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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Technology (from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is the making, modiﬁcation, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, and methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input/output relation or perform a speciﬁc function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including machinery, modiﬁcations, arrangements and procedures. Technologies signiﬁcantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The term can either be applied generally or to speciﬁc areas: examples include construction technology, medical technology, and information technology. The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control ﬁre increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
By the mid 20th century, humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufﬁcient to leave the atmosphere of the Earth for the ﬁrst time and explore space.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of Earth's environment. Various implementations of technology inﬂuence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efﬁciency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms. Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneﬁcial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientiﬁc studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
1 Deﬁnition and usage 2 Science, engineering and technology 3 History 3.1 Paleolithic (2.5 million – 10,000 BC) 3.1.1 Stone tools 3.1.2 Fire 3.1.3 Clothing and shelter 3.2 Neolithic through classical antiquity (10,000BC – 300AD) 3.2.1 Metal tools 3.2.2 Energy and transport 3.3 Medieval and modern history (300 AD —)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technology Page 1 of 14
" In German and other European languages. instruments. In 1937. or more complex machines." By the 1930s. utensils. It is a far-reaching term that may include simple tools. an example of technology as a cultural force. The term was often connected to technical education. especially among scientists and engineers. deﬁnes technology in two ways: as "the pursuit of life by means other than life".4 Appropriate technology 5 Technology and competitiveness 6 Other animal species 7 Future technology 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading Deﬁnition and usage The use of the term technology has changed signiﬁcantly over the last 200 years. The Merriam-Webster dictionary offers a deﬁnition of the term: "the practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area" and "a capability given by the practical application of knowledge". 1. . or satisfy http://en. "technology" referred not to the study of the industrial arts. More recently. a distinction exists between Technik and Technologie that is absent in English. Ursula Franklin. 1:12 PM 4 Technology and philosophy 4. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.org/wiki/Technology Page 2 of 14 The invention of the printing press made it possible for scientists and politicians to communicate their ideas with ease. Bernard Stiegler. it is "practice.3 Skepticism and critics of technology 4. as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (chartered in 1861). but to the industrial arts themselves. rather than technology as a whole. and usually referred to the description or study of the useful arts. to solve problems. fulﬁll needs. as both terms are usually translated as "technology." Technology can be most broadly deﬁned as the entities. technology refers to tools and machines that may be used to solve real-world problems. "Technology" rose to prominence in the 20th century in connection with the Second Industrial Revolution. housing. especially social scientists. beginning with Thorstein Veblen. although most social scientists who study technology reject this deﬁnition. it is the current state of humanity's knowledge of how to combine resources to produce desired products. gave another deﬁnition of the concept.wikipedia. Before the 20th century. leading to the Age of Enlightenment. the term was uncommon in English.Technology . communicating and transporting devices and the skills by which we produce and use them." Bain's deﬁnition remains common among scholars today. such as a crowbar or wooden spoon. Dictionaries and scholars have offered a variety of deﬁnitions. such as a space station or particle accelerator. In this context. created by the application of mental and physical effort in order to achieve some value.Wikipedia. scholars have borrowed from European philosophers of "technique" to extend the meaning of technology to various forms of instrumental reason.1 Technicism 4. and as "organized inorganic matter. In this usage. machines. clothing. translated ideas from the German concept of Technik into "technology.2 Optimism 4. But equally prominent is the deﬁnition of technology as applied science. as in Foucault's work on technologies of the self ("techniques de soi"). both material and immaterial. The term is often used to imply a speciﬁc ﬁeld of technology. weapons. the American sociologist Read Bain wrote that "technology includes all tools. in Technics and Time. Tools and machines need not be material. The word "technology" can also be used to refer to a collection of techniques. in her 1989 "Real World of Technology" lecture. fall under this deﬁnition of technology. virtual technology. or to refer to high technology or just consumer electronics. The meanings of technology changed in the early 20th century when American social scientists. the way we do things around here". such as computer software and business methods.
