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SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS

UNIT –I
TYPES OF SIGNALS
• Two types of signals
• (i) Analog signal
The input , out put and the system will be also analog in
nature
• (ii) Digital signal
The input ,out put and the system will be also digital in
nature
Basic elements of digital signal processing
i/p signal O/PSIGNAL
A/D converter DIGITAL SIGNAL
PROCESSOR D/A CONVTER
• A/D CONVERTER: converts analog signal to digital
signal .The A/D converts determine sampling rate
quantization error
• DSP PROCESSOR: It consist of ALU ,shifter ,interrupts
etc . Its like microprocessor but it is implemented fast
• D/A CONVERTER: some of the processed signals are
required back in their analog form so we are using D/A
converter
comparison between DSP and analog signal
processing
(i) flexibility (ii) accuracy (iii) easy storage (iv)
mathematical processing (v) cost (iv) size and realibility
• DSP APPLICATION
(i) DSP for voice and speech : speech recognition ,voice
mail
(ii) DSP for telecommunication : FAX , cellular phone speaker
(iii) DSP for consumer application : digital audio /video /television
(iv) DSP for graphics and image : 3D and 2D visualization
animation
(v) DSP for military : Rader processing sonar processing etc
(vi) DSP for biomedical : x-ray, CT scan, ECG
(vii) DSP for industrial : Robotics ,security access
CLASIFICATION OF SIGNALS
• The signals are as
1. Analog and digital signals
2. Continuous and discrete amplitude signals
3. Continuous and discrete time signals
4. Multi channel and multi dimensional signals
• Signals are further classified on the basics of
properties
1. Periodic and non periodic signals
2. Energy and power signals
3. Even and odd signals
4. Deterministic and random signals
Continuous and discrete time signals
The signal is are defined for every instant of time are know
as continuous –time signal . They are denoted by x (t)

The signal are defined for every discrete instants of time . The discrete
time signal are continuous in amplitude and discrete in time and it is
denoted by x (n)
Continuous time signals Discrete time signals

x (t)=x (n T) =e -nT

X (t)=e –t

-T 0 T 2T 3T

0 t
Periodic and non periodic signals
The signal x (n) is said to be periodic if it repeats after
certain period
x (n + N) =x (n) for all values of n
Here N is period of x (n ) samples . Now consider a cosine
wave signal
x (n) = A cos (2 Π f o n)
Here x (n + N) in above equ
x (n + N) =A cos (2 Π f o N + n)
=A cos (2 Π f o N + 2 Π f on )
A cos (2 Π f o N + 2 Π f on ) = A cos (2 Π f o n)
The above equ is satisfied only if 2 Π f o is an integer multiple of 2 Π
Here k is some integer solving for f o the above equ becomes
f o=k/N
the signal is only periocic only if f o is rational
Energy and power signals
The energy signal of the discrete time signal x (n) is
denoted by E its given by

energy E = 2
∑Ιx(n)Ι
If x (n) is finite n=−∞
X (n) is energy signal if ,0< E <∞
The average power of the discrete tome signal x (n) is
denoted by P It is given as

Power ,p = lim (2N + 1) Ιx(n)Ι2
1



n=−∞
There are few signal which r neither energy are power signal
DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM
SYSTEM : the discrete system is a device that performs some
operation on the discrete signal the out put response for the discrete
time signal is represented by
y (n) = T [x (n)] or x (n) T y (n)
T represents transformation
REPRESENTATION OF DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM
ADDER: CONSTANT MULTIPLER:

X1(n)
X (n) a y (n)= X (n)
+ y (n) = X1(n) + X2(n)

X2(n)
signal multiplier : unit block delay :

X1(n) x y= X1(n) . X2(n) x (n) y (n) = X (n-1)


Z-1

X2(n)

Unit advance block

Z
x (n) y (n) = X (n+1)
CLASSIFICATION OF DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS
1. Static and dynamic systems
2. Time invariant and time variant systems
3. Linear and non linear systems
4. Casual and non casual system
5. Stable and un stable systems
Static and dynamic systems:
when the output of the system depends only on the
present input samples then it is static system
eg : y (n) = x (n)
When the out of the system depend on the pass out put of
the system then its dynamic
Eg : y (n) = x (n) + x (n-1)
• Time invariant and time variant systems : The input and
out put of the system will not change in shift in time
eg : x (n) T y (n)
x (n- k) T y (n- k)
Linear and non linear systems : a system is said to be
linear if it satisfies super position principle .
T{a1 X1(n) +a2 X2(n) } = a1T[X1(n)] +a2T [X2(n) ]

X1(n) a1
y (n) =T{a1 X1(n) +a2 X2(n) }
+
Discrete time system

X2(n)
a2
• X1(n) Discrete a1
system
+ y’ (n) =a1T[X1(n)] +a2T [X2(n) ]
X 2(n)
Discrete
system a2

Casual and non casual system : in the casual system the


out put depend upon the past and present inputs only
X (n), x (n-1)
The system is non casual if its out put depends upon the
future inputs also x (n+1)