Radio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

10/29/13, 1:13 PM

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Radio is the wireless transmission of signals through free space by electromagnetic radiation of a frequency significantly below that of visible light, in the radio frequency range, from about 30 kHz to 300 GHz.[1] These waves are called radio waves. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space. Information, such as sound, is carried by systematically changing (modulating) some property of the radiated waves, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width. When radio waves strike an electrical conductor, the oscillating fields induce an alternating current in the conductor. The information in the waves can be extracted and transformed back into its original form.
Transducing information such as sound into an electronic signal, which is then sent as an electromagnetic radio wave from a transmitter. A receiver intercepts the radio wave and extracts the information-bearing electronic signal, which is converted back using another transducer such as a speaker.

1 Etymology 2 Processes 2.1 Transmitter and modulation 2.2 Antenna 2.3 Propagation 2.4 Resonance 2.5 Receiver and demodulation 2.6 Radio band 3 Communication systems 4 History 4.1 19th century 4.2 20th century 5 Uses of radio 5.1 Audio 5.2 Telephony 5.3 Video 5.4 Navigation 5.5 Radar 5.6 Data (digital radio) 5.7 Heating 5.8 Amateur radio service 5.9 Unlicensed radio services 5.10 Radio control (RC) 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading

Classic radio receiver dial

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or to specify the light intensity of television pixels. meaning "scattering seeds widely. The term became common by the time of the first commercial broadcasts in the United States in the 1920s. to distinguish radio from several other wireless communication technologies. this structure converts the rapidly changing alternating current into an electromagnetic wave that can move through free space (sometimes with a particular polarization). producing alternating current of a desired frequency of oscillation.wikipedia.g. ray"). With more than 100 years of development. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for high-fidelity broadcasts of music and speech (see FM broadcasting). frequency. Normal (analog) TV sound is also broadcast using FM.. For example. It was the method used for the first audio radio transmissions. Wi-Fi. beam of light. British Commonwealth countries continued to commonly use the term "wireless" until the mid-20th century. Digital data can be sent by shifting the carrier's frequency among a set of discrete the sense of wireless transmission. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. The transmitter sends the modulated electrical energy to a tuned resonant antenna. a technique known as frequency-shift keying. was first recorded in the word radioconductor.Wikipedia. as well as mobile telephony. which was shortened to "wireless" in Britain. whereas "wireless" refers to the lack of physical connections. Processes Radio systems used for communications will have the following elements. Amplitude modulation of a carrier wave works by varying the strength of the transmitted signal in proportion to the information being sent. In recent years the more general term "wireless" has gained renewed popularity through the rapid growth of short-range computer networking. (The noun "broadcasting" itself came from an agricultural term. "AM" is often used to refer to the mediumwave broadcast band (see AM radio).g. each process is implemented by a wide range of methods. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN). or altering more subtle properties such as amplitude.1 General 9. changes in the signal strength can be used to reflect the sounds to be reproduced by a speaker. 1:13 PM 9 External links 9.5 DX Etymology The etymology of "radio" or "radiotelegraphy" reveals that it was called "wireless telegraphy". the term "radio" specifies the actual type of transceiver device or chip. one talks about radio transceivers. The word "radio" also appears in a 1907 article by Lee De Forest. The instantaneous frequency of the carrier is directly proportional to the instantaneous value of the input signal. The prefix radio. GSM and UMTS. http://en. a description provided by the French physicist Édouard Branly in 1897. though the magazine of the BBC in the UK has been called Radio Times ever since it was first published in the early 1920s. such as the photophone.Radio .. Frequency modulation varies the frequency of the carrier.") The term was adopted by other languages in Europe and Asia.4 Technical 9.3 Antiques 9. It was adopted by the United States Navy in 1912. Transmitter and modulation See also: Radio transmitter design Each system contains a transmitter. but about wireless devices and wireless sensor networks.2 History 9. and remains in use today. and Bluetooth. It is based on the verb to radiate (in Latin "radius" means "spoke of a wheel. Page 2 of 19 . This consists of a source of electrical energy. This modulation might be as simple as turning the energy on and off. The transmitter contains a system to modulate (change) some property of the energy produced to impress a signal on it. specialized for different communications purposes. e. phase. Today. or combinations of these properties.

which is conversion to a usable signal form by a detector sub-system. or have their path altered by reflection. 1:13 PM Angle modulation alters the instantaneous phase of the carrier wave to transmit a signal. some energy may also be absorbed by the intervening medium in some cases. The electromagnetic wave is intercepted by a tuned receiving antenna. Early radio systems relied entirely on the energy collected by an antenna to produce signals for the operator. as well as from artificial sources such as other transmitters and accidental radiators. This allows the radio receiver to discriminate between multiple signals differing in frequency. this is the fundamental limit to the range of radio communications. the desired signal will no longer be discernible. In reception.wikipedia. Resonance Main article: Electrical resonance See also: LC circuit Electrical resonance of tuned circuits in radios allow individual stations to be selected. an antenna intercepts some of the power of an electromagnetic wave in order to produce a tiny voltage at its terminals. refraction or diffraction. which made it possible to amplify weak signals. Yagi-Uda antennas like these six are widely used at VHF and UHF frequencies. and vice versa. Crystal radio. http://en. Propagation Main article: Radio propagation Once generated.Radio . this structure captures some of the energy of the wave and returns it to the form of oscillating electrical currents. If the magnitude of the noise is large enough. from natural sources. The receiver is "tuned" to respond preferentially to the desired signals. Receiver (radio).org/wiki/Radio Page 3 of 19 . An antenna can be used for both transmitting and receiving. Antenna Main article: Antenna (radio) An antenna (or aerial) is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves. and reject undesired signals. At the receiver. as well as for broadcasting. a radio transmitter applies an oscillating radio frequency electric current to the antenna's terminals. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Today radio systems are used for applications from walkie-talkie children's toys to the control of space vehicles. this electromagnetic interference comes AM or FM radio wave. and many other applications. and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic waves (radio waves). Noise An audio signal (top) may be carried by an will generally alter the desired signal. Radio became more useful after the invention of electronic devices such as the vacuum tube and later the transistor.Wikipedia. In transmission. Noise is also produced at every step due to the inherent properties of the devices used. The intensity of the waves diminishes due to geometric dispersion (the inverse-square law). electromagnetic waves travel through space either directly. and much less so to differing frequencies. It is another term for Phase modulation. A resonant circuit will respond strongly to a particular frequency. and Communications receiver Rooftop television antennas. that is applied to a receiver to be amplified. Radio receiver. these currents are demodulated. Receiver and demodulation See also: Radio receiver design. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver.

