Georgette Heyer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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Georgette Heyer
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Georgette Heyer /ˈheɪ.ər/ (17 August 1902 – 4 July 1974) was a British historical romance and detective fiction novelist. Her writing career began in 1921, when she turned a story for her younger brother into the short story The Black Moth. In 1925 Heyer married George Ronald Rougier, a mining engineer. The couple spent several years living in Tanganyika Territory and Macedonia before returning to England in 1929. After her novel These Old Shades became popular despite its release during the General Strike, Heyer determined that publicity was not necessary for good sales. For the rest of her life, she refused to grant interviews, telling a friend: "My private life concerns no one but myself and my family."[2] Heyer essentially established the historical romance genre and its subgenre Regency romance. Her Regencies were inspired by Jane Austen, but unlike Austen, who wrote about and for the times in which she lived, Heyer was forced to include copious information about the period so that her readers would understand the setting. To ensure accuracy, Heyer collected reference works and kept detailed notes on all aspects of Regency life. While some critics thought the novels were too detailed, others considered the level of detail to be Heyer's greatest asset. Her meticulous nature was also evident in her historical novels; Heyer even recreated William the Conqueror's crossing into England for her novel The Conqueror. Beginning in 1932, Heyer released one romance novel and one thriller each year. Her husband often provided basic outlines for the plots of her thrillers, leaving Heyer to develop character relationships and dialogue so as to bring the story to life. Although many critics describe Heyer's detective novels as unoriginal, others such as Nancy Wingate praise them "for their wit and comedy as well as for their well-woven plots".[3] Her success was sometimes clouded by problems with tax inspectors and alleged plagiarists. Heyer chose not to file lawsuits against the suspected literary thieves, but tried multiple ways of minimizing her tax liability. Forced to put aside the works she called her "magnum opus" (a trilogy covering the House of Lancaster) to write more commercially successful works, Heyer eventually created a limited liability company to administer the rights to her novels. She was accused several times of providing an overly large salary for herself, and in 1966 she sold the company and the rights to seventeen of her novels to Booker-McConnell. Heyer continued writing until her death in July 1974. At that time, 48 of her novels were still in print; her last book, My Lord John, was published posthumously.

Georgette Heyer


Georgette Heyer 16 August 1902 Wimbledon, London, United Kingdom 4 July 1974 (aged 71) London, United Kingdom Georgette Heyer, Stella Martin[1]

Died Pen name

Occupation Writer Period Genres Spouse(s) 1921–74 Historical romance, detective fiction George Ronald Rougier (1925–74; her death)

1 Early years 2 Marriage 3 Regency romances 4 Thrillers 5 Financial problems 6 Imitators 7 Later years Page 1 of 13

"A Proposal to Cicely".[10] Heyer and Oman later shared their works-inprogress with each other and offered criticism. After the war ended he was appointed a Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE).[6] Although the family's surname had been pronounced "higher".[15] The two became regular dance partners while Rougier studied at the Royal School of Mines to become a mining engineer. the advent of war led her father to use the pronunciation "hair" so they would not be mistaken for Germans. London in 1902.2 Historical novels 9.[8] He left the army in 1920 with the rank of captain. making it remarkable that she survived. 12:31 PM 8 Legacy 9 List of works 9. Georgette read widely and often met with her friends Joanna Cannan and Carola Oman to discuss books. on 18 August.[9] taught at King's College London and sometimes wrote for The Granta. aged 19 and 14. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. He left no pension.1 Georgian & Regency novels 9. her brothers George Boris (known as Boris) and Frank were four and nine years younger than her. while her maternal grandparents owned tugboats on the River Thames. George Heyer. His agent found a publisher for her book. was published in Happy Magazine. the novel contained many of the elements that would become standard for Heyer's novels. Heyer and Rougier married in a simple ceremony. One month later. was released in 1921. She weighed only 2.3 Novels with a contemporary setting 9. the "saturnine male lead.wikipedia.4 Thrillers with a contemporary setting 9.[14] Marriage While holidaying with her family in December 1920. France. In the spring of 1925.[16] Two months after her father's death. Heyer began a serial story to amuse her brother Boris.[7] During the war.[11] When she was 17. but they returned to England shortly after World War I broke out in 1914. studied both cello and piano and was one of the top three students in her class at the Royal College of Music. entertaining young men".[10][12] According to her biographer Jane Aiken Hodge. who suffered from a form of haemophilia and was often weak.[17] http://en. the extravagant wife. Her father enjoyed listening to her story and asked her to prepare it for publication.5 Short story collections 9.[13] The following year one of her contemporary short stories. the marriage in danger. Heyer's father died of a heart attack.[4][5] George Heyer strongly encouraged his children to read and never forbade any book.Wikipedia.[4] For part of her childhood. they became Page 2 of 13 . Heyer met George Ronald Rougier. her father served as a requisitions officer for the British Army in France. who was two years her senior. Sylvia Watkins.[5] Heyer was the eldest of three children.6 Other short stories 10 Footnotes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links Early years Heyer was born in Wimbledon. shortly after the publication of her fifth novel. and the group of idle. Heyer's paternal grandfather had emigrated from Russia.Georgette Heyer . and The Black Moth. She was named after her father.6 pounds when she was born.[4] Her mother. and Heyer assumed financial responsibility for her brothers. about the adventures of a young man who took responsibility for his brother's cardcheating. the family lived in Paris.

