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Egypt Horus- always represented as a falcon -embodiment of the earthly power of the pharaoh.

Horus fights and defeats Seth Anubis is one of the gods of craft and invention (esp. embalming) Represented as a jackal, with the inspiration taken from the jackals being a scavenger assoc. w/death. Khnum, the ram-headed god, associated with pottery ***religion reflects advances in technology Thoth, represented as a baboon and an ibis-headed human the god of the pure sciences god of scribes/writing. Ptah ususally represented as a mummy with a blue skullcap

Other gods, associated with animals that represent natural forces, oldest layer in the religious system: Sobek crocodile god Maat goddess of justice not only legal justice, but what is generally right shown as a woman with a big feather in her headband. Feather = symbol of justice. Hathor cow goddess assisted with birth and associated with sex female in early stage of life Tawret hippo goddess older woman- embodies wisdom, has knowledge of birth giving Bes midget god, perhaps a lion head scares away evil spirit Min god of erectionswarded off evil.placed around sanctuaries to keep evil away

Temples: Pylon gate outer entrance to a temple leads to the Courtyard

Hypostyle Hall colonnaded passageway - leads to the Shrine leads to the temple proper. As you proceed into the temple, the ceiling gets lower and the floor becomes raised becoming more cave-like, perhaps an aesthetic retained from early Egyptian religion. Temple of Luxor sacred way (path) lined with sphinxes, originally had twin obelisks,

Myths: odysseus invited to home of the phaecian royalty Finally gets home after 10 years Odysseus comes home disguised as a beggar, Eumaeus (old friend) helps him Argus, his dog, is really old, dies at his feet Penelope told by beggar (Odysseus) that odysseus is alive Euryclea faithful servant gives him a bath, recognizes a scar on his body, knows that its him, he forces her to be silent Athena intervenes, gives Penelope a dream, tells her that she must make a decision about the next husband She says that she will marry the man who can string the bow of odysseus and shoot an arrow through 12 aligned axe handles The beggar says he will try Telemachus knows that the beggar is odysseus Odysseus does it, then kills all of the suitors Happy ending

Rome Etruscans- taught the Latins (future romans) how to read signs e.g. animal livers, guts, bird signs, etc.

Introduced them to gladiatorial fighting Etruscans believed in a happy afterlife Rome started out as a small town, first ruled by Etruscan kings Situated on the Tiber river Early Rome: the kings were overthrown, replaced by a republic (Patricianswealthiest men of the society ran the senate) Two Consuls (two year terms of office) Plebians (everyone else) not initially involved in the senate Slaves existed, but Roman slaved could buy their freedom (freedmen) Roman Values: Gravitas, Pietas, Fides Rome- Expanded and overtook the Mediterranean Julius Caesar successful general wanted himself declared dictator for life (killed for it) After Julius Caesar: Augustus takes over becomes emperor gets authority of the senate, never again is a republic, only an empire until it fell Used myths to justify his empire propaganda to support it, nationalist in nature adopted the Greek myths Laitium (where this info refers to) Religion of the Natini had deities that werent anthropomorphic Nodders (Numina/numen) inhabited certain functions of daily life Some numina become identified with Greek deities and assume their myths Robigalia you might offer it wine, incense, etc. Major Numina (sacred to the state as a whole) Vesta (hearth) goddess sacred flame of Rome Janus (door keeper) Jupiter (zeus) Quirinis (assembled citizens) Mars (ares-war) one of most important to Romans, wolf, month of beginning of campaign season

Vulcan (hephaestus) god of volcanoes/destructive fires Athena- (Minerva) associated with handicrafts and wisdom Gods of the family werent absorbed by Greek Deities Lar protective spirit of the family, Rome had its own too Penates protect the things in the house (stuff), you could carry them with you The Gens (your family) Paterfamilias (man of the family) Genius spirit that protects the paterfamilias They would worship the spirit/genius of the emperor Lararium shrine of the Lares Augustus sponsored the arts to solidify his new age and to make it appear to be a continuation of the old Republic Sponsored poets and historians Livy Vergil was asked to tell the story of the founding of Roman people and it must rival those of Homer - creates Aeneid Aeneas son of Anchises and Aphrodite His story begins in the Iliad, saved by Poseidon after escaping from Troy after it fell escapes with his son Ascanius (Iulus) carry the Penates of their house The Aeneid based on the Stoic Philosophy of universal destiny and a guilding intelligence of the cosmos The stoic logos the new order of Rome is fated and toman imperial rule is divine will Aeneid is purposeful propaganda for a national cause Juno (Hera) her favorite city is Carthage, Aeneid explains why Rome and Carthage hate each other