this is called "duplex" operation.300 MHz individual photon of radio Radio 1 mm . that was transmitted. Classical radio communications systems use frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) as a strategy to split up and share the available radio-frequency bandwidth for use by different parties communications concurrently. These systems offer different tradeoffs in supporting multiple users. such as sound.400 nm 30 EHZ .405 THz above the RF range.790 THz radiation.Radio .3. in broadcasting a single transmitter sends signals to many receivers. since communication depends on receiving the Page 4 of 19 . Photon Energy (eV) 100 keV . X-rays and gamma rays.1 mm 405 THz . each having an antenna and appropriate terminal equipment such as a microphone at the transmitter and a loudspeaker at the receiver in the case of a voice-communication system.1. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. The power received at the receiving station is usually only a tiny fraction of the transmitter's output. Since the energy of an Microwave 1 mm . rheostat. using a single radio frequency.[5] The radio equipment involved in communication systems includes a transmitter and a receiver. Modern radio communication systems include those that divide up a radio-frequency band by time-division multiplexing (TDM) and code-division multiplexing (CDM) as alternatives to the classical FDM strategy. user requirements.[3] Other types of electromagnetic Ultraviolet 10 nm .Wikipedia. 1:13 PM A radio receiver receives its input from an antenna. pictures.24 meV . this is called "simplex.7 eV . For example.300+ GeV 120 eV to 120 keV 3 eV to 124 eV 1. are infrared. with frequencies Visible 390 nm . Two stations may take turns sending and receiving.24 meV . 300 GHz . amplifies it to a level suitable for further processing.30 EHZ of this spectrum. navigational positions.24 µeV 1.4 feV Communication systems A radio communication system sends signals by radio. etc. A radio communication system may send information only one way. although commercially important uses Gamma ray less than 0. A Crystal Receiver.wikipedia.3 Hz frequency is too low to remove an electron from an atom.1. visible light.01 to 10 nm 30 PHz .3 eV 1." By using two radio frequencies. service positioning.01 nm more than 10 EHZ of radio use only a small part X-Ray 0.24 meV . measurement values.[4] Types of radio communication systems deployed depend on technology. regulations. radio waves are classified as non-ionizing radiation. Infrared 750 nm . uses electronic filters to separate a wanted radio signal from all other signals picked up by this antenna. crystal rectifier. and finally converts through demodulation and decoding the signal into a form usable for the consumer.12. headphones and ground connection. standards.[2] Radio band Main article: Radio frequency Light Comparison Radio frequencies occupy the range from a few hertz to Name Wavelength Frequency (Hz) 300 GHz.[6] The power consumed in a transmitting station varies depending on the distance of communication and the transmission conditions.7 eV 1.750 nm 790 THz .1 meter 300 GHz . beyond the FDM strategy that was ideal for broadcast radio but less so for applications such as mobile telephony. not the energy. radio spectrum allocation. and investment. digital data. two stations may continuously and concurrently send and receive signals . consisting of an antenna. History Main article: History of radio http://en. capacitor.300 GHz ultraviolet.

S." Development from a laboratory demonstration to a commercial entity spanned several decades and required the efforts of many practitioners. http://en. which contained a coherer. He demonstrated his discovery to the Royal Society in 1880.[11][12] Popov's receiver was created on the improved basis of Lodge's receiver. unlike the coherers (detecting devices consisting of tubes filled with iron filings which had been invented by Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti at Fermo in Italy in 1884) used by Guglielmo Marconi and other early experimenters. Tesla demonstrating wireless transmissions during his high frequency and potential lecture of 1891. In 1878. Further refined as a lightning detector. Adrisya Alok (Invisible Light). The patent was granted as U. coined by Lodge. The Electrician readily commented on Bose’s coherer.[8] The descriptions contained all the elements that were later incorporated into radio systems before the development of the vacuum tube. Missouri. messages can be transmitted by means of it without the mediation of wires. 1:13 PM 19th century Main article: Invention of radio The meaning and usage of the word "radio" has developed in parallel with developments within the field of communications and can be seen to have three distinct phases: electromagnetic waves and experimentation. Many individuals—inventors. In December 1895. Louis. mistakenly believed that it was the first description (publication of the minutes 15/201 of this session — December issue of the journal RPCS[10]). 1894. and radio broadcasting and commercialization. Patent 465. wireless communication and technical development. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. He developed this carbon-based detector further and eventually could detect signals over a few hundred yards. buildings etc. Edison applied in 1885 to the U. Hughes noticed that sparks could be heard in a telephone receiver when experimenting with his carbon microphone. In 1895 Alexander Stepanovich Popov built his first radio receiver. and originally intended for reproduction of its experiments. A depiction of Popov's lightning detector was printed in the Journal of the Russian Physical and Chemical Society the same year. was used in the English-speaking world for Hertzian wave receivers or detectors. In November 1894 public demonstration at Town Hall of Kolkata. it was presented to the Russian Physical and Chemical Society on May 7. “On polarisation of electric rays by double-refracting crystals” was communicated to the Asiatic Society of Bengal in May 1895. engineers.Wikipedia. and therefore abandoned further research. After continued research. but in fact the first description of the device was given by Dmitry Aleksandrovich Lachinov in July 1895 in the 2nd edition of his course "Fundamentals of Meteorology and climatology" — the first in Russia.971 (http://www.[7] In 1893.contributed to produce the modern idea of radio and thus the origins and 'invention' are multiple and controversial. businessmen . (December 1895). Early radio designs could not transmit sound or speech and were called the "wireless telegraph. Tesla presented the fundamentals of radio in 1893.wikipedia. Bose wrote in a Bengali essay.” Bose’s first scientific paper. Addressing the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia and the National Electric Light Association. the London journal the Electrician (Vol. The Englishman (18 January 1896) quoted from the Electrician and commented as follows:”Should Professor Bose succeed in perfecting and patenting his ‘Coherer’. in St. Until recently.Radio .com/patents/US465971) on December 29. Serbian-American inventor Nikola Tesla made devices for his experiments with electricity. “The invisible light can easily pass through brick walls. carried out by Professor Oliver Lodge and Alexander Muirhead. 36) published Bose’s paper. Patent Office for a patent on an electrostatic coupling system between elevated Page 5 of 19 . Experiments were undertaken by Thomas Edison and his employees of Menlo Park. we may in time see the whole system of coast lighting throughout the navigable world revolutionised by a Bengali scientist working single handed in our Presidency College Laboratory. The Marconi Company would later purchase rights to the Edison patent to protect them legally from lawsuits. His second paper was communicated to the Royal Society of London by Lord Rayleigh in October 1895. Jagadish Chandra Bose ignited gunpowder and rang a bell at a distance using millimetre range wavelength microwaves. but was told it was merely induction. 1895.” Bose planned to “perfect his coherer” but never thought of patenting it. During the demonstration a radio signal was sent from the neighboring Clarendon laboratory building. he described and demonstrated the principles of his wireless work. 1891. and received by apparatus in the lecture theater. Therefore. developers.S. the word 'coherer'. “On a new electro-polariscope”. David E. He initially experimented with magnetic receivers. At that[9] A demonstration of wireless telegraphy took place in the lecture theater of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History on August 14.