making Heyer the primary breadwinner.. including A.[11] She also wrote an account of her adventures. 12:31 PM In October 1925 Rougier was sent to work in the Caucasus Mountains.Georgette Heyer . or politics (another way in which her novels reflect those of Jane Austen). because Heyer's stories took place amidst events that had occurred over 100 years earlier. Heyer wrote The Masqueraders. the book follows the romantic adventures of siblings who pretend to be of the opposite sex in order to protect their family. her first novel set in the Regency period.[22] She insisted they return to England before starting a family. Heyer's brother Boris lived above the shop and helped Page 3 of 13 .[11] Heyer was the first white woman her servants had ever seen. even though her publishers often asked her to give interviews.[12] The book appeared in the midst of the 1926 United Kingdom general strike. in which the Duke of Avon courts his own ward. such as wanting to marry for love. criticized Heyer's "passion for the specific fact without concern for its significance". Heyer followed her husband to Macedonia. she had to include more detail on the period in order for her readers to understand it.[36] Heyer claimed that every word uttered by The Duke of Wellington in her novel An Infamous Army was spoken or written by him in real life. Many of her characters exhibited modern-day sensibilities.[18] In 1926.[22] Regency romances Heyer's earliest works were romance novels.[22] While in Tanganyika. and lighting company..Wikipedia. According to Pamela Regis in her work A Natural History of the Romance Novel. Byatt. that is the type of publicity which I find nauseating and quite unnecessary. Heyer's romances were set between 1752 and 1825.[25] In 1935.[22][24] After a failed experiment running a gas. which was published in 1929 in the newspaper The Sphere. titled "The Horned Beast of Africa".[30] Her Regency romances were inspired by the writings of Jane Austen.[22] They lived in a hut made of elephant grass located in the bush.[29] Although the British Regency lasted only from 1811 to 1820."[2] Rougier returned home in the summer of 1926. The following year Rougier left his job.[18][19] Heyer remained at home and continued to write. As noted by literary critic Kay Mussell. or advertising. Heyer refused for the rest of her life to promote her books. however. the book sold 190. My private life concerns no one but myself and my family.[27] The books were set almost entirely in the world of the wealthy upper class[28] and only occasionally mention poverty. more conventional characters in the novels would point out the heroine's eccentricities.[32] Heyer included those details "to invest the novels . most set before 1800. reviews. the book contained only one anachronism: she placed the opening of White's a year too early.[26] Unlike other romance novels of the period.[31] While Austen could ignore the "minutiae of dress and decor". while Heyer continued to provide the bulk of the family's earnings with her writing. describing the times in which she lived. This bestselling novel essentially established the genre of Regency romance. These Old Shades focused more on personal relationships than on adventure. Although Heyer did not have access to all of her reference material. such as Lillian Robinson. she released Regency Buck.wikipedia. referred to only when she wanted to show that a character was vulgar or ridiculous".[20] Because the lack of publicity had not harmed the novel's sales. coke. http://en. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Rougier purchased a sports shop in Horsham with money they borrowed from Heyer's aunts. Austen's works.[23] In 1928. partly because he had learned Russian as a child.. whose novels were set in the same era. as a result. were contemporary novels. set in 1745. Nevertheless. Unlike her first novel. but within months he was sent to the East African territory of Tanganyika. where she almost died after a dentist improperly administered an anaesthetic. religion. all former Jacobites.[35] Others.[34] and Marghanita Laski pointed out that "these aspects on which Heyer is so dependent for her creation of atmosphere are just those which Jane Austen .[21] She once wrote to a friend that "as for being photographed at Work or in my Old World Garden.[33] Later reviewers. she released These Old Shades. believe that Heyer's "awareness of this atmosphere — both of the minute details of the social pursuits of her leisured classes and of the emotional structure behind the fiction it produced — is her greatest asset". Heyer's novels used the setting as a plot device. Heyer joined him there the following year. with 'the tone of the time'". S. the novel received no newspaper coverage.000 copies. the books revolved around a "structured social ritual — the marriage market represented by the London season" where "all are in danger of ostracism for inappropriate behavior".

