, nobodyhas anyrightto disagree withwhatyoustateinyour will. 2 I knowthat the operation will be difficult for youbut be strongandeverything will comeout fine. 3 Don't try andtell meI can't playfootballif Iwant! I may beeighty-five but I'm ashealthyasever. 4 Thefamousgolf pro jokedthat he wasold andthat it wastimefor himto retire.

2 3 4 5 6

150
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Listening & Speaking:


(Listening-Part 2

Now listen to the recording. For questions 1-6,

a. Youwill hearamedical advisor talkingabout


exercise and health. Before you listen, discuss in

choose the answer, (A,B,Cor D) which fits best according to what you hear. Keith feels heliskiingshouldnot be permitted in the UKbecause A B ( D 2 manypeoplehavebeenkilled. heliskiers aretoo far from help. it isbannedelsewhere. weatherconditions areunsuitable.

pairs:
~.t'at are the benefits of exerciseto the body? What problems can exercisecreate?

Now listen to the recording. For questions 1-8, complete the sentences.

Keithsaysthat the most importantchoiceto maketc ensuresafetywhen skiingisthat of A the slope. B y"our companions. ( yourequipment. D the helicopter.

Problems
The positive effects of exercise are negated by our

~ ~
The effectiveness of our boosted as it should be.

I. I. IT
\ hours after exercise.
of a damaging

The worst problems are caused by exercising

Iisnot
4

Helenaarguesthat the locationsheliskiers useare A proneto avalanches. B veryclose to resorts. ( not assteepasstairs. D generally fairlysafe. Keithagreeswith Helenathat A heliskiing represents an environmental threat.

We are particularly vulnerable to disease for

B thedangers athome areiust as great.


( otherextreme sportsarenot asrisky. D the riskof avalanche isfairlyminimal.

Strenuous exercise can stimulate production

III
Prevention
(ontrol

I in the body.
exercise level: aim to keep your heart beat to about

5 What doesKeith describeasdifficult to foresee?


A snowquality B weatherconditions ( wildlifeactivity D dangerlevels 6 Helenaisworried that A B ( D peopletakeunnecessary risks. dangerissubjectively assessed. othersportsmaybe banned. skiingmightget a badname.

@]

I of itsfastest speed.

You should not exercise for more than

~
It'simportantto
after exercise.

I at atime.
[I

Ifor 24 hours

c. Doyou think that dangerous sports should be


c. In pairs, think of any other precautions to ensure that exercise is beneficial to our health. banned? Discussin groups.
_

(Listening - Part4
(Listening - Part 3

.. ..

a. You will hear a radio interview in which two


people discussthe sport of heliskiing. Before you listen, discussin pairs:

a. Youwill hearfive peopletalking about sport.


Before you listen, look at the list of people in Task 1. How can each contribute to a sports club? Discussin pairs.

Whatdo youthink heliskiing is?

Whatother extreme sports doyouknowof?

Wouldyouliketo try extreme sports? WhyNJhy not?

Now listen and do the following tasks.

152