science might study the ﬂow of electrons in electrical conductors.000 BC) http://en.Technology . in the United States it was widely considered that technology was simply "applied science" and that to fund basic science was to reap technological results in due time. which has lessened barriers to human interaction and. engineering and technology The distinction between science. the three ﬁelds are often considered as one for the purposes of research and reference. to achieve some practical result. and historical knowledge. When combined with another term.5 million – 10.wikipedia. it includes technical methods. computers. the development of the Internet and the computer. mathematical. Not all technology enhances culture in a creative way. Technologies are not usually exclusively products of science. engineering and technology is not always clear. leading towards initiatives to fund science for speciﬁc tasks (initiatives resisted by the scientiﬁc community). In this sense. tools and raw materials. Technology can be viewed as an activity that forms or changes culture. aimed at discovering enduring principles among elements of the phenomenal world by employing formal techniques such as the scientiﬁc method. "State-of-the-art technology" refers to the high technology available to humanity in any ﬁeld. technology can also help facilitate political oppression and war via tools such as guns. 1:12 PM wants. processes. however. Engineering is the goal-oriented process of designing and making tools and systems to exploit natural phenomena for practical human means. For example. has helped spawn new subcultures. by using already-existing tools and knowledge. new industries. This essential new knowledge can be obtained only through basic scientiﬁc research. skills. Science—The Endless Frontier: "New products. Technology is often a consequence of science and engineering — although technology as a human activity precedes the two ﬁelds. in part because the debate can inform the funding of basic and applied science. A modern example is the rise of communication technology. The exact relations between science and technology in particular have been debated by scientists. often (but not always) using results and techniques from science. including scientiﬁc. each of which formalize some aspects of technological endeavor. technology predates both science and engineering. as a result. Antoine Lavoisier conducting an experiment related combustion generated by ampliﬁed sun light. and policymakers in the late 20th century. engineering. linguistic.org/wiki/Technology Page 3 of 14 . History Main articles: History of technology and Timeline of historic inventions Paleolithic (2. for example. This new-found knowledge may then be used by engineers to create new tools and machines. As a cultural activity. because they have to satisfy requirements such as utility. science. In the immediate wake of World War II. and other forms of advanced technology. historians." In the late-1960s. Science. The issue remains contentious—though most analysts resist the model that technology simply is a result of scientiﬁc research. the rise of cyberculture has. The development of technology may draw upon many ﬁelds of knowledge. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Additionally.. scientists and engineers may both be considered technologists. an Intel 4004 chip from 1971) led to the modern computer revolution. technology is the application of math. An articulation of this philosophy could be found explicitly in Vannevar Bush's treatise on postwar science policy. usability and safety. The invention of integrated circuits and the microprocessor (here. Science is the reasoned investigation or study of phenomena. such as semiconductors. this view came under direct attack. and more jobs require continuous additions to knowledge of the laws of nature . such as "medical technology" or "space technology". at its basis. and the arts for the beneﬁt of life as it is known. it refers to the state of the respective ﬁeld's knowledge and tools. techniques..Wikipedia.
 Fire.000 years ago. Approximately 50. To make a stone tool. 1:12 PM Further information: Outline of prehistoric technology The use of tools by early humans was partly a process of discovery and of evolution. skinning an animal for its hide. The Middle Paleolithic. made via pressure ﬂaking http://en. saw the introduction of pressure ﬂaking. Clothing and shelter A primitive chopper Hand axes from the Acheulian period A Clovis point. approximately 300.000 years ago. bone.000. a "core" of hard stone with speciﬁc ﬂaking properties (such as ﬂint) was struck with a hammerstone. believed by many archaeologists to be connected to the emergence of fully modern language.000 BC. This ﬂaking produced a sharp edge on the core stone as well as on the ﬂakes. where a wood.Wikipedia.3 million years ago. Fire Main article: Control of ﬁre by early humans The discovery and utilization of ﬁre. a simple energy source with many profound uses. such as hand axes emerged. dating back to 2. improving its nutrient value and broadening the number of foods that could be eaten. chopping wood.000 years ago. Tool use remained relatively unchanged for most of early human history. beginning approximately 1.wikipedia. Early humans evolved from a species of foraging hominids which were already bipedal. methods of working these stone into speciﬁc shapes. The earliest methods of stone tool making. Stone tools Human ancestors have been using stone and other tools since long before the emergence of Homo sapiens approximately 200. evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of ﬁre occurred before 1. and spans all of human history up to the development of agriculture