[13] In 1895. Michigan. commercially successful radio transmission system.Radio . In spite of great difficulty. England."[19] Marconi's experimental apparatus proved to be the first engineering complete. Ships at sea heard a broadcast that included Fessenden playing O Holy Night on the violin and reading a passage from the Bible. Marconi opened his "wireless" factory in the former silk-works at Hall Street. 1900. an AfricanAmerican student at the school.600 km) radius."[22] In 1896. "The Wireless Telephone" and the "Wireless Telegraph". New York under the personal call letters of Wendell King. It was described as "equipment for the purpose of phonetic transmissions through space. from Ocean BluffBrant Rock. in São Paulo. Brazil. he had to rely on friends to push his project.[24] That month 2ADD (renamed WRUC in 1947). Schenectady. Meanwhile. Marconi held the patent rights for radio. http://en..P. a series of Thursday night concerts initially heard within a 100-mile (160 km) radius and later for a 1. which survives today as allnews format station WWJ under ownership of the CBS network. According the newspaper Jornal do Comercio (June 10. Marconi was awarded British patent 12039. In 1897. Having few resources. for a distance of approximately 8 km. aired what is believed to be the first public entertainment broadcast in the United States. for all intents and purposes./ 2.000-mile (1. Reginald Fessenden used a synchronous rotary-spark transmitter for the first radio program broadcast.[24] This was. in front of journalists and the General Consul of Great Britain. 20th century In 1900. DC. it aired the first broadcast of a sporting event.[14][15] In radio transmission technology. [and was] the only electrical instrument or device contained in the apparatus that is at all new. England. he conducted his first public experiment on June 3." Four months later. Page 6 of 19 . regular entertainment broadcasts commenced in 1922 from the Marconi Research Centre at Writtle. also in Chelmsford. Hungary (1901).] coherer. In June 1912 after the RMS Titanic disaster.[23] One year after that experiment. Telephone Herald in Budapest. for radio. Brazilian priest Roberto Landell de Moura transmitted the human voice wirelessly.wikipedia. The first radio news program was broadcast August 31. In November 1920.Wikipedia. 1920 by station 8MK in Detroit.[24][25] At 9 pm on August 27. Lupton.[17][18] From Marconi's experiments. 1904) which is the precursor of today's radio transceiver.. Massachusetts. he established a radio station on the Isle of Wight.[16] Marconi achieved long range signalling due to a wireless transmitting apparatus and a radio receiver claimed by him.4 km). The points of transmission and reception were Alto de Santana and Paulista Avenue. knowing that his invention had real value. early public experimenters had made short distance broadcasts. Only about twenty homes in the city had receivers to tune in this radio program. he received his first patent from the Brazilian government. 1920. Shortly after the 1900s. invented by Westinghouse engineers. 1904. 1900). Marconi built a wireless system capable of transmitting signals at long distances (1. due to increased production Marconi opened the world's first purpose-built radio factory at New Street Works. The first college radio station began broadcasting on October 14. the first transmission of what is now known as amplitude modulation or AM radio. 1:13 PM Marconi was the first scientist to achieve successful radio transmission. the phenomenon that transmission range is proportional to the square of antenna height is known as "Marconi's law. Improvements in transmitting electrical impulses and signals and in apparatus there-for. the Marconi instruments had a " [. he left Brazil for the United States of America with the intent of patenting the machine at the US Patent Office in Washington. land and water elements at a distance with or without the use of wires.5 mi. C. principle of which was discovered some twenty years ago. Chelmsford. Sociedad Radio Argentina aired a live performance of Richard Wagner's opera Parsifal from the Coliseo Theater in downtown Buenos Aires. employing around 60 people.[18][20][21] According to the Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute in 1899. three patents were awarded: "The Wave Transmitter" (October 11. The next advancement was the vacuum tube detector. 1920 from Union College. both dated November 22. On Christmas Eve 1906. England in 1898. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.

which was strikingly similar to a four-circuit system disclosed in U. related developments in the United Kingdom saw the High Court of Justice uphold Marconi's British Patent.[39] It was small enough to fit in a vest pocket. they were established commercial modes.576 that was issued earlier to Tesla on March 20.[34] Mobile Telephone Service was expensive. only three customers in any given city could make mobile telephone calls at one time.[35] The Advanced Mobile Phone System analog mobile cell phone system. it is held that Marconi knowingly and unknowingly used the scientific and experimental work of others who were devising their own radio tuning apparatus' around the same time. plus 0. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. It must be emphasized that Tesla's patent was not meant to be used in a radio transmission apparatus and it didn't exhibit any presence of a variable inductance for varying the tuning frequency of the four circuits.[32] One of the first developments in the early 20th century was that aircraft used commercial AM radio stations for navigation. which was an improvement of the initial invention. the United States Supreme Court.5 V Battery. By the end of the decade. and others. Over the next 20 years. "The Wireless Telephone" U S Patent Office Louis in 1946.S.S. This patent disclosed a four-circuit system. patents between 1904 and 1908. After years of patent battles by Marconi's company. the United States Court of Claims invalidated the fundamental 1935 Marconi patent. the United States Supreme Court invalidated one of the Marconi patents. issued on April 26. said that "it is now held that in the important advance upon his basic patent Marconi did nothing that had not already been seen and disclosed.Radio .000 customers placing about 30 000 calls each week.[26] In 1943. AT&T then introduced Mobile Telephone Service to one hundred in Washington. (This decision wasn't unanimous.S. the Supreme Court considered his claim false. However. It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s. Lodge. in the 1943 case of Marconi Wireless Telegraph co."[27][28][29] Although Marconi claimed that he had no knowledge of prior art regarding adjustable "four-circuit" transformer configuration for radio transmission and reception.[30] In addition to that ruling from the Supreme Court.75 per call in 2012 USD. DC towns and highway corridors by 1948. the newly formed Sony company introduced its first transistorized radio. Because only three radio channels were available." In 1955. was anticipated by patents issued to Oliver Lodge and John Stone Stone. powered by a small battery. 1900. 320 U. the Regency company introduced a pocket transistor radio. This continued until the early 1960s when VOR systems became widespread. This is not surprising since Tesla had only a minimal understanding of electromagnetic radio physics and at least through 1919. of America v. patent #645. 1 (1943). 1900. http://en. single sideband and frequency modulation were invented by amateur radio operators. the TR-1. developed by Bell Labs. From its start in St. on the basis it had been anticipated by Tesla.[36][37][38] gave much more capacity. Pittsburgh football game. In 1954. number 763. such as the work of American electrical engineer John Stone Stone who was issued several U.Wikipedia. what made Marconi more successful than any other was his ability to commercialize radio and its associated equipment into a global business. powered by a "standard 22.wikipedia.30 to 0. costing 15 USD per month. It was durable. In 1947 AT&T commercialized the Mobile Telephone Service. or his reputation as the first person to develop practical radiotelegraphic communication. On the matter of invention. was introduced in the Americas in 1978.)[13] In contrast. 1:13 PM Sports broadcasting began at this time as well. Radio was used to transmit pictures visible as television as early as the 1920s. because it had no vacuum tubes to burn out. Commercial television transmissions started in North America and Europe in the 1940s.40 USD per local call. It just said that the adoption of adjustable transformers in the transmitting and receiving circuits. including the college football on radio broadcast of a 1921 West Virginia vs. he didn't believe that the radio signals predicted by Maxwell and experimentally shown by Hertz really Page 7 of 19 .772 (1904).[33] In the early 1930s. equivalent to about 176 USD per month and 3. United States.50 to 4. Mobile Telephone Service was a rarity with only 5. transistors replaced tubes almost completely except for high-power transmitters.[31] The 1943 decision didn't overturn Marconi's original patents.