such as Beauty. with a lesser role for the heroine. according to critic Earl F.000 historical reference books. as any Regency character would have said.[45] Later in her life. even travelling the route that William took when crossing into England. One husband and two ribald brothers all had fingers in it. Max Reinhardt. describing the actions of fiction. melodrama. but rarely recorded where she found the information. He often read the proofs of her historical romances to Lichfield Cathedral. 12:31 PM Determined to make her novels as accurate as possible. Heyer once purchased a letter written by the Duke of Wellington so that she could precisely employ his style of writing. Heyer "regarded the writing of mystery stories rather as we would regard tackling a crossword puzzle – an intellectual William the Conqueror. Dress. published simultaneously with my son . sign posts.[49] The comedy derived not from the action but from the personalities and dialogue of the characters.Wikipedia.[51] the focus relied primarily on the hero.[37] At the time of her death she owned over 1. "Endearments". She found it difficult at times to rely on someone else's plots. Bargainnier. and "Forms of Page 4 of 13 . increasing. while her thrillers sold 16. once Heyer's husband began pursuing his lifelong dream of becoming a barrister.[43] Thrillers In 1931. instead.. on at least one occasion. she asked Rougier to explain once again how the murder was really committed. Prices. and romance.[52] Her early mystery novels often featured athletic heroes. She researched the life of William the Conqueror thoroughly. He provided the plots of the detective stories. all set in the time they were written. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. The two were never as popular as other contemporary fictional detectives such as Agatha Christie's Hercule Poirot and Dorothy L.[54] One of the books featuring Heyer's characters..wikipedia.[38][39] Other notebooks contained lists of phrases.[53] In 1935. The novel's publication coincided with the birth of her only child. was the first of my thrillers and was perpetrated while I was.[48] Her detective stories. Heyer collected reference works and research materials to use while writing.Georgette Heyer . Household.[40] In the interests of accuracy. which. saying "This work. and I do not claim it as a Major Work. and even included details such as the cost of candles in a particular year."[46] For the next several years Heyer published one romance novel and one thriller each year. her library included histories of snuff boxes. depicted in diversion before the harder tasks of life have to be faced". the novels began to feature solicitors and barristers in lead roles. In addition to the standard historical works about the medieval and eighteenth-century periods. and costumes. and Shops.[44] The following year. Heyer requested that her publishers refrain from reprinting Footsteps in the Dark. Footsteps in the Dark. "specialize[d] in upper-class family murders". whom she called her "most notable (indeed peerless) work".[37] Her notes were sorted into categories. once attempted to offer editorial suggestions about the language in one of her books but was promptly informed by a member of his staff that no one in England knew more about Regency language than Heyer. she situated the story by casually referring to major and minor events of the time.000 copies. were known primarily for their comedy. Heyer's writing took an even more drastic departure from her early historical romances when she released her first thriller. covering such topics as "Food and Crockery". and served as a collaborator for her Heyer's first novel of historical thrillers.000 copies. Heyer released The Conqueror. Colours. characters "A" and "B". Heyer's thrillers began following a pair of detectives named Superintendent Hannasyde and Sergeant (later Inspector) Hemingway."[39] One of her publishers. Richard George Rougier.[50] In most of these novels. Hats. before writing the last chapter of a book. Death in the http://en. including Debrett's and an 1808 dictionary of the House of Lords. her first novel of historical fiction to give a fictionalized account of real historical events. was featured in catch any errors that she might have missed.[25] Heyer's husband was this statue on the West Front of involved in much of her writing. Sayers's Lord Peter Wimsey.[41] She claimed that every word attributed to Wellington in An Infamous Army was actually spoken or written by him in real life.[48] Heyer would then create the characters and the relationships between them and bring the plot points to life.[38] She often clipped illustrations from magazine articles and jotted down interesting vocabulary or facts onto note cards. The romances were far more popular: they usually sold 115.[47] According to her son.[42] Her knowledge of the period was so extensive that Heyer rarely mentioned dates explicitly in her books.

