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UNIT –I

TYPES OF SIGNALS

• Two types of signals

• (i) Analog signal

The input , out put and the system will be also analog in

nature

• (ii) Digital signal

The input ,out put and the system will be also digital in

nature

Basic elements of digital signal processing

i/p signal O/PSIGNAL

A/D converter DIGITAL SIGNAL

PROCESSOR D/A CONVTER

• A/D CONVERTER: converts analog signal to digital

signal .The A/D converts determine sampling rate

quantization error

• DSP PROCESSOR: It consist of ALU ,shifter ,interrupts

etc . Its like microprocessor but it is implemented fast

• D/A CONVERTER: some of the processed signals are

required back in their analog form so we are using D/A

converter

comparison between DSP and analog signal

processing

(i) flexibility (ii) accuracy (iii) easy storage (iv)

mathematical processing (v) cost (iv) size and realibility

• DSP APPLICATION

(i) DSP for voice and speech : speech recognition ,voice

mail

(ii) DSP for telecommunication : FAX , cellular phone speaker

(iii) DSP for consumer application : digital audio /video /television

(iv) DSP for graphics and image : 3D and 2D visualization

animation

(v) DSP for military : Rader processing sonar processing etc

(vi) DSP for biomedical : x-ray, CT scan, ECG

(vii) DSP for industrial : Robotics ,security access

CLASIFICATION OF SIGNALS

• The signals are as

1. Analog and digital signals

2. Continuous and discrete amplitude signals

3. Continuous and discrete time signals

4. Multi channel and multi dimensional signals

• Signals are further classified on the basics of

properties

1. Periodic and non periodic signals

2. Energy and power signals

3. Even and odd signals

4. Deterministic and random signals

Continuous and discrete time signals

The signal is are defined for every instant of time are know

as continuous –time signal . They are denoted by x (t)

The signal are defined for every discrete instants of time . The discrete

time signal are continuous in amplitude and discrete in time and it is

denoted by x (n)

Continuous time signals Discrete time signals

x (t)=x (n T) =e -nT

X (t)=e –t

-T 0 T 2T 3T

0 t

Periodic and non periodic signals

The signal x (n) is said to be periodic if it repeats after

certain period

x (n + N) =x (n) for all values of n

Here N is period of x (n ) samples . Now consider a cosine

wave signal

x (n) = A cos (2 Π f o n)

Here x (n + N) in above equ

x (n + N) =A cos (2 Π f o N + n)

=A cos (2 Π f o N + 2 Π f on )

A cos (2 Π f o N + 2 Π f on ) = A cos (2 Π f o n)

The above equ is satisfied only if 2 Π f o is an integer multiple of 2 Π

Here k is some integer solving for f o the above equ becomes

f o=k/N

the signal is only periocic only if f o is rational

Energy and power signals

The energy signal of the discrete time signal x (n) is

denoted by E its given by

∞

energy E = 2

∑Ιx(n)Ι

If x (n) is finite n=−∞

X (n) is energy signal if ,0< E <∞

The average power of the discrete tome signal x (n) is

denoted by P It is given as

∞

Power ,p = lim (2N + 1) Ιx(n)Ι2

1

∞

∑

n=−∞

There are few signal which r neither energy are power signal

DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM

SYSTEM : the discrete system is a device that performs some

operation on the discrete signal the out put response for the discrete

time signal is represented by

y (n) = T [x (n)] or x (n) T y (n)

T represents transformation

REPRESENTATION OF DISCRETE TIME SYSTEM

ADDER: CONSTANT MULTIPLER:

X1(n)

X (n) a y (n)= X (n)

+ y (n) = X1(n) + X2(n)

X2(n)

signal multiplier : unit block delay :

Z-1

X2(n)

Z

x (n) y (n) = X (n+1)

CLASSIFICATION OF DISCRETE TIME SYSTEMS

1. Static and dynamic systems

2. Time invariant and time variant systems

3. Linear and non linear systems

4. Casual and non casual system

5. Stable and un stable systems

Static and dynamic systems:

when the output of the system depends only on the

present input samples then it is static system

eg : y (n) = x (n)

When the out of the system depend on the pass out put of

the system then its dynamic

Eg : y (n) = x (n) + x (n-1)

• Time invariant and time variant systems : The input and

out put of the system will not change in shift in time

eg : x (n) T y (n)

x (n- k) T y (n- k)

Linear and non linear systems : a system is said to be

linear if it satisfies super position principle .

T{a1 X1(n) +a2 X2(n) } = a1T[X1(n)] +a2T [X2(n) ]

X1(n) a1

y (n) =T{a1 X1(n) +a2 X2(n) }

+

Discrete time system

X2(n)

a2

• X1(n) Discrete a1

system

+ y’ (n) =a1T[X1(n)] +a2T [X2(n) ]

X 2(n)

Discrete

system a2

out put depend upon the past and present inputs only

X (n), x (n-1)

The system is non casual if its out put depends upon the

future inputs also x (n+1)

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