successful project to construct a software-defined radio that can be programmed to be virtually any radio by changing its software program. was launched. in which the amplitude of the transmitted signal is made proportional to the sound amplitude captured (transduced) by the microphone. particularly in Europe and the United States. commercial radio broadcasts included not only news and music. color television was being broadcast commercially (though not all broadcasts or programs were in color). The earliest users included the Japanese Navy scouting the Russian fleet during the Battle of Tsushima in 1905. In the early 1990s. Radio was unique among methods of dramatic presentation in that it used only sound. Radio was used to pass on orders and communications between armies and navies on both sides in World War I. radio takes many forms. The United States passed on President Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points to Germany via radio during the Page 8 of 19 . Before the advent of television. One of the most memorable uses of marine telegraphy was during the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912. because within North America each of these stations has exclusive use of its broadcast frequency throughout part or all of the broadcast day.000 watt license. In the early part of the 20th century. employing digital radios for many of its links. Uses of radio Early uses were maritime. the U. but dramas. while the transmitted frequency remains unchanged. For more. these stations' transmitters were commandeered for military use by the US Government during World War II. culminating in the launch of the Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation in 1987. and the majority of stations that emit signals this powerful were grandfathered in (see List of 50 kW AM radio stations in the United States). the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Audio AM radio uses amplitude modulation. 1:13 PM By 1963. American AM radio stations broadcast with powers as high as 500 kW. with the widespread introduction of radio receivers. An American girl listens to a radio during the Great Depression.S. including telephone messages and relays of radio programs. including wireless networks and mobile communications of all types. Broadcasting began from San Jose. the U. In the late 1960s. amateur radio experimenters began to use personal computers with audio cards to process radio signals. Currently. the U. In 1994. and some could be heard worldwide. for sending telegraphic messages using Morse code between ships and land. Today. California in 1909.Radio . http://en.wikipedia. became widespread in the 1920s and 1930s. Germany used radio communications for diplomatic messages once it discovered that its submarine cables had been tapped by the British. These 50 kW stations are generally called "clear channel" stations (not to be confused with Clear Channel Communications). In the 1970s. Transmissions are affected by static and interference because lightning and other sources of radio emissions on the same frequency add their amplitudes to the original transmitted amplitude. In 1986 KTNN received the last granted 50. Besides broadcasting. Another use of radio in the pre-war years was the development of detection and locating of aircraft and ships by the use of radar (RAdio Detection And Ranging). Telstar. and many other forms of entertainment (the era from the late 1920s to the mid-1950s is commonly called radio's "Golden Age"). Army and DARPA launched an aggressive. Navy experimented with satellite navigation. point-to-point broadcasting.S.S. variety shows. Soon. as well as radio broadcasting. LORAN became the premier radio navigation system. Digital transmissions began to be applied to broadcasting in the late 1990s. long-distance telephone network began to convert to a digital network.Wikipedia. and communications to shore stations listing the survivors. and the first (radio) communication satellite. The Regency TR-1 which used Texas Instruments' NPN transistors was the world's first commercially produced transistor radio. comedies. the maximum broadcast power for a civilian AM radio station in the United States and Canada is 50 kW. including communications between operators on the sinking ship and nearby vessels.[40] and became feasible in the 1920s. see radio programming.

High power is useful in penetrating buildings. Somerset. the sub-channel program might be an alternate foreignlanguage radio program for various ethnic groups. the current song's name. AM is capable of the same audio bandwidth that FM employs. Page 9 of 19 . A few old. US. traveling in straight lines. FM is transmitted in the Very High Frequency (VHF. but nowadays.000 watts ERP. Analog channels may contain alternative programming. almost 300 miles (500 km) away. Because the audio signal modulates the frequency and not the amplitude. 1:13 PM FM broadcast radio sends music and voice with less noise than AM radio (It is often mistakenly thought that FM is higher fidelity than AM but that is not the case. 150 miles. versus the 75 kHz used by commercial FM broadcasts. usually with five kHz of deviation. 240 km) if there are no competing signals. AM radios limit the audio bandpass to 3–5 kHz maximum). FM signals are occasionally reflected back towards the Earth by the ionosphere. WBCTFM (93. which causes the radio to only receive the strongest signal when multiple signals appear on the same frequency. Due to its need for a wider bandwidth. and farther (e. Consequently. Illinois. AM receivers typically use narrower filters in the receiver to recover the signal with less noise. this station could be heard near Bloomington. AM stereo receivers can reproduce the same audio bandwidth that FM does due to the wider filter used in an AM stereo receiver.7) in Grand Rapids. http://en. resulting in long distance FM reception. A Fisher 500 AM/FM hi-fi receiver from Bush House. (Use of FM would result in stronger stations blocking out reception of weaker stations due to FM's capture effect). Williton. even though they are using VHF. In some Bakelite radio at the Bakelite Museum. FM receivers are subject to the capture effect. US. amplitude variation at the microphone causes the transmitter frequency to fluctuate. Aircraft fly high enough that their transmitters can be received hundreds of miles (or kilometres) away. web addresses. AM is used so that multiple stations on the same channel can be received. and can increase to 500. VHF radio waves act more like light. Orchard Mill. FM receivers are relatively immune to lightning and spark interference.Radio . In some extremely crowded metropolitan areas. when there were fewer FM stations competing. Marine voice radios can use single sideband voice (SSB) in the shortwave High Frequency (HF—3 MHz to 30 MHz) radio spectrum for very long ranges or narrowband FM in the VHF spectrum for much shorter ranges.[citation needed] FM subcarrier services are secondary signals transmitted in a "piggyback" fashion 1959. During unusual upper atmospheric conditions. 100. Michigan. by using a smaller range of radio frequencies.000 watts ERP by the terms of its original license. such as reading services for the blind. Such a huge power level does not usually help to increase range as much as one might expect. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. FM radios automatically re-tune themselves to the same channel in a different district by using sub-bands. Sub-carriers can also transmit digital data. Special receivers are required to utilize these services. diffracting around hills. an FM signal is not subject to static and interference in the same way as AM signals.wikipedia. or stock quotes. Nevertheless. UK.g. such as station identification. runs 320.000 watt FM stations can regularly be heard up to 100 miles (160 km) away. "grandfathered" stations do not conform to these power rules. because VHF frequencies travel in nearly straight lines over the horizon and off into space. and refracting in the dense atmosphere near the horizon for some distance beyond the horizon. hence the reception range is generally limited to about 50–200 miles. along with the main program. 30 MHz to 300 MHz) radio spectrum. background music or stereo sound signals.Wikipedia. In frequency modulation.. and 25 kHz used for TV sound. old home of the BBC World Service. Aviation voice radios use VHF AM. Narrowband FM sacrifices fidelity to make more channels available within the radio spectrum.

