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Guessed Question for Pysiology II for Examination

1. What are the four conditions that can cause a shift of the oxygen-hemoglobin curve to the right?
 Shift to Right -decrease in the ability of hemoglobin to hold oxygen by:
 Temperature Increase
 or decrease the pH (high acidity)
 Carbon Dioxide increase
 Decrease the DPG

2. How does the nervous system control respiration?

 In the Brainstem have a Medullary Respiratory Center to control the Respiration
 It will respond the chemoreceptor’s signal.
 Two main a chemoreceptor – Peripheral and Central Chemoreceptor
 Peripheral Chemoreceptor is Carotid bodies and Aortic Bodies respond mainly for Arterial
Blood, respond for Decrease PO2 and Increase H+ concentration
 Central Chemoreceptor respond mainly for Extracellular Fluid, respond for increase PCO2 and
increase H+ concentration

3. What is a surfactant and what role does it play in pulmonary function?

 it is a Phospholipids and Proteins
 secreted by Type II Alveolar Cells
 use to low the water’s tension to increase the Lung Compliance
 As the Compliance increase
 Use a less pressure to increase Lung Volume
 Increase the Gas exchange volume

4. What is a Transpulmonary Pressure and Intrapleural Pressure

 Transpulmonary Pressure (Alveolar Pressure – Intrapleural Pressure)
 that volume is use to against the Elastic Recoil 畏縮 of the Lung
 and maintain the Lung stable

 Intrapleural Pressure
 is the pressure inside the Intrapleural Fluid
 It always in the negative pressure to prevent the Alveoli collapse.

5. Explain why when breathing frequency increases, minute ventilation tends to remain the same,
whereas alveolar ventilation decreases.
 Breathing Frequency increase, but Minute Ventilation no change, that cause by decrease the Tidal
 Alveolar Ventilation is equal (Tidal Volume – Anatomic space 150ml) x Breathing Rate.
 As tidal Volume decrease the Alveolar Ventilation decrease too.

6. Discuss the neural and hormonal control of gastric secretions and motility.
 Increase or decrease the Cephalic Phase Stimulation stimulate the Neural activity e.g. Smell Taste,
 Increase and decrease the Neural Activity will increase and decrease the stimulate to specific part to
secret a Hormone, e.g. Gastrin secret in G-cells
 Gastrin can increase the Parietal Cell secretion of HCl and stomach Motility
 Also ACh Parasympathetic stimulation increase the HCl secretion and contraction
 Neural Activity increase the Histamine Secretion in stomach, increase the HCl secretion
 Somatostatin – secret by the liver will decrease the Gastrin secretion
 CCK secrete in Small Intestine will decrease Gastric emptying
 Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)- decreases both Gastric acid and Motility.
 Enterogastrones – secrete in Small Intestine decrease Gastric emptying

7. Discuss the Small Intestine Hormones Function.

 Small Intestine have four Main Hormones
 Enterogastrone-
 active by increase Acid , fat, Hypertonic Solution, Distension in the Small Intestine
 result decrease Gastric Emptying
 active by increase fatty Acid and Amino Acid in the Small Intestine
 result increase Pancreas secret Pancreatic Enzyme, increase the Digestion of fats and
 Secretin
 active by increase Acid in the Stomach
 Result increase Pancreas secret Bicarbonate, Neutralization the Acid.
 Gastric Inhibit Peptide (GIP)
 active by increase Acid and Carbohydrate
 Result increase Pancreas secret Bicarbonate and Insulin.

8. Discuss CCK actions
 CCK secret in the Small Intestine ,actived by increase Fat and Protein in the Small Intestine
 It activate the Pancreas increase secret Pancreatic Enzyme to the Pancreatic duct
 Also increase the Gallbladder contraction, more Bile flow to Common Bile Duct.
 And the Sphincter at the Duodenal Ampulla will respond to CCK to increase Relaxation
 Let more Bile and Pancreatic Enzyme enter to the Duodenum
 Increase the Digestion of Fat and Protein and neutralization the HCl.

9. Discuss the changes in gastric secretions during the different phases of a meal.
 Cephalic Phase Stimulation
 Slight, Smell, Taste, Chewing
 Result – Parasympathetic Stimulation  increase secretion of Gastric acid
 Gastric contents Phase Stimulation (Gastric Phase)
 Distension 擴張, increase Peptide, Decrease H+ concentration
 Result – Gastric acid Secretion increase
 Intestinal contents Phase Stimulation (Intestinal Phase)
 Distension 擴張, increase H+ concentration, Increase Osmolarity,
increase nutrient content
 Result –Secretion of Secretin, CCK, decrease the secretion of Gastric acid

10. What is Transport Maximum?

 The Proximal tubule concentration is higher than the Filtrate
 The Reabsoption will stop

 E.g. When Diabetes

 The Glucose concentration in the Plasma increase continuously
 When the Reabsorption is achieve to the Transport Maxmium (TM)
 the Proximal Tubule’s Glucose concentration is more than the Filtrate
 the Reabsorption will stop and the Glucose appear in the Urine

11. During conditions of hypertonic volume loss, how does the kidney and posterior pituitary respond?
 When Hypertonic Volume loss
 The Blood Volume Loss
 The Arterial Pressure decrease
 Cardiovascular Baroreceptors send a signal to Posterior Pituitary to increase ADH
 and the decreased Glomerular Filtrating Rate stimulate Kidney increase secret Renin.
 Renin react the Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I and Angiotensin convert to Angiotensin II
 Angiotensin II stimulate the Adrenal cortex in crease Aldosterone
 The results
 ADH increase the Collecting Ducts permeability to water, decrease water excretion
 Aldosterone increase the Collecting ducts reabsorption of Sodium, decrease Sodium excretion