approximately 12. allowed early humans to cook their food to increase its digestibility. This era of stone tool use is called the Paleolithic. either of which could be used as tools. saw the introduction of the prepared-core technique.000 years ago. where multiple blades could be rapidly formed from a single core stone. These tools greatly aided the early humans in their huntergatherer lifestyle to perform a variety of tasks including butchering carcasses (and breaking bones to get at the marrow). being little more than a fractured rock. date back to at least 2. the use of tools and complex set of behaviors emerged. fueled with wood and charcoal. or "Old stone age". primarily in the form of choppers or scrapers. known as the Oldowan "industry". and even forming other tools out of softer materials such as bone and wood. with a brain mass approximately one third of modern humans.65 million years ago. was a turning point in the technological evolution of humankind.5 million years ago.000 years ago. or antler punch could be used to shape a stone very ﬁnely. The earliest stone tools were crude.000 BC and 400. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.Technology . cracking open nuts. The exact date of its discovery is not known. In the Acheulian era. The Upper Paleolithic.org/wiki/Technology Page 4 of 14 . scholarly consensus indicates that Homo erectus had controlled ﬁre by between 500. with the earliest direct evidence of tool usage found in Ethiopia within the Great Rift Valley.000 BC. beginning approximately 40.
the adoption of both technologies cannot be dated exactly. speciﬁcally known. bone. Energy and transport Meanwhile. and lead. but Page 5 of 14 The wheel was invented circa 4000 BC. probably independently and nearly-simultaneously in Mesopotamia (in present-day Iraq).000 BC and into other continents. copper.C. The ﬁrst uses of iron alloys such as steel dates to around 1400 BC. however. Additionally. but they were a key to humanity's progress.000BC – 300AD) Man's technological ascent began in earnest in what is known as the Neolithic period ("New stone age"). the wheel was invented around 4000 B. humans began to migrate out of Africa by 200. the specialization of labor. such as the building of dikes and reservoirs. axe heads. The earliest record of a ship under sail is shown on an Egyptian pot dating back to 3200 BC. Gold. Metal tools Continuing improvements led to the furnace and bellows and provided the ability to smelt and forge native metals (naturally occurring in relatively pure form). the emergence of increasingly hierarchical social structures. Eventually.org/wiki/Technology . The advantages of copper tools over stone. and the ﬁrst civilizations. are all thought to have played a role. According to archaeologists. Clothing. children could contribute labor to the raising of crops more readily than they could to the hunter-gatherer lifestyle. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. humans were constructing temporary wood huts. including specialization. but copper ores are quite common and some of them produce metal easily when burned in wood or charcoal ﬁres.C. is not tools. and the need for collective action to overcome environmental challenges. 1:12 PM Other technological advances made during the Paleolithic era were clothing and shelter.000 BC. The invention of polished stone axes was a major advance because it allowed forest clearance on a large scale to create farms. The earliest known use of wind power is the sailboat. as early as 380.C. Neolithic through classical antiquity (10. As the Paleolithic era progressed. with most experts putting it closer to 4000 B. helped humanity expand into colder regions. humans were learning to harness other forms of energy. adapted from the fur and hides of hunted animals. such as Eurasia. and polishing the ﬁrst cities.C. There is also evidence from the same period of time that wheels were used for the production of pottery. such as Uruk. http://en.wikipedia. What triggered the progression from early Neolithic villages to bracelets. such as Sumer. and native copper was probably used from near the beginning of Neolithic times (about 8000 BC). (Note that the original potter's wheel was probably not a wheel..Wikipedia. the early peoples of Mesopotamia. the Sumerians. however. chisels. Egyptians probably used the power of the Nile annual ﬂoods to irrigate their lands. the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe. Native copper does not naturally occur in large amounts. and the transition to a sedentist lifestyle increased the number of children that could be simultaneously raised. gradually learning to regulate much of it through purposely built irrigation channels and 'catch' basins. From prehistoric times. and wooden tools were quickly apparent to early humans. silver.Technology . learned to use the Tigris and Euphrates rivers for much the same purposes. as was the case with the nomadic lifestyle.. the working of metals led to the discovery of alloys such as bronze and brass (about 4000 BC). Estimates on when this may have occurred range from 5500 to 3000 B. With this increase in population and availability of labor came an increase in labor An array of Neolithic artifacts. trade and war amongst adjacent cultures. as young children no longer needed to be carried. were such early metals. Similarly. But more extensive use of wind and water (and even human) power required another invention. The discovery of agriculture allowed for the feeding of larger populations. dwellings became more sophisticated and more elaborate. the wheel may have been in use for millennia before these drawings were made. The oldest artifacts with drawings that depict wheeled carts date from about 3000 B.