and COFDM modulation elsewhere in the world (using the DVB-T standard). police. with the sound carrier a fixed frequency (4. fire and commercial voice services also use narrowband FM on special frequencies. Viewed as a graph of frequency versus power. High-definition television is possible simply by using a higher-resolution picture. because it doesn't need to transmit the unused carrier and sideband. an AM signal shows power where the frequencies of the voice add and subtract with the main radio frequency. Most use single sideband voice (SSB). which uses less bandwidth than Page 10 of 19 . the central computer switches the phone to a new cell. which share a range of frequencies just above AM radio with amateur radio operators. TETRA. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. With the compression and improved modulation involved. aircraft and isolated settlements. Early police radios used AM receivers to receive one-way dispatches. Before 1960 navigators used movable loop antennas to locate commercial AM stations near cities. SSB cuts the bandwidth in half by suppressing the carrier and one of the sidebands. When the mobile phone nears the edge of the cell site's radio coverage area.Wikipedia. Terrestrial Trunked Radio is a digital cell phone system for military. Civil and military HF (high frequency) voice services use shortwave radio to contact ships at sea. WorldSpace and Sirius offer encrypted digital Satellite radio. and can figure its position as being on a line that is tangent to a spherical shell around each satellite. Navigation All satellite navigation systems use satellites with precision clocks. Although many current and future codecs can be sent in the MPEG transport stream container format. This also makes the transmitter about three times more powerful. A computer in the receiver does the math.5 MHz in the NTSC system) away from the video carrier.264/AVC is being considered as a replacement video codec in some regions for its improved compression. Recent developments in Sweden (such as DROPme) allow for the instant downloading of digital material from a radio broadcast (such as a song) to a mobile phone.Radio . Commercial services such as XM. A Reed–Solomon error correction code adds redundant correction codes and allows reliable reception during moderate data loss. Cell phones originally used FM. LORAN systems also used time-of-flight radio signals. police and ambulances. Video Television sends the picture as AM and the sound as AM or FM. 1:13 PM Government. In some cases they used marine radiolocation beacons. as of 2006 most systems use a standard-definition format almost identical to DVD: MPEG-2 video in Anamorphic widescreen and MPEG layer 2 (MP2) audio. but now most use various digital modulation schemes. Digital television uses 8VSB modulation in North America (under the ATSC digital television standard). Degen DE1103. but from radio stations on the ground. and the time of the transmission. an advanced world minireceiver with single sideband modulation and dual conversion Telephony Mobile phones transmit to a local cell site (transmitter/receiver) that ultimately connects to the public switched telephone network (PSTN) through an optic fiber or microwave radio and other network elements. a single "channel" can contain a high-definition program and several standard-definition programs. Satellite phones use satellites rather than cell towers to communicate.wikipedia. determined by the time-of-flight of the radio signals from the satellite.[41] On an AM radio SSB sounds like ducks quacking. or the adults in a Charlie Brown cartoon. Analog television also uses a vestigial sideband on the video carrier to reduce the bandwidth required. The satellite transmits its position. http://en. The receiver listens to four satellites. Radio direction-finding is the oldest form of radio navigation. but H.

where a simple spark gap would produce a hiss. altitude and position. 1:13 PM VOR (Very High Frequency Omnidirectional Range). The rotating commutator produced a tone in the receiver. Satellite Radio. on-off keying of a carrier should be known as "Interrupted Continuous Wave" or ICW or on-off keying (OOK). They send a bit as one of two tones using frequency-shift keying. thus providing a fix from only one ground station." When the VOR station is collocated with DME (Distance Measuring Equipment). A receiver with a local oscillator would "heterodyne" with the pure radio frequency. or CW (Continuous Wave). Targeting radars use the same principle as search radar but scan a much smaller area far more often. CW is still used. the operator could send messages in Morse code by energizing a rotating commutating spark gap. They are common on commercial ships and long-distance commercial aircraft. These are still used by the military and weather services. radioteletype was how most commercial messages were sent to less developed countries. Engineers like QAM http://en. Aircraft use a 1200 Baud radioteletype service over VHF to send their ID. Data (digital radio) Most new radio systems are digital. produced by a vacuum tube electronic oscillator was switched on and off by a Page 11 of 19 . and get gate and connectingflight data. Radar Radar (Radio Detection And Ranging) detects objects at a distance by bouncing radio waves off them. By pressing the key. see also: Digital TV. systems (used by aircraft). usually several times a second or more.Wikipedia. Some can superimpose sonar data and map data from GPS position. This is very wasteful of both radio frequencies and power.Radio . creating a whistle-like audio tone. Groups of five or seven bits become a character printed by a teleprinter. these days primarily by amateur radio operators (hams). telephone exchanges and TV stations usually use quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The best general-purpose radars distinguish the rain of heavy storms. an aircraft can determine its bearing or radial from the station. Search radars scan a wide area with pulses of short radio waves. in which a pure radio frequency. Microwave dishes on satellites. The direction of the beam determines the direction of the reflection. A directional signal rotates like a lighthouse at a fixed rate. because their transmissions span several hundred megahertz. 2008 Pure One Classic digital radio Radioteletype equipment usually operates on short-wave (HF) and is much loved by the military because they create written information without a skilled operator. The oldest form of digital broadcast was spark gap telegraphy.wikipedia. Weather radars resemble search radars. The military operates a similar system of navaids. CW uses less than 100 Hz of bandwidth. which are often built into VOR stations. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. The delay caused by the echo measures the distance. an omnidirectional signal pulses. Such stations are called VORTACs. QAM sends data by changing both the phase and the amplitude of the radio signal. as well as land and vehicles. They usually scan the area two to four times a minute. By measuring the difference in phase of these two signals. indistinguishable from static. used by pioneers such as Marconi. VOR/DME and VORTAC stations are identical in navigation potential to civil aircraft. Strictly. Because TACANs include distance measuring equipment. When the directional signal is facing north. known as a "fix. have an antenna array that transmits two signals simultaneously. The next advance was continuous wave telegraphy. The polarization and frequency of the return can sense the type of surface. the aircraft can determine its bearing and range from the station. From about 1925 to 1975. General purpose radars generally use navigational radar frequencies. Such stations are called VOR/DMEs. thus establishing a line of position. but modulate and polarize the pulse so the receiver can determine the type of surface of the reflector. but use radio waves with circular polarization and a wavelength to reflect from water droplets. Digital Audio Broadcasting. Some weather radar use the Doppler effect to measure wind speeds. Spark-gap transmitters are now illegal. called TACANs. Sometimes search radars use the Doppler effect to separate moving vehicles from clutter. An aircraft can get readings from two VORs and locate its position at the intersection of the two radials. They use very short waves that reflect from earth and stone. Navigational radars scan a wide area two to four times per minute.