12. What is the function of the Juxtaglomerular apparatus?

 Secret a Renine change Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I, then Converting enzyme convert
Angiotensin I to II that stimulate Adrenal Cortex secret an Aldosterone, increase Sodium

13. Describe the ovarian and uterine changes during the menstrual cycle.
 Uterine Phase
 Day 1 – 5 is Menstrual – the Uterine Lining disintegrate as no fertilization occur.
 Day 5-14 is Proliferative – the Uterine Lining become more thick and spongy by the Estrogen
 Day 14-20 is Secretory- the Yellow body secret an Estrogen and Progesterone, Keep the Uterine
Lining more thick and spongy ready for supply the fertilizer egg nutrients.
 Day 28 – 5 also is Menstrual – the Uterine Lining is disintegrate as no fertilization occur

 Ovarian Phase
 In Follicular Phase
 Hypothalamus increasing secret the GnRH
 LH and FSH rapidly increase secret at the Day 14 by GnRH
 In the Ovary the Follicle is developing at 1-7 days by the increase FSH
 After 7days Follicle becomes mature and enlarges to produce Estrogen.
 Ovulation at the Day 14. As the highest LH and FSH
 Granulosa cells increasing secret Estrogens and Inhibin

 In Luteal Phase
 After the Ovulation the Follicle becomes the Yellow body.
 That Yellow body secret Progesterone to induce the Uterine Lining becomes
Thick and spongy
 The Hypothalamus decrease secret GnRH
 Anterior Pituitary decrease secret LH and FSH
 Follicle will become to Yellow body and gradually Degenerates after Day 25.
 Progesterone and Estrogen decrease after the Days 28

14. Describe the various involuntary methods by which heat is lost from the body. / What are the various
processes by which heat is lost from the body? (Define each process).
 Radiation – Loss heat from the skin in the form of infra-red rays
 Conduction- the transfer of heat from the body to solid object by direct contact
 Convection- loss the body heat as a result of air current.
 Evaporation- loss body heat by the evaporation of sweat.

15. What are the four factors that determine fluid movement across capillaries? Give a condition which
could alter the balance of these factors.
 Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure (Pc) – the pressure form inside the capillary to outside (OUT)
 Osmotic force due to Plasma Protein Concentration (πp)– the pressure form outside of the capillary to
inside (IN)
 Interstitial-fluid Hydrostatic Pressure (PIF) - the pressure form outside of the capillary to inside (IN)
 Osmotic force due to Interstitial-fluid protein concentration (πIF)- the pressure form inside the
capillary to outside (Out)
 As (Pc) increase the Free Protein loss to the Interstitial Fluid, that will increase the (PIF) to balance the
decrease the loss of Protein.
 As (πp) increase more free protein get in to the capillary, that will increase the (πp)to balance the protein
get into the capillary.

16. Explain the local control of arteriolar resistance.

 As the metabolic activity increase
 In interstitial fluid
 decrease Oxygen
 increase carbon dioxide
 increase hydrogen
 increase potassium
 increase Adenosine
 increase Eicosanoid
 increase Nitric oxide
 that will active the Hyperemia , Vasodilatation, increase blood flow

 Flow regulation – Myogenic response – Vasoconstriction

17. Explain the Hormonal control of arteriolar resistance.

 Vasoconstrictors
 Epinephrine
 Angiotensin II
 Vasopressin
 Vasodilators
 Epinephrine
 Atrial Natriuretic Hormone

18. Explain the Neural control of arteriolar resistance.
 Vasoconstrictors
 Sympathetic
 Vasodilators
 Neurons that release Nitric oxide

19. Discuss the mechanical and electrical events of the cardiac cycle.
 Start in Ventricular Diastole late
 No any electrical events
 As a result all Chamber is relax, Blood flow into the Ventricles
 The pressure decrease, Semilunar Valve is closed
 Atrial Systole begin
 Depolarization initiate in the Sinoatrial Node in the Atrium
 The action Potential Spread form the right Atrium to left Atrium
 A small amount addition blood flow into the Ventricles
 Atrial Systole end and Atrial Diastole begin
 The action potential is out of the Atrium and enter to the Atrioventricular Node
 Atria is relax and Ventricles is begin constrict
 Ventricular Systole First phase
 Atrioventricular Node spread a action potential form right Ventricle to left Ventricle by Gap
 Ventricle start contract, and the AV valve is closed
 Ventricular Systole Second phase
 Atrioventricular Node complete spread a action potential to the whole Ventricle
 Ventricle contract , the pressure increase to push the Semilunar Valve open
 Blood is ejected

20. What are the Starling’s forces that influence movement of water in the capillary?
 This is about a Frank-Starling Mechanism
 As the forces influence the water in and out of the capillary is by the Heart Pump.
 To apply and increase this Heart Pump is by a Stroke Volume
 The Stroke Volume increase as the End-Diastolic Volume increase that more blood fill to Ventricle
 That applies a stretch to the Myocardium Muscle as a Preload, let the Heart contract and eject the
 The stroke volume is proportion to the Venous Pressure.
 Venous Pressure is increase by Sympathetic Nerves to Veins, Blood Volume, Skeletal Pump,
Inspiration movement.

21. What are the two major factors that determine arterial blood pressure? Give one condition that can
affect each of these factors.
 That determine by Cardiac Output and Arterial Resistance
 Cardiac Output effected by Heart Rate and Stoke Volume
 Arterial Resistance effected by Local control e.g. vasodilator is Nitric Oxide, Vasoconstrictor is
Internal blood pressure.