these technologies have become so complex that entire ﬁelds have been created to support them. It did not take long to discover that wheeled wagons could be used to carry heavy loads and fast (rotary) potters' wheels enabled early mass production of pottery. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. and automobile. transportation and architecture. telephone. particularly in the areas of agriculture. such as the wheelbarrow. the Industrial Revolution was a period of great technological discovery. followed by the wider availability of consumer goods. Medieval technology saw the use of simple machines (such as the lever. and even treadmills) that revolutionized the application of nonhuman power sources.wikipedia. builders. radio and television. In physics. this era brought innovations such as open-heart surgery and later stem cell therapy along with new medications and treatments. the discovery of nuclear ﬁssion has led to both nuclear weapons and nuclear power. Communication was also greatly improved with the invention of the telegraph. airplane. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a revolution in transportation with the invention of the steam-powered ship. manufacturing. the oldestknown wooden wheel in the world was found in the Ljubljana marshes of Slovenia. The technology behind got called information technology. Scientiﬁc advancement and the discovery of new concepts later allowed for powered ﬂight. Complex manufacturing F-15 and F-16 ﬂying over a burning oil ﬁeld and construction techniques and organizations are needed to construct and in Kuwait in 1991. beginning a cycle of mutual advancement.) More recently. Technology later took another step with the harnessing of electricity to create such innovations as the electric motor. The invention of the wheel revolutionized activities as disparate as transportation. war. Medieval and modern history (300 AD —) Main articles: Medieval technology. including the printing press (which facilitated the greater communication of knowledge). Renaissance technology. Industrial Revolution. and technology became increasingly associated with science. maintain these new technologies.Technology . metallurgy and transport. light bulb and countless others. The automobile revolutionized personal transportation. and other ﬁelds have been made more complex. the screw. maintainers. and the pulley) being combined to form more complicated tools. and the production of pottery (for which it may have been ﬁrst used). which ushered in the current Information Age. windmills and clocks. such as construction. the horse collar and horseshoes in the ﬁrst few hundred years after the fall of the Roman Empire. Modern technology increasingly relies on training and education — their designers. Technology and philosophy http://en.Wikipedia. medicine. The rise in technology has led to the construction of skyscrapers and large cities whose inhabitants rely on automobiles or other powered transit for transportation. 1:12 PM rather an irregularly shaped slab of ﬂat wood with a small hollowed or pierced area near the center and mounted on a peg driven into the earth. Second Industrial Revolution. and these advancements subsequently led to the creation of the Internet. Moreover. and users often require sophisticated general and speciﬁc training. and advancements in medicine. driven by the discovery of steam power. and computer science. including engineering. The Renaissance brought forth many of these innovations. windmills. and entire industries have arisen to support and develop succeeding generations of increasingly more complex tools. train. physics and engineering. The advancements in technology in this era allowed a more steady supply of food. and Information Technology Innovations continued through the Middle Ages with innovations such as silk.org/wiki/Technology Page 6 of 14 . The 20th century brought a host of innovations. Computers were also invented and later miniaturized utilizing transistors and integrated circuits. In medicine. But it was the use of the wheel as a transformer of energy (through water wheels. Humans have also been able to explore space with satellites (later used for telecommunication) and in manned missions going all the way to the moon. Productivity improving technologies (historical). It would have been rotated by repeated tugs by the potter or his assistant. chemistry. Starting in the United Kingdom in the 18th century. mining.
