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AB

Deep Water Acoustic Positioning

A B Deep Water Acoustic Positioning International Marine Contractors Association www.imca-int.com IMCA M 200, IMCA S
A B Deep Water Acoustic Positioning International Marine Contractors Association www.imca-int.com IMCA M 200, IMCA S
A B Deep Water Acoustic Positioning International Marine Contractors Association www.imca-int.com IMCA M 200, IMCA S
A B Deep Water Acoustic Positioning International Marine Contractors Association www.imca-int.com IMCA M 200, IMCA S

International Marine Contractors Association

www.imca-int.com

IMCA M 200, IMCA S 013

October 2009

AB

The International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA) is the international trade association representing offshore, marine and underwater engineering companies.

IMCA promotes improvements in quality, health, safety, environmental and technical standards through the publication of information notes, codes of practice and by other appropriate means.

Members are self-regulating through the adoption of IMCA guidelines as appropriate. They commit to act as responsible members by following relevant guidelines and being willing to be audited against compliance with them by their clients.

There are two core activities that relate to all members:

  • u Competence & Training

  • u Safety, Environment & Legislation

The Association is organised through four distinct divisions, each covering a specific area of members’ interests: Diving, Marine, Offshore Survey, Remote Systems & ROV.

There are also five regional sections which facilitate work on issues affecting members in their local geographic area – Asia- Pacific, Central & South America, Europe & Africa, Middle East & India and North America.

IMCA M 200, IMCA S 013

This document has been produced for IMCA under the direction of its Offshore Survey Division Management Committee.

All the illustrations in this document, unless otherwise stated, have been kindly provided by Kongsberg, Sonardyne, Sonsub and Valeport.

www.imca-int.com

The information contained herein is given for guidance only and endeavours to reflect best industry practice. For the avoidance of doubt no legal liability shall attach to any guidance and/or recommendation and/or statement herein contained.

Deep Water Acoustic Positioning

IMCA M 200, IMCA S 013 – October 2009

This document is dedicated to the memory of Brian Beard, who was a long-standing member of IMCA’s Offshore Survey Division Management Committee, whose ideas and early support for this document were key to its development.

  • 1 Executive Summary

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.1

  • 2 Glossary of Terms

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.3

  • 3 Introduction

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  • 4 Basics of Deep Water Positioning Systems

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.11

  • 4.1 Acoustic Positioning Methods

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  • 4.2 Equipment Components

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.14

  • 4.3 Acoustic Frequency . . .

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.17

  • 4.4 Signalling Techniques . . .

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  • 4.5 .

Velocity of Sound

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  • 5 Operations

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  • 5.1 .

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USBL

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  • 5.2 .

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LBL

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.19

  • 5.3 .

Array Planning

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  • 5.4 .

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Mobilisation

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.22

  • 5.5 Methods of Deployment and Recovery

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.24

  • 5.6 Methods of Calibration

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.24

  • 5.7 .

Quality Control

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.27

  • 5.8 System Performance

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  • 6 Associated Topics

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  • 6.1 Integration of Systems

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  • 6.2 Communications

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.31

  • 6.3 Software, Interfacing and Display

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  • 6.4 Additional Peripheral Sensors and System Interfacing

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  • 6.5 Permitting and Legislation

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  • 6.6 Training and Competence

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.32

  • 7 Applications of Acoustic Positioning in Deep Water

 

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  • 7.1 Dynamic Positioning

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  • 7.2 Towed Body (‘Towfish’) Positioning

 

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  • 7.3 Riser

Monitoring

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  • 7.4 .

Pipelay Positioning

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  • 7.5 AUV and ROV Positioning

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  • 7.6 Construction Positioning and Installation of Structures

 

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  • 7.7 Relative Measurement

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Metrology

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  • 7.9 .

Well Positioning

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  • 7.10 Long Term Structure Monitoring and Positioning

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  • 7.11 Acoustic Data Telemetry

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  • 7.12 Out-of-Straightness Positioning

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.41

Appendices

  • 1 The Sonar Equation

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A1.2

Transmission Loss

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.44

A1.3

Directivity Index

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.45

A1.4

Detection Threshold

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