Some amateur frequencies may be disrupted illegally by power-line internet service. Commercial use of spread spectrum began in the 1980s. 1:13 PM because it packs the most bits into a radio signal when given an exclusive (non-shared) fixed narrowband frequency range. or political and cultural dissidents. digital packet radio and satellite repeaters. the US. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Modern GPS receivers. government-authorized personal radio services such as Citizens' band radio in Australia. AM. Amateur radio service Amateur radio. saving lives in many instances. most cell phones. Eureka 147.Wikipedia. A special bit pattern is used to locate the beginning of a frame. illegal broadcasting stations. to prevent interference with other radio signals.[42] Radio amateurs use a variety of modes.wikipedia. These radio services involve the use of handheld units. and Family Radio Service and Multi-Use Radio Service in North America exist to provide simple. including nostalgic ones like Morse code and experimental ones like Low-Frequency Experimental Radio. most famously for Global Positioning System satellite transmissions. The digital signal is often sent as QAM on the subchannels. Some pirate stations operating offshore in parts of Europe and the United Kingdom more http://en. is a hobby in which enthusiasts are licensed to communicate on a number of bands in the radio frequency spectrum non-commercially and for their own enjoyment. which is more flexible and far less expensive than older systems that implemented separate electronic channels. Bluetooth. COFDM resists fading and ghosting because the narrow-channel QAM signals can be sent slowly. and many other local area network. and the 802. Several forms of radio were pioneered by radio amateurs and later became commercially important. Unlicensed radio services Amateur radio station with multiple receivers and transceivers Unlicensed. without the overhead of licensing. or that share their frequency with other services. Systems that need Page 12 of 19 . Usually the bits are sent in "frames" that repeat. and Europe. (usually) short range communication for individuals and small groups. single-sideband (SSB). An adaptive system. These are often low power transmitters operated on sporadic schedules by hobbyists. Diathermy equipment is used in surgery for sealing of blood vessels. Wi-Fi also operates in unlicensed radio bands and is very widely used to network computers. A variety of jamming-resistant spread spectrum techniques were initially developed for military use. Digital Radio Mondiale. also known as "ham radio". Heating Radio-frequency energy generated for heating of objects is generally not intended to radiate outside of the generating equipment. because most interference can affect only a few of the QAM channels. unlicensed. or one that sends error-correction codes can also resist interference. COFDM is used for Wi-Fi. digital TV and radio standards.11b version of Wi-Fi each use various forms of spread spectrum.Radio . sometimes called pirate radio or "clandestine" stations. This has been very beneficial in emergencies. COFDM breaks a digital signal into as many as several hundred slower subchannels. They may also provide emergency and public service assistance. may use "coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing" or COFDM. are unauthorized. community activists. including FM. Communication systems that limit themselves to a fixed narrowband frequency range are vulnerable to jamming. Free radio stations. Similar services exist in other parts of the world. and induction hobs for cooking. Microwave ovens use intense radio waves to heat food. some cell phones. Modern COFDM systems use a small computer to make and decode the signal with digital signal processing. Induction furnaces are used for melting metal for casting.

patent No. cars and airplanes.809 for a "Method of and Apparatus for Controlling Mechanism of Moving Vessels or Vehicles. In Madison Square Garden. Large industrial remote-controlled equipment such as cranes and switching locomotives now usually use digital radio techniques to ensure safety and reliability. and selling commercial advertising time.[45] He was awarded U.wikipedia.Radio . 613. 1:13 PM closely resembled legal Page 13 of 19 .[43][44] Radio control (RC) Radio remote controls use radio waves to transmit control data to a remote object as in some early forms of guided missile. using high power. Nikola Tesla successfully demonstrated a radio-controlled boat. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13."[46] See also Main article: Outline of radio Applications Amateur radio Citizens' band radio Marine and mobile radio telephony Marine VHF radio Radio astronomy Radio broadcasting AM broadcasting FM broadcasting Campus radio Old-time radio Pirate radio Radio programming Radio documentary Radio navigation Radio direction finder Direction finding Wireless energy transfer Radio science Carrier current Hertz Types of radio emissions Amplitude modulation Frequency modulation Longwave / Medium wave / Shortwave Radio propagation and ionosphere Radio technologies Batteryless radio http://en. maintaining regular schedules.S. some early TV remotes and a range of model boats. at the Electrical Exhibition of 1898.Wikipedia.

php Radio-Electronics. ^ Dictionary of Electronics By Rudolf F.M1).wikipedia. ^ Clint Smith.html . V. Curt Gervelis (2003).Man Out of Time. 5. Footnotes 1. Cheney. Dept. Wireless Network Performance Handbook (http://books. ^ The Electromagnetic Spectrum. http://en. R. (1996). article in Electrical World 22 June 1270/1 (1907). early use of word " University of Tennessee. ^ http://www.htm) 2. Page 467. 1:13 PM Digital radio Satellite radio Radio software Receiver (radio) Crystal radio Superheterodyne receiver Transistor radio Software-defined radio Tuner (radio) Alternatives Cable FM Free-space optical communication (FSO) Internet radio Power line communication Other Antique radio Bandstacked History of radio Years in radio Timeline of radio References General information A História da Rádio em Datas (1819-1997) (in Portuguese) .google. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 007-140655-7. de Forest. Margaret (1981). McGraw-Hill Professional. Graf (1974). Modern personal radio systems. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.notes on etymology ( Page 14 of 19 . ^ Macario. ISBN 978-0-7432-1536-7. Radio Receiver Technology 3.vizzavi.Radio . Tesla . London: Institution of Electrical Engineers." contains a proof that Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose invented the Mercury Coherer which was later used by Guglielmo Marconi and along with other patents. IEE telecommunications of Physics and Astronomy 4. C. Page id=nZAVGBoPevUC&pg=PA25&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=F4sSKuzO6XmtgO4393BBA&sig=ACfU3U0g0vtYCOzP0LCCzdRfr7bgKwvTNg#PPA24.