later offered to return the rights to her for the same amount of money she was paid. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Heyer wrote two articles.[58] According to Wingate. Heyer felt that her host had patronized her.[57] Critic Erik Routley labelled many of her characters clichés. so that Rougier could easily commute to London. Rougier did not earn much money. During World War II. "I'm getting so tired of writing books for the benefit of the Treasury and I can't tell you how utterly I resent the squandering of my money on such fatuous things as Education and Making Life Easy and Luxurious for So-Called Workers. Royalties from new titles would be paid to the company. an exotic Spanish dancer. served in the Home Guard. To earn more money. usually using poor grammar that could become vicious. and Heinemann agreed to publish it instead. The appearance of a Heyer novel usually caused the magazine to sell out completely. which the 1944 Book Review Digest described as "a murder story but not a mystery story". and the family moved first to Brighton. the last written in 1953. In one of her novels. then to Hove. and foreign royalties – except for those from the United States – would go to her mother. thus ending their association with Heyer. and a country vicar with a neurotic wife. Her impatient readers continually clamored for new books. Doubleday. earning 2 guineas for each review. who published her detective stories. My Lord John. which would then furnish Heyer's salary and pay directors' fees to her Page 5 of 13 . her close friend A. Devil's Cub. Heyer's detective stories. but she complained that they "always like[d] my worst work". with seven of them using inheritance as the motive.000 in taxes. her brothers served in the armed forces. The inspector considered the extra funds as undisclosed dividends.[64] Hodder & Stoughton turned the book down.Wikipedia. To meet their expenses Heyer sold the Commonwealth rights for These Old Shades.[55] and it closed after three nights. that were published in the magazine Punch. or at a houseparty. they sent their son to a preparatory school. "Books about the Brontës" and "How to be a Literary Writer". The play focused on the comedy rather than the mystery. She would continue to receive royalties from her previous titles. for £750. 12:31 PM Stocks. Heyer reviewed books for Heinemann. to satisfy them and her tax liabilities. and characters. also disliked the book and ended their relationship with Heyer after its publication.[59] Her middle-class men were often crude and stupid. Frere. meaning that she owed an additional £3. Rougier was called to the Bar.[60] Despite the stereotypes.[3] Financial problems In 1939. was dramatized in New York City in 1937 as Merely Murder. including the uneducated policeman. however. to make them break her contract.[58] Wingate further mentions that Heyer's thrillers were known "for their wit and comedy as well as for their well-woven plots". Routley maintains that Heyer had "a quite remarkable gift for reproducing the brittle and ironic conversation of the upper middle class Englishwoman of that age (immediately before 1940)".[63] she wrote Penhallow.[66] Within several years. Heinemann.[61] As he was new to his career. alleviating one of her monetary worries. Heyer formed a limited liability company called Heron Enterprises around 1950. and paper rationing during the war caused lower sales of Heyer's books.[3] The novels were always set in London.S.[65] She also allowed her novels to be serialized in Women's Journal prior to their publication as hardcover books.Georgette Heyer . explaining that she had given her word to transfer the rights. a tax inspector found that Heyer was withdrawing too much money from the company.[62] After having lunch with a representative from Hodder & Stoughton.[37] According to critic Nancy Wingate. prompting Heyer and her family to move to London in 1942 so that Rougier would be closer to his work.wikipedia. a medieval trilogy intended to cover the House of Lancaster between 1393 and 1435.[69] She estimated that she would need five years to complete the works. which was published posthumously. Heyer interrupted herself to write Regency romances. the characters' surnames were even in alphabetical order according to the order they were introduced. The following year. meanwhile. Heyer refused to accept the deal. creating an additional expense for Heyer. Heyer's detective novels. A contact at the publishing house.[23][67] She once wrote to a friend. She only completed volume one of the series. however. motives. and Regency Buck to her publisher. like many of the others of the time. The company had an option on her next book.[63] The Blitz bombing of 1940–41 disrupted train travel in Britain.[69] http://en. while the women were either incredibly practical or exhibited poor judgement. Heyer began working on what she called "the magnum opus of my latter years". a small village. Her publisher in the United States.[56] often featured unoriginal methods.[21] To minimize her tax liability. exhibited a distinct snobbery towards foreigners and the lower classes."[68] In 1950. Her husband. To pay the tax bill.

