Chapter 13 - Notes The Great War 1914-1918 - A Major Turning Point The Great War ( World War

I ) Unprecedented Aspects - Global/many belligerent states (Belligerent = Willing to Fight/ Fighting State) - Carnage on a monumental scale - Weapons of mass destruction ( Tanks, machine guns, more stuff) - Loss of an entire generation of young men - Signal of the weakening & decline of European economic, political, & cultural supremacy - Ascent of the U.S. as a world power - Change of national boundaries - Precursor to cataclysms (Russian Revolution, WWII) Contents - Marching Toward War - Europe Plunges into War - A Global Conflict - A Flawed Peace Marching Toward War To "Powder Keg" of Europe ( Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, F.Y.R.O.M. ) A Mismatch of Political, Geographic, Religious , Linguistic, Ethnic Boundaries 1 - Nationalism & How It Increased Tensions Among European Nations a deep devotion to one's nation... Germany , Austria-Hungary ( Old Country but is now separated into Austria and Hungary ), Italy, Russia, Great Britain, France. ...caused intense competition by the turn of the 20th century among Europe's Great Powers for industrial dominance & power 2 - Imperialism & How It Increased Tensions Among European Nations Africa & Asia A Quest for colonies... ...intensified European nations' sense of rivalry & mistrust toward one another as they competed for colonies in Asia & Africa 3 - Militarism & How It Increased tensions Among European Nations policy of glorifying military power & keeping an army prepared for war &... to mobilize troops quickly in case of war... ... led to an arms race & formation of large standing armies and, eventually, to military alliances 4 - The Triple Alliance & How It Increased Tensions Among European Nations Otto von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor of Germany 1815-1898 Triple Alliance 1882 - Germany - Austria-Hungary - Italy agreement crafted by Bismarck who saw France as a threat to peace & that made Germany, Austria-Hungary, & Italy military allies... created an unstable & fragile alliance that tried to isolate France Warring Cousins (all related to each other) Kaiser Wilhelm II King George V Czar Nicholas II 5 - The Triple Entente & How It Increased tensions Among European Nations Triple Entente 1907 - Great Britain - France

Kaiser Wilhelm II The German ruler who: . Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia = F.. Luxembourg). 5 .. Italy ) .. The Schlieffen Plan Foiled War on Two Fronts/Sides 4 . Poison Gas. established two rival camps in Europe--Triple Alliance & Triple Entente--that created the possibility that any dispute between two rival powers could draw the entire continent into war Pre-War Europe . murders heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne.The Effect of Russian Mobilization Along the German Border Germany declares war on Russia & on France. Tanks. August 1914] . Austria-Hungary has an excuse to launch a war on Serbia. leading to huge losses for small land gains. its war effort is short of supplies & near collapse. & Airplanes are Used in Battles Along the Western Front New technology turns the Western Front into a horrible & horrifying "terrain of death" in which huge numbers of soldiers die. [Battle of tannenburg. leading to a confrontation between Austria and Russia. 7 ..Y. Spain. Ottoman Turkey ) . Bulgaria.UP in the notes .forced Bismarck to resign (1890) . Netherlands. Sophie on June 28. December 1914] 6 . Switzerland ) The Balkans (Former. or to a stalemate in which neither side could gain an advantage over the other. .O.. . Franz Ferdinand and his wife. leading to the formation of the Triple Entente Europe Plunges into War 1 .R. ) 6 . Scandinavia.stretch of battlefield along the German & Russian border where Russians & Serbs battled Germans. Austrians. & Turks Trench warfare . 3 . & regains east Prussia. France. Japan.Terminology Western Front .Allies ( Great Britain. & suggest that Germany may have to fight a long war on two fronts. 2 . leading to the formation of a Franco-Russian alliance. a Serbian nationalist.... forces Russians to retreat.allowed the German-Russian treaty to lapse.The Allies Defeat the Germans in the Battle of the Marne Allies' victory destroys Germany's hopes for the Schlieffen Plan which called for quick victory in the west.Type of warfare in which soldiers fought each other from trenches.M.built up the German navy to challenge Britain. 1914 in Sarajevo. Germany has to fight on the Western & Eastern front (sides) The Schlieffen Plan Alfred Graf von Schlieffen 1833-1913 German plan for a two-front war in which the German army would quickly defeat the French in the west &. and Russia in which Britain pledged not to fight France & Russia.then race east to defeat the Russians.Neutrals ( Benelux ( Belgium.Austrian forces drive the Russians out of Austria-Hungary [Battle of Limanowa..The Assassinations in Sarajevo & How It Increased Tensions Among European Nations Gavrilo Princip..italy joins the Triple Entente arguing that the unprovoked attack allowed it to divorce itself from its old ally Germany. 7 .Russian Forces Attack Both Austria & Germany Leaders of the Central Powers Kasier Wilhelm II of Germany Emperor Franz Josef of Austria Germany counterattacks. Allies Central Powers . France..Russia alliance among Britain.Britain declares war on Germany .The Allies are Unable to Ship War Supplies to Russia's Ports Because Russia is not industrialized.Machine Guns. Russia.Germany Invades Belgium to Get to France . Austria-Hungary..Central Powers ( Germany.deadlocked region n northern France Eastern Front ..