com/books? vid=0X69Ty10xaRE_L8yAr&id=egEjvWjbCQgC). Page 191 18. 116 http://en. Page 857 (http://books. The Institute.An engineer's tribute" (http://ieeexplore. 24. 259 — декабрь 1895 11. 2002. Volume 93. 601–606. 26. S. p. 10. id=egEjvWjbCQgC&pg=PA857).com/marconi/stravolgimento1. ^ K. For more see "Nikola Tesla On His Work with Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless А. С.S. ^ "Guglielmo Marconi . Retrieved 2009-07-22. Ferdinand Braun" ( By Frank Lewis Corum. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. Retrieved 200907-22. Marconi. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. W2uc.pdf%3Farnumber%3D4137304&authDecision=-203). ^ Marconi's late-1895 transmission of signals was for around a mile (1. ^ Fleming. ^ a b c "Radio Broadcasting" ( The principles of electric wave telegraphy ( Corum. This was small compared to Tesla's early-1895 transmissions of up to 50 miles. 8. ^ Rzhosnitsky B. ISBN 81-219-1475-2. ^ Журнал Русского физико-химического общества. Вып.union. and Transmission of Power.pdf) (PDF)." Silvanus P. 25. PA: University of Pittsburgh Sports Information Retrieved—Л.6 km). pp.php?taid=&id=1234597&lid=1) 9.teslasociety. Н. 19. 14. N. 1895.M1). Основы метеорологии и климатологии. С. 16. Sir John Ambrose (1906).co. — СПб.edu.union. ^ a b "U. ^ "MARCONI E LO STRAVOLGIMENTO DELLA VERITÀ STORICA SULLA SUA OPERA" (http://www. Retrieved 201011-19. 1955 (Russian) 13. Anderson. ^ a b The Saturday review of politics. ^ "Father Roberto Landell de Moura" (http://highfields-arc. Supreme Court" (http://caselaw. 21. 22.union. ^ United States Naval Institute.htm). ^ Edison. (1991). ^ Sciullo Jr." Leland I.php?e=677&s=2700). 23. 1991 Pitt Football: University of Pittsburgh Football Media Guide. ^ "La Radio. page 294 (http://books. 1955 / Ржонсницкий Б. his life and inventions (http://books. literature. "Tesla's Colorado Springs Receivers" (http://www. La vera storia di un'invenzione 460 12.Radio .findlaw.lp. Page 830 (http://books. — М. ^ R. Dmitry Aleksandrovich" Guglielmo Marconi and "WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY: A REJOINDER. id=LABVAAAAMAAJ&lpg=PR18&pg=PA601#v=onepage&q&f=false). K. Т.org/wiki/Radio Page 15 of 19 .google. 0FzCamdZGWy-eglKfVjuXnAA#PRA1-PA515. Proceedings of the United States Naval Institute (http://books. 15. Thomas Commerford Martin. Longmans. Volume 28 By Institution of Electrical ^ Proceedings of the Institution of Electrical Engineers. To the Editor of the Saturday Review ( Moscow-Leningrad: Gosenergoizdat. 26-27. Chand. ^ "Union College Magazine" (http://2000. Solid State Physics and Electronics (http://books. ^ Лачинов Д.wikipedia. J.union. ^ IEEEVM: Nikola Tesla (http://www. Retrieved 1899.htm).google." by Lodovico Gualandi.radiomarconi. science and art. Twenty First Century Books.The father of long distance radio communication . 1:13 PM Pittsburgh. XXVII. Telephony.: Госэнергоиздат.jsp? url=http://ieeexplore. Дмитрий Александрович Лачинов. ed. and Puri (2004).pl?navby=case&court=us&vol=320&invol=1). "THE INVENTOR OF WIRELESS TELEGRAPHY: A REPLY. 7. To the Editor of the Saturday Review (

39. Radio communication. 320 U. ^ Private Line ( ISBN 07453-0055-3. ^ Intellectual property law for engineers and scientists (http://books. Van Nostrand.html).google. etc.Master of Lightning: Selected Tesla Patents" (http://www. ^ AM stations are still marked on and apparatus ( Page 16 of 19 . ^ Rebel Radio: The Full Story of British Pirate Radio by John Hind. ^ Marconi Wireless Tel. Retrieved "AT&T Archives : Testing the First Public Cell Phone Network" ( 36. Richard PBS. v. Retrieved 2010-0119. development. ^ "Tesla . ^ "The History Of KQW Radio . Retrieved 2009-07-22. ^ Gordon A. ISBN 0-8133-9064-8. ^ "Amateur Radio "Saved Lives" in South Asia" (http://web.pbs.tfcbooks.html). AT&T Intellectual Property.Master of Lightning: Remote Control" (http://www. 2004-05-24.S. United States. Techchannel. 1 (U. 2004-12-29. 1999. 41.. ^ "1946: First Mobile Telephone Call" (http://www. 2006 ISBN 0-335-21761-3 page 23 35. Stephen Mosco. ^ MilestonesPast (http://www. aviation charts 34. Arrl. ult&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false).hamuniverse. H. theory and methods. inventions. Retrieved 21st Century Books. 1943.milestonespast.arrl. Retrieved 07-08-2011.att. Retrieved 38. ^ Audio example of SSB (http://www.S. CO. 87 L." 320 U.S. Co. Retrieved Published by Pluto Bayarearadio. 320 U.. 1 (1943) ( on 2007-10-13. ^ "Transistor Radios" (http://www. with an appendix on transmission over wires (http://books. 2011.html).html).com/dailynotes/index13. Decided June 21. Smith Mobile and wireless communications: an introduction. ^ "INTERESTING FACTS ABOUT NIKOLA TESLA" (http://www. (1917). ^ Icons of invention: the makers of the modern world from Gutenberg to Gates (http://books. ISBN 978-0471-44998-0. ABC-CLIO. Ed. 1.pbs.arrl. 33. New York: (1904).com/teslafaq/ ^ "The Guglielmo Marconi Case: Who is the True Inventor of Radio?" (http://tesla. 46.html). 37. 1393. http://en. 1985.radiomarconi.privateline. (http://caselaw. ScienCentral. ^ AT&T Tech Channel (2011-06-13).lp. 1943).htm). ISBN 978-0-8133-9064-2 44.html) 28. ^ MARCONI WIRELESS T.]. 1:13 PM 27.S. 63 S.KCBS" (http://www.findlaw.shtml). J.cfm/2011/6/13/AT&T-Archives-AMPS:-coming-of-age).hamradioindia. Wireless telegraphy: its origins. ^ Free radio: electronic civil disobedience by Lawrence C.pbs.archive.12. ^ "Tesla . PBS. New York: McGraw-Hill book company [etc.Radio . corp.htm#A-022). McGraw-Hill International. Mills. 32. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.corp.html) Ham Radio India. Gow. ISBN 978-0-7453-0055-9 45. Further reading Sewall. 1998.bayarearadio.mp3) 42. Archived from the original (http://www. 40. 31. Published by Westview Press.att. OF AMERICA 1731 Argued April 9.