one of her readers notified her that Barbara Cartland had written several novels in a style similar to Heyer's. reusing names. After fans accused Heyer of "publishing shoddy stuff under a pseudonym". Heyer died.[76] When the author took exception the accusations.[70] As Heyer aged she began to suffer more frequent health problems.Wikipedia. In another case. Among these were repeated use of the phrase "to make a cake of oneself".[81] A first printing of one of her novels in the Commonwealth often consisted of 65. who Heyer intended to feature in her "magnum opus".[81] Her paperbacks http://en.[80] Legacy Besides her success in the United Kingdom. but she ultimately decided not to sue. and The Knave of Hearts which took off These Old Shades. Heyer was shocked at the impropriety but soon came to love her daughter-in-law. Heyer completed a detailed analysis of the alleged plagiarisms for her solicitors. rather than the higher income tax rate. after two years. with finance a dominant theme in the novel.000–75. surnames.000 for the rights to the 17 Heyer titles owned by the company. in leaving her husband.wikipedia. she finally agreed to sell the company to Booker-McConnell. prompting the doctors to offer skin grafts. 12:31 PM The limited liability company continued to vex Heyer. the copying ceased. Although the doctors initially predicted a six-week recovery. characters. and in 1966.[78] Richard and his wife raised her two sons from her first marriage and provided Heyer with her only biological grandchild in 1966.[72] Imitators As Heyer's popularity increased.[76] Heyer's lawyers recommended an injunction. She suffered another stroke in February 1974. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Heyer was too ill to travel to his funeral. Instead. be issued to her personally. and plentiful Regency slang. In June 1964.[77] The following year. In May 1950. Black Sheep did not focus on members of the aristocracy.[74] This coat of arms belonged to John.000 copies. This amount was taxed at the lower capital transfer rate. Booker-McConnell paid her approximately £85. after two months they predicted that it might be a year or longer before she felt completely well. On 4 July 1974. Heyer wrote to the other publisher to complain.[70] Unlike her other novels. When her brother Boris died later that year. Richard assisted the woman.[79] In July 1973 she suffered a slight stroke and spent three weeks in a nursing home. other authors began to imitate her style.000. their son Richard fell in love with the estranged wife of an acquaintance. Susanna Flint. and while the case never came to court and no apology was received. she underwent surgery to remove a kidney stone. another reader wrote of similarities found in the works of Kathleen Lindsay. Her fans learned her married name for the first time from her obituaries. she suffered a mosquito bite which turned septic. the author referenced a historical incident that Heyer had invented in an earlier novel. particularly A Hazard of Hearts.Georgette Heyer . Rougier became a Queen's Counsel. which her biographer attributed to the 60–80 cork-tipped cigarettes that Heyer smoked each day (although she claimed not to inhale). Black Sheep. Heyer refused. Heyer made a thorough list of the borrowings and historical mistakes in the books. it followed "the moneyed middle class". In 1961.000 copies in hardback each year. she finally fired her accountants.[82] and her novels collectively sold over 100. Three months later. which Heyer had discovered in a privately printed memoir unavailable to the public.[73] Her lawyers suggested that she leak the copying to the press. she was diagnosed with lung cancer. after tax inspectors found that she owed the company £20. later describing her as "the daughter we never had and thought we didn't want". The following year. character traits and plot points and paraphrased descriptions from her Page 6 of 13 .[75] Later years In 1959. Heyer's novels were very popular in the United States and Germany and achieved respectable sales in Czechoslovakia. Duke of Bedford. particularly the novel Winsome Lass. and the couple married after her divorce was finalized.[75] The novels borrowed plot points. which already owned the rights to the estates of novelists Ian Fleming and Agatha Christie. which borrowed characters from Friday's Child. when their son Nicholas Rougier was born. She then asked that the rights to her newest book.[71] Heyer's new accountants urged her to abandon Heron Enterprises.