societies that are dominated by the ideology of technological and scientiﬁc progress." that is.'" What this entails is a more complex relationship to technology than either techno-optimists or techno-pessimists tend to allow. and (3) a setting for democratic deliberation and citizenship. connect these ideas to the abdication of religion as a higher moral authority. The late cultural critic Neil Postman distinguished tool-using societies from technological societies and. about technology (see "The Question Concerning Technology)". They suggest that the inevitable result of such a society is to become evermore technological at the cost of freedom and psychological health. such as Stephen V. And. Anarcho-primitivism. Some.org/wiki/Technology Page 7 of 14 . "Heidegger does not oppose technology. nearly impossible. technicism is a reliance or conﬁdence in technology as a benefactor of society. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. (2) a means or medium of discussion. is also often interpreted as a metaphor for the adoption of industrial technology. Many. Skepticism and critics of technology See also: Luddite.' Indeed. to the exclusion or harm of other cultural practices. suggesting that technology can be construed as (1) an object of political debate.Wikipedia. and ﬁlms (e. Blade Runner.g. More recently. Luddites smashing a power loom in 1812 Some of the most poignant criticisms of technology are found in what are now considered to be dystopian literary classics. Dick and William Gibson. because they already give an answer to the question: a good life is one that includes the use of more and more technology. Taken to extreme. such as those by Philip K. According to Heidegger scholars Hubert Dreyfus and Charles Spinosa. such as the Luddites and prominent philosopher Martin Heidegger. to rebel helplessly against it. what comes to the same thing. and George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four. technological development is morally good. he promises that 'when we once open ourselves expressly to the essence of technology. Darin Barney has written about technology's impact on practices of citizenship and democratic culture. including the question of what a good life consists in. human beings will someday be able to master all problems and possibly even control the future using technology. modern works of science ﬁction. and Bioconservatism On the somewhat skeptical side are certain philosophers like Herbert Marcuse and John Zerzan. Optimism See also: Extropianism Optimistic assumptions are made by proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and singularitarianism. which view technological development as generally having beneﬁcial effects for the society and the human condition. Monsma. In these ideologies. Neo-luddism. Faust's selling his soul to the devil in return for power over the physical world.wikipedia. technicism is the belief that humanity will ultimately be able to control the entirety of existence using technology. what he called "technopolies. Some have described Karl Marx as a techno-optimist. Barney suggests that technology tends to make ethical questions. Ghost in the Shell) project highly ambivalent or cautionary attitudes toward technology's impact on human society and identity. hold serious. Some critics see these ideologies as examples of scientism and technoutopianism and fear the notion of human enhancement and technological singularity which they support. http://en. values and world-views. we ﬁnd ourselves unexpectedly taken into a freeing claim. ﬁnally. Anthony Burgess's A Clockwork Orange. 1:12 PM Technicism Generally. although not entirely deterministic reservations.Technology . As a setting for democratic culture. He hopes to reveal the essence of technology in a way that 'in no way conﬁnes us to a stultiﬁed compulsion to push on blindly with technology or. In other words. in Faust by Goethe. for example Aldous Huxley's Brave New World and other writings. who believe that technological societies are inherently ﬂawed.
e. Another. Project Socrates also determined that countries like China and India had continued executing technology-based (while the US took its detour into economic-based) planning. The science can be leading edge or well established and the function can have high visibility or be signiﬁcantly more mundane but it is all technology. The program. Project Socrates. DuPont. and Michael Sandel). http://en. Dow. Appropriate technology See also: Technocriticism and Technorealism The notion of appropriate technology. such as genetic engineering. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. technology-based planning) to decision making that was based on money exploitation (i. In the Automated Innovation Revolution the process for determining how to acquire and utilize technology for a competitive advantage (which includes R&D) is automated so that it can be executed with unprecedented speed.parrhesiajournal.e. Boeing 747-8 wing-fuselage sections during ﬁnal assembly. Technology and competitiveness In 1983 a classiﬁed program was initiated in the US intelligence community to reverse the US declining economic and military competitiveness..g. Project Socrates determined that to rebuild US competitiveness.g.org/wiki/Technology Page 8 of 14 . written by Theodore Kaczynski (aka The Unabomber) and printed in several major newspapers (and later books) as part of an effort to end his bombing campaign of the techno-industrial infrastructure.. who has published books On the Internet and What Computers Still Can't Do. decision making throughout the US had to readopt technology-based planning.Wikipedia. GM) and