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(a) Compare difference between four rams type and rotary vane type steering systems. (b) Sketch of above systems. (c) Define hunting arrangement


Nature Power Pump Electro hydraulic

Ram Type Electro hydraulic

Rotary type

Variable out put delivery pump . Withstan maximum pressure about 170 bar

Constant output delivery pump Limited pressure about 90 bar. Rotary vanes fixed on stator and rotor with single or double hydraulic chamber. Control by solenoid valve by mechanically or electrically. Compact design ,lighter in weight with small space , lower power require for same load. Not robust than ram type. Suitable only for small and medium size of ship. Because vane tips are not strong enough for large ship gears.

Rudder actuator Control

Actuated by tiller arm , swivel block , cross head , ram with cylinder 2 or 4 ram type Control by tele-motor system with hunting gear arrangement

Design , weight and space

Bulky and rigid design , Heavier weight Larger space and power require . Robust than vane type.


Suitable for all sizes and type of ships.

Wear down

Being more rigid design , allow severe condition and wear down

Wear down cannot be tolerated due to very fine clearance for tightness Low initial cost Even at every angle. Torque capacity attain up to 3000 KnM.

Cost Torque

High initial cost Rudder turning torque is not even depend on angle. 120 ~ 160 KNm 2 ram

250 ~ 1000 KNm 4 ram Shock Excessive shock from rudder is transmitted through ram with cylinder , then to ship structure Rudder Angle Limited rudder angle 35 to both sides Excessive shock from rudder is transmitted through vanes to stator , then to actuator bracket to ship structure. Wide range of rudder angle. 3 Vane type can give 70 ~ 80 ( 35 ~ 40 each ) 2 Vane type can give 130
Cho Myint First Engineer M.F.S.L

( 65 each )

Time taken Within 30 second from hard to hard turning from both sides. Leakage Can utilize with small leakage Within 25 ~ 28 second for hard to hard turning from both sides. Leakage or broken vane may cause system failure Maintenance Proper tightening of gland packing and routine maintenance is necessary Less maintenance compare to ram type.

Hunting gear arrangement

C1 C


Variable Delivery pump


The linkage of the floating lever from telemotor, pump and rudder stock , form the hunting gear . The telemotor is the receiver of the hydraulic remote control system from the wheel on the bridge. The pump control is moved by the telemotor through a floating lever. The other end of this lever, is connected through a safety spring link to the rudder stock or tiller. The pump deliver oil , only when the steering wheel is moved. The hunting gear provide the return of pump operating to neutral as soon as the steering wheel stopped by helmsman. So , the rudder is stand still corresponding to the wheel position until another movement of wheel and telemotor. The sketch shows simply, the operation of the hunting gear. The telemotor moves the end of the floating rod A to A1 and the pump control is moved, therefore from B to B 1. Pumping of the hydraulic oil causes movement of the rams and the end of rod C moves to C1 thus causing the pump control to he pulled back to the neutral position B. If the rudder is rotate by the heavy sea through lifting of the shock valves, the hunting gear is moves by the tiller. This put the pump to work and the rudder will be restored to its previous position.

Cho Myint First Engineer M.F.S.L