but did not mention Heyer. and maids in peril". which journalist Lesley McDowell described as containing "derring-do. included entries on popular writers Agatha Christie and Dorothy Sayers.wikipedia.[84] Heyer was also overlooked by the Encyclopædia Britannica. allowed readers to escape from the mundane and difficult elements of their lives.. What mattered was the fact that her stories sold in ever-increasing numbers".Georgette Heyer . Heyer commented.[31] When first released as mass market paperbacks in the United States in 1966.000 copies each. their novels have been described as "following in the romantic tradition of Georgette Heyer".[32] As other novelists began to imitate her style and continue to develop the Regency romance.[83] according to Duff Hart-Davis. But it's unquestionably good escapist literature and I think I should rather like it if I were sitting in an air-raid shelter or recovering from flu. her novels were described as being "in the tradition of Jane Austen".[32] According to Kay Mussell.[83] At the time of her death 48 of her books were still in print. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. The Black Moth. "virtually every Regency writer covets [that] accolade".org/wiki/Georgette_Heyer Page 7 of 13 ."[26] Heyer essentially invented the historical romance[85] and created the subgenre of the Regency romance. similar to those described in Heyer's historical romances.[26] In a letter describing her novel Friday's Child. Heyer was ignored by critics. published shortly after her death. "the absence of long or serious reviews never worried her.[84] Her books were very popular during the Great Depression and World War II. Although none of her novels was ever reviewed in a serious newspaper. .. 12:31 PM usually sold over 500. List of works Georgian & Regency novels The Black Moth (1921) The Transformation of Philip Jettan (1923) (later republished as Powder and Patch) (1930) These Old Shades (1926) The Masqueraders (1928) Devil's Cub (1932) The Convenient Marriage (1934) Regency Buck (1935) The Talisman Ring (1936) An Infamous Army (1937) The Spanish Bride (1940) The Corinthian (1940) Faro's Daughter (1941) Friday's Child (1944) The Reluctant Widow (1946) The Foundling (1948) Arabella (1949) The Grand Sophy (1950) The Quiet Gentleman (1951) Cotillion (1953) http://en. including her first novel.[87] Edmund Blair Leighton painted "On the Threshold (of a Proposal)". The 1974 edition of the encyclopædia.Wikipedia.[86] Despite her popularity and success. Her novels. dashing blades. "'I think myself I ought to be shot for writing such nonsense. It depicts a courtship in Regency England.

12:31 PM The Toll-Gate (1954) Bath Tangle (1955) Sprig Muslin (1956) April Lady (1957) Page 8 of 13 . the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Here's Poison (1936) They Found Him Dead (1937) A Blunt Instrument (1938) No Wind of Blame (1939) Envious Casca (1941) Penhallow (1942) Duplicate Death (1951) Detection Unlimited (1953) http://en. or the Wicked Uncle (1957) Venetia (1958) The Unknown Ajax (1959) A Civil Contract (1961) The Nonesuch (1962) False Colours (1963) Frederica (1965) Black Sheep (1966) Cousin Kate (1968) Charity Girl (1970) Lady of Quality (1972) Historical novels The Great Roxhythe (1923) Simon the Coldheart (1925) Beauvallet (1929) The Conqueror (1931) Royal Escape (1938) My Lord John (1975) Novels with a contemporary setting Instead of the Thorn (1923) Helen (1928) Pastel (1929) Barren Corn (1930) Thrillers with a contemporary setting Footsteps in the Dark (1932) Why Shoot a Butler? (1933) The Unfinished Clue (1934) Death in the Stocks (1935) Behold.Georgette Heyer .

11 May 1920. 4. 43. 12:31 PM Short story collections Pistols for Two and other stories (1960). ISBN 978-0-19-820455-8 2. p. http://en. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 307. 38. 5452 (http://www. ^ Hodge (1984). 6.14. p. p. 14. ^ a b Hodge (1984). p. p. 17. 23. p. p . the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Retrieved 2008-04-10. ^ Fahnestock-Thomas (2001). p. 291. 293. ^ a b c Byatt (1975). 31897. ^ Joseph McAleer (1999). 15. p. 3. ^ a b Byatt (1975). ^ a b Hodge (1984). ^ Hodge (194). ^ Hodge (1984). 9 December 1919. 8. 70. 15. 7. 13. 12. ^ a b Hodge (1984). 18. p. 11. ^ Hodge (1984).google. p. Retrieved Page 9 of 13 . 16. 27. ^ a b c Wingate (1976).co. containing: Pistols for Two A Clandestine Affair Bath Miss Pink Domino A Husband for Fanny To Have the Honour Night at the Inn The Duel Hazard Snowdrift Full Moon Other short stories "A Proposal to Cicely" (1922)[88] "The Bulldog and the Beast" (1923)[89] "Linckes' Great Case" (1923) [90] "Runaway Match" (1936) "Pursuit" (1939)[91] Footnotes 1.Georgette Heyer . 15455 (http://www. p. 5. 10.wikipedia. p. 31684. p. p. p. ^ a b Hughes (1993). p. ^ Hodge (1984).Wikipedia. ^ The London Gazette: (Supplement) no. 3. p. 13. Oxford University Press. Passion's Fortune ( ^ Hodge (1984). ^ a b c Hodge (1984).