it what was used to transform the US into a superpower.Technology . Project Socrates determined that technology-based planning makes an evolutionary leap forward every few hundred years and the next evolutionary leap.wikipedia. He warns that these technologies introduce unprecedented new challenges to human beings. see the work of Jacques Ellul) to describe situations where it was not desirable to use very new technologies or those that required access to some centralized infrastructure or parts or skills imported from elsewhere. The eco-village movement emerged in part due to this concern. and its exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage.. Jürgen Habermas. William Joy. Technology-based planning is what was used to build the US industrial giants before WWII (e. Technology is properly deﬁned as any application of science to accomplish a function. synthetic biology and robotics. and as a result had considerable advanced the process and were using it to build themselves into superpowers. To rebuild US competitiveness the US decision-makers needed adopt a form of technology-based planning that was far more advanced than that used by China and India. more infamous anti-technological treatise is Industrial Society and Its Future. Francis Fukuyama. however. 1:12 PM Nikolas Kompridis has also written (http://www. It was not economic-based planning. economic-based planning) at the end of World War II.pdf) about the dangers of new technology. scientists and public intellectuals who have written about similar issues (e. Another prominent critic of technology is Hubert Dreyfus. efﬁciency and agility. was poised to occur. was developed in the 20th century (e. the Automated Innovation Revolution. These concerns are shared by other philosophers. nanotechnology. used all source intelligence to review competitiveness worldwide for all forms of competition to determine the source of the US decline. including the possibility of the permanent alteration of our biological nature.g..org/parrhesia08/parrhesia08_kompridis. What Project Socrates determined was that technology exploitation is the foundation of all competitive advantage and that the source of the US declining competitiveness was the fact that decision-making through the US both in the private and public sectors had switched from decision making that was based on technology exploitation (i.
Brazil. West African chimpanzees also use stone hammers and anvils for cracking nuts. For example. some dolphin communities. termite ﬁshing probes. Future technology Main article: Emerging technologies Theories of technology often attempt to predict the future of technology based on the high technology and science of the time.Golden hammer Lewis Mumford List of years in science Niche construction Science and technology in Argentina Technological convergence Technology and society Technology assessment Technology tree -logy Technological superpowers Theories and concepts in technology http://en.wikipedia. the discovery of tool construction among chimpanzees and related primates has discarded the notion of the use of technology as unique to humans.org/wiki/Technology Page 9 of 14 . and Ecosystem engineer The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. 1:12 PM Project Socrates developed the means for automated innovation so that the US could lead the Automated Innovation Revolution in order to rebuild and maintain the country's economic competitiveness for many generations. an example of technology usage by nonhuman primates. researchers have observed wild chimpanzees utilising tools for foraging: some of the tools used include leaf sponges. Structures built by animals.Technology . See also Main article: Outline of technology Critique of technology Greatest Engineering Achievements of the 20th Century History of science and technology Knowledge economy Law of the instrument . The ability to make and use tools was once considered a deﬁning characteristic of the genus Homo. Other animal species See also: Tool use by animals. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. These include primates such as chimpanzees. we can also refer to animal examples such as beavers and their dams. However. or bees and their honeycombs. pestles and levers. and crows. Considering a more generic perspective of technology as ethology of active environmental conditioning and control.Wikipedia. This adult gorilla uses a branch as a walking stick to gauge the water's depth. as do capuchin monkeys of Boa Vista.
A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition).Technology .org/wiki/Technology Page 10 of 14 . Henry George and Robert Scott (1980).wikipedia. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. http://en. ^ Liddell.Wikipedia. 1:12 PM Appropriate technology Diffusion of innovations Instrumental conception of technology Jacques Ellul Paradigm Philosophy of technology Posthumanism Precautionary principle Science and technology Strategy of Technology Techno-progressivism Technocentrism Technocracy Technocriticism Technological determinism Technological evolution Technological nationalism Technological revival Technological singularity Technology management Technology readiness level Technorealism Transhumanism Economics of technology Energy accounting Nanosocialism Post-scarcity economy Technocracy Technocapitalism Technological diffusion Technology acceptance model Technology lifecycle Technology transfer Technology journalism Engadget TechCrunch The Verge (website) Wired (magazine) References 1. ISBN 0-19-910207-4. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.
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