A. E. N." The AWA Review. 1. Christopher H. Translated from the Russian by Boris V.. 1947). William B.. Schwoch James. 1949). ISBN 007-136121-9. a practical book for everybody ( W. Third Edition. V. J. 2004 (three vols. Hazeltine. New York. New York: McGraw-Hill book company. 2001. N. (1920). (1922).Radio . Morecroft. Burlingame Books.. [etc. L. Scannell. Radio engineering principles (http://books. 1922-1939 (Basil Blackwell.htm). Anderson (ed. Cockaday. Buga. New York: D. 2007).google. Wireless Network Performance Handbook (http://books. Clint Smith. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.). Nikola Tesla's Priority in Radio and Continuous-Wave Radiofrequency Apparatus (http://www. Tom Lewis: Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio. Kuznetsov. David.wikipedia. Aitkin: The Continuous Wave: Technology and the American Radio. 1961). Curt Gervelis (2003). Chistyakov N. E. Marc Fisher: Something In The Air: Radio. H. 2010) 278 Page 17 of 19 .) Llewellyn White: The American Radio (University of Chicago Press. H.. (1922). Rohde. Van Nostrand. id=nZAVGBoPevUC&pg=PA25&lr=&as_brr=3&ei=F4sSKuzO6XmtgO4393BBA&sig=ACfU3U0g0vtYCOzP0LCCzdRfr7bgKwvTNg#PPA24. 1985). 24 pages. et al. 1998. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13. and the Revolution That Shaped A Generation (Random F. L. the wireless: how to construct and maintain modern transmitting and receiving apparatus (http://books. Chistyakov N. New York. (1990).M1). Falko A. ed. Oxford: Oxford University L. New York: Frederick A.Wikipedia.. E. Rock.. J. External links http://en. A. Vol. New York : E. 1952). NY. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Asa Briggs: The History of Broadcasting in the United Kingdom (Oxford University Press. Alexander Russo: Points on the Dial: Golden Age Radio Beyond the Networks (Duke University 1991). Ray: FCC: The Ups and Downs of Radio-TV Regulation (Iowa State University Press. 1986. Hugh G.): Encyclopedia of Radio. Stokes. Volume One. Radio phone receiving. H. Leland I. "John Stone Stone. illustrated. M. 1st ed. Keith ( 1990).. (2001).. Hausmann. The Encyclopedia of Old-Time Radio. Radio-telephony for everyone. The American Radio Industry and Its Latin American Activities. ISBN 0-19-507678-8 Henry Ewbank and Sherman P. Hogan. 1990). McGraw Hill..tfcbooks. 1900-1932 (Princeton University Press. and Cardiff. John Dunning: On the Air. Sterling with Michael C. "Empire of the Air: The Men Who Made Radio" (1992) by Ken Burns was a PBS documentary based on the book. J. 1900-1939 (University of Illinois Press. Rupert Maclaurin: Invention and Innovation in the Radio Industry (The Macmillan Company. New York. A Social History of British Broadcasting. High frequency and microwave engineering.. Lawton: Broadcasting: Radio and Television (Harper & Brothers. Jerry Whitaker: Communications Receivers. 1:13 PM Lauer. ISBN 0-07-140655-7. ISBN 0-06018215-6. & Brown. Ulrich L. Canavaciol. Moscow: Mir Publishers. Radio Receiver Theory.. discusses regional and local radio as forms that "complicate" the image of the medium as a national unifier from the 1920s to the 1950s. ISBN 5-03-001321-0 First published in Russian as «Радиоприёмные устройства» Da Silva. McGraw-Hill Professional.]. Goldsmith. 1991.

com/articles/history-of-radio-who-invented-the-radio.html) The Broadcast Archive .com/A) History U.a private Steven Schoenherr's History of Radio ( 373.sandiego.Radio (http://electronics.htm) VOR Basic Information (http://www. Clark Radioana Collection. Canadian Communications Foundation . IAteacher: Interactive Explanation of Radio Receiver Construction ( Page 18 of 19 .1920 onward ( Smithsonian Institution A gallery of Antiques from the 1920s to the 1960s ( Argued 9– 12 April 1943. Encyclopaedia Britannica's History of Radio (http://www.allstar.pdf) National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA).com/ of America v. 369.ntia. United States ( http://en. ca.html)?" Buzzle. Retrieved 20 January 2011.htm) How Stuff Works . Silicon Labs DX The British DX Club (http://www.britannica.bdxc. "Who Invented Radio (http://www.The History on Canadian Broadcasting .Radio .Radio History on the Web! ( The Atlantic Monthly. blog by a radio listener in the UK.eetimes.aspx) .html) Technical Radio Frequency Chart (http://www. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.wordpress.lp. January 1998. Historic Radios from Around the World at Kurrajong Radio Museum. Phil's Receiver Designs (http://home. 1880 .edu/aero/VOR.1950 ( Date unknown. 1. National Museum of American History. posts about radio and many other topics.S.htm) Dr.findlaw. retrieved 20 January at the Open Directory Project "It's Radi-O! (http://www.S. Supreme Court.broadcasting-history.Archives Decided 21 June 1943. 1:13 PM General Radio ( .htm) Retrieved 20 January plus humour etc (" 320 U. Australia ( Single-Triode and Single-Transistor Regenerative Radio Designs How to design a traditional radio (http://www. Retrieved 20 January 2011.dmoz. Antiques George H.htm) Essay by Richard by Natalian Zhai. "Marconi Wireless Telegraph co. Nos. United States Early Radio History -1897 to 1927 ( Retrieved 20 January 2011.

http://en. Inc.Radio . additional terms may" Categories: Radio British inventions This page was last modified on 28 October 2013 at Page 19 of 19 . 1:13 PM World of Radio (http://www. you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Glenn Hauser's internationally known DX radio show Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation. By using this site. a non-profit organization. the free encyclopedia 10/29/13.

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