54. ^ Hodge (1984). 61. 343. 22. 25. 43. ^ Hodge (1984). 59.independent. 284. 283. 53. 25. p. ^ Robinson (1978). p. 12:31 PM 19. ^ a b Regis (2003). ^ Bargainnier (1982). p. 50. Page 10 of 13 . ^ Byatt (1969). pp. ^ Byatt (1975). ^ Robinson (1978). p. "Cads wanted for taming. pp. 51. 35. p. ^ Mussell (1984). p. p. 326. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ Devlin (1984). 34. pp. 48. p. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. p. p. 69. 127. 36. ^ a b Byatt (1975). 58. p. 39. 36. ^ a b Byatt (1975). 311. 413. p. 29. ^ Byatt (1969). ^ Devlin (1984). 342. pp. Hold on to your bodices: Dorothy L. 4. 350. Lesley McDowell can't wait. p. p. p. ^ a b Fahnestock-Thomas (2001). ^ Hodge (1984). 35. 53. ^ Hodge (1984). 301. 57. 46. 43." (http://www. 102.wikipedia. 46. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ Wingate (1976). Lesley (11 January 2004). ^ Wingate (1976). ^ a b c Robinson (1978). 33. 276. 61. p. p. 292. 300. p. Sayers and Georgette Heyer are making a comeback this year. ^ Laski (1970). ^ a b Devlin (1984).Wikipedia. 298. 286–287. 38. 71. ^ Regis (2003). ^ a b Hodge (1984). 40. p. 37. p. p. 45. 27–30. 30. ^ a b Routley (1972). 44. p. ^ Bargainnier (1982). ^ Robinson (1978). 360. 371. p. 322. 28. p. ^ Laski (1970). 352. p. p. The Independent on Sunday (London): 17 27. 42. pp. 55. p. p. pp. 60. ^ Hodge (1984). 24. pp. 361. 42. 40. ^ Laski (1970). 323. 32. p. 285. ^ a b c d e Hodge (1984). 31. ^ a b c Hodge (1984). 38. 125–126. 31. ^ Byatt (1975). p. p. 275. 21. 56. ^ a b Hodge (1984). 330–331. 49. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ Bargainnier (1982). ^ a b c McDowell. 308. 20. 56. 294. p. p. ^ Byatt (1975). ^ Wingate (1976).co. ^ Hodge (1984). 23. 47. ^ Hodge (1984). 26. p. p.Georgette Heyer .html). 52. http://en. 309.

pp. 7 April 1959. 2264 (http://www. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. 2 March 1923 91. p. ^ a b Hodge (1984). ^ A historical romance is a romance novel set in the past. 64. p. Mary. 67. ^ Hodge (1984). (5 October 1975). S. 90. (Fall/Winter 1982). 174. 140–141. pp. 390. Mary. H. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). 87. ^ Fahnestock-Thomas (2001). 75. pp. ^ Published in Happy Magazine 89. in Fahnestock-Thomas. p. March 1923 90. 163. p. p. in Fahnestock-Thomas. pp. ^ Hodge (1984). 289–303. A. 412. 56. p. 83. 88. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ Hodge (1984). ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Byatt.W. Page 11 of 13 .co. "The Dozen Mysteries of Georgette Heyer". ^ a b Kloester (2012). 275-9 74. 297. 70. pp. Retrieved 2008-04-10. 84. ^ Byatt (1975). 12:31 PM 61. 68. This is not to be confused with historical fiction that was influenced by romanticism. pp. ^ a b Hodge (1984). AL: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). 270–277. 80. ^ 1944 Book Review Digest. ^ Published in The Queen's Book of the Red Cross. ^ Published in The Detective Magazine. Saraland.Wikipedia. ^ a b Hart-Davis (1974). 169. ^ a b Byatt (1975). 62. p. 78. 1944 Bargainnier. pp. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. 165. 180–181. 71. 261. ^ Hodge (1984). 341–355. 335-336 76. ^ a b Hodge (1984). p. 257–258. p. ^ Reinhardt (1974). ^ Hodge (1984). Wilson Co. Mary. ^ Hodge (1984). in Fahnestock-Thomas.Georgette Heyer . 86. ISBN 9780-9668005-3-1 Byatt. 141. "Georgette Heyer Is a Better Novelist Than You Think". p. (August 1969). 57. 374. ^ The London Gazette: no. p. 66–67. 69. 302. ^ Hodge (1984). Earl F. Saraland. S. ^ Kloester (2012) pp. 206. 63. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ Mussell (1984). 85. AL: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). 61. Saraland. 65. 151.wikipedia. 81. A. pp. ^ Hodge (1984). 106. pp. p. ISBN 978http://en. 41676. ^ Hodge (1984). ^ a b Devlin (1984). p. 62. p. 73. 1940 References "Georgette Heyer: Penhallow". 72. 61. 1944 Book Review Digest. ^ a b Hebert (1974). 66. ^ Published in Happy Magazine. 254–255. pp. p. 258–259. 82. 77. "The Ferocious Reticence of Georgette Heyer". 63. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. 175. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. 79. 204–206.