. citizens) The Germans argued there was ammunition aboard thus the reason why they blew up the ship F.Events that Signaled the Final Defeat of the Central Powers . 1915 .severs relations with Germany 2.Black Sea .198 lives lost (128 U. 1912 ..Sunk by iceberg .The Purpose of the Gallipoli Campaign Which Began in February 1915 ANZAC mnemonic stands for Australia and New zealand something The Allies believed that if they could secure the Dardanelles. .The Significance of the Second Battle of the Marne in July 1918 . 1917 The United States entered the war because of: public outrage over Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare ..Disaster at Gallipoli 250.1. The Steamship Titanic .Aegean Sea .surrender of Bulgarians & Ottoman Turks .000 American troops took part in this battle ..More than 2.President Wilson addresses Congress April 1917 .I.traditional bonds between Americans & English.Sunk by German submarine .000 casualties The Victorious Turks Turkish artillery battered the Allies & drove them back to the beaches The successful defense of Gallipoli became a symbol of Turkish national pride Unrestricted Submarine Warfare U-boat Unterseeboote German policy (January 1917) under which submarines would sink any ship in waters around Britain without warning Threat to Allied Shipping U Boote Heraus! " Drive the Ships Out!" The Steamship Lusitania ..April 15.The Terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Signed by Germany & Russia in March 1918 ended the war between Russia & Germany required Russia to surrender lands to Germany that comprise today's countries of Latvia.reports of German war atrocities 3 ..the refusal of the army to continue fighting .1.Why the Czar's Government Collapsed When Lenin Seized Power in November 1917 The czar's government collapsed because of civil unrest due in part to: .strong economic ties with the Allies.The Zimmerman Telegram [February 1917] . .. Lithuania.wartime shortages ...revolution in Austria-Hungary .Allied forces began to advance steadily toward Germany .Russia) 2 ..000.mutiny in Germany .S.Why the U.The Central Powers began to crumble 6 .the prospect of revolution 4 .S. Estonia. Entered the War April 2. Poland. & Finland 5 . defeat the Turks & establish a supply line to Russia (The Dardanelles Strait Mediterranean Sea ..May 7. they would be able to take Constantinople.Y.A Global Conflict 1 . the narrow sea strait that was the gateway to the Ottoman capital of Constantinople.513 lives lost The Yanks: Neutral No More . Ukraine.German war effort had exhausted both men & supplies ..

he represented the U..How Wilson's Fourteenth Point was Incorporated into the Treaty The treaty created the League of Nations.system in which people can buy only small amounts of items needed for the war effort Armistice . Austria.. .an agreement to stop fighting Propaganda . 1919. Czechoslovakia.. 6 ... twice premier of France(1906-09) & (1917-20) who represented France at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the end of World War I 9iv .S.Why the United States Rejected the Treaty of Versailles Many Americans objected to the League of Nations.How the Treaty of Versailles Changed the World Map New countries were created from the Austrian-Hungarian Empire. Latvia. Latvia.. believing that the United States should stay out of European affairs.Woodrow Wilson 28th President of the Untied States from 1913-1921. Ottoman lands in southwest Asia were carved up into mandates rather than independent nations. an international association whose goal was to keep peace among nations. at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the end of World War I 9ii.S.. 7 . (5 years after the assassination of France Ferdinand) 3 . Estonia. the League of Nations was unable to take action on various complaints of nations around the world.Finland. the Treaty of Versailles is signed June 28.Georges Clemenceau French statesman. Poland. Estonia. 9i . Yugoslavia .. & Lithuania became independent nations.Why Many Countries Felt Bitter & Cheated as a Result of the Treaty The war guilt clause left a legacy of hatred among the Germans.Germany was forced to acknowledge "war guilt" & pay reparations to the Allies. .. Rejection of the Treaty Affected the League of Nations Without U.S. 8 ...situation in which countries devote all their resources to the war effort Rationing .League of Nations An international association created by the Treaty of Versailles that was intended to keep peace among nations . ..The Concerns & Aims of France & Britain vis-á-vis the United States Britain & France were concerned with: . Lithuania..Africans & Asians were angry that their desire for independence was ignored. A Flawed Peace The legacy of Versailles was one of bitterness & loss 1 ..Japanese & Italians gained less land than they desired... 9 New Nations .How the Treaty of Versailles Punished Germany Germany lost substantial territory. support.punishing Germany A Flawed Peace After heated debate & compromise.Poland & Romania gained Russian territory...Germany had to severe restrictions placed on its military operations .....How the U.. to keep up morale & support for the war. ...national security -stripping Germany of its war-making power .. .forced resignation of the Kasier Terminology Total War . 4 . Hungary..Self-Determination The idea that peoples should decide for themselves to what nations they would belong 9iii . 5 .Finland.The Guiding Principles of Wilson's Fourteen Points to Achieve a Just & Lasting Peace 1) ending of secret treaties 2) Freedom of the sea 3) Free trade 4) Reduced national armies & navies 5) Adjustment of colonial claims with fairness toward colonial peoples 6) granting self-determination 7) establishing a world peace organization 2 .Propaganda is one-sided information designed to persuade.

Mandate Territory to be administered by the League of Nations until judged ready for independence A Portent of Doom .9v .David Lloyd George British statesman & prime minster who represented Great Britain at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 following the end of World War I The Big Four at the Paris Peace Conference Vittorio Orlando of Italy .one of the big four that isn't really talked about in the book 9vi .

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