254–255. Mary. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Mary. Philadelphia. 12:31 PM 0-9668005-3-1 Devlin. ISBN 978-0-43402071-3 Laski. (Summer 1984). "The Puritan Pleasures of the Detective Story". ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Hodge. Jennifer (2005). Saraland. Routledge. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Wingate. ISBN 0-283-99832-6 Kloester. ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Routley. Saraland.wikipedia. p. 283–286. Mary.Wikipedia. Teresa (1989). ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Further reading Chris. ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Regis. Saraland. Helen (1993).uk/2010/09/23/georgette-heyer-is-featured-in-timeshighered/) Retrieved from "http://en. p. James P. Georgette Heyer's Regency World. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). Pamela (2003). London: Heinemann. Nancy (April 1976). 257–258. ISBN 978-0-96680053-1 Mussell. Saraland. ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Robinson. (1978). Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. AL: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). AL: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Hart-Davis. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. The Historical Romance. Mary. in FahnestockThomas. "On Reading Trash". p. A Natural History of the Romance Page 12 of 13 .wikipedia. Mary. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Jennifer (2012). Marghanita (1 October 1970). "Post Script".com/) Notes on 2009 Heyer conference (http://drbexl. The Private World of Georgette Heyer. in Fahnestock-Thomas. Mary (2001). 286–287. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Duff (7 July 1974). in Fahnestock-Thomas. 412–417. ISBN 0-434-01329-3 External links Georgette Heyer website (http://www.georgette-heyer. "Fantasy and Reconciliation". ISBN 0-8122-3303-4 Reinhardt. "20th Century Jane Austen". Saraland. p. in Fahnestock-Thomas. "The Mysteries of Georgette Heyer: A Janeite's Life of Crime". the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.Georgette Heyer . "Post The Appeal of Georgette Heyer". Saraland. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Fahnestock-Thomas. Lillian S. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press. Max (12 July 1974). 305–321. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Georgette Heyer: Biography of a Bestseller. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. p. in Fahnestock-Thomas.php?title=Georgette_Heyer&oldid=579325280" Categories: 1902 births 1974 deaths English novelists English romantic fiction writers English crime fiction writers English historical novelists English women writers English people of Russian descent People from Wimbledon. ISBN 0-415-05812-0 Kloester. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). 258–259. p. in Fahnestock-Thomas. Kay (1984). Saraland. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. "Georgette Heyer: a Reappraisal". p. London: William Heinemann. ISBN 0-09-949349-7 Hughes. Mary. London Writers of historical fiction set in Modern Age Writers of historical romances Booker authors' division 20th-century British novelists 20th-century women writers http://en. "Georgette Heyer". PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. in Fahnestock-Thomas. Georgette Heyer: A Critical Retrospective. Mary. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001).co. Mary. Mary. in Fahnestock-Thomas. in Fahnestock-Thomas. 321–335. Saraland. Saraland. Hugh (6 July 1974). p. Erik (1972). Jane Aiken (1984). 359– 394. Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd. London: The Bodley Head. Georgette Heyer's Regency p. Alabama: Prinnyworld Press (published 2001). Saraland. ISBN 978-0-9668005-3-1 Hebert.

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