5 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context



” In the present context.1 1.0 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES After studying this lesson.9 1.). companies.2 1.LESSON 1* CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY: THE GLOBAL CONTEXT CONTENTS 1.2 Aims and Objectives Introduction Globalization and its Impact 1. you should be able to: Understand about globalization and it’s varying economic and social impacts Know the need for integrating the goal of sustainable development into business 1. a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by information technology.7 1. economic development and prosperity.d.2.3 1.10 1.11 Economic Impacts Social Impacts 6 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Sustainable Development Role of Business in Sustainable Development Millennium Development Goals India and the MDGS Let us Sum up Keywords Self Assessment Review Questions Suggested Readings 1. culture.5 1. The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace defines globalization as. political systems. and governments of different countries. “A process of interaction and integration among the people.2.6 1.0 1.1 INTRODUCTION Globalization has increased the volume of world trade and foreign investments. and physical human wellbeing in societies around the world.4 1.1 1. “Globalization on one hand is seen as an irresistible and benign force for delivering economic prosperity to people throughout the world and on the . The revolution in technological development has transformed the global economic scenario by reducing the costs of communication.8 1. n. providing easier access to information. This process affects the environment. and facilitating movement of labour and capital across the globe (ILO.

Republic of Korea: 2.d. human rights. Argentina: 5. Bermuda: 2. which lead to squeezing wages and corporate mergers. Poland became a part of the European Union to reap the benefits of globalization. n. social security systems and resulted in increased rural-urban intra -regional inequalities. but consequently it also increased income disparities. 23.d. Thailand: 2. 24). capital flows and international competition. Table 1. liberalization increased trade. In North America. and loss of low skilled jobs to other countries. sustainable development and acceptance of other universal values and ethics.6%. expanded export markets and newer opportunities for higher growth.2. decrease in unemployment. Singapore: 6. In Western Europe. Malaysia: 4. Mexico: 8. poverty & migration have aggravated due to poor governance and inability to attract foreign investments to tackle the problems.1%. it resulted in increased conflict among communities due to liberalization of investments and the capital flows were badly affected by the Asian crises. the impact of globalization was more or less positive. it brought about public awareness on issues such as gender inequality. 7 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Arab & Israeli Asia Latin America & the Caribbean Russia .1 Economic Impacts Liberalization and expansion of international trade has led to increase in FDI investments which are currently concentrated1 in about ten developing countries1 1 China. In fact globalisation has undermined their traditional livelihoods.2 GLOBALIZATION AND ITS IMPACT The ILO Report identifies economic and social impacts of globalization. There was thus increased need for enforcement of labour legislations. spurred economic growth and industrial productivity. Volatile global financial markets badly hit the ‘middle class’ because of inadequate government policies and poor understanding of local conditions by the IMF and foreign banks. Poland Western Europe & North America Source: ILO Report (n.7%. In fact. Due to export of jobs to lower-cost countries and higher international tax competition. China. greater employment generation.1%. In Philippines much of the globalization impact was superficial..5%. The impact of globalization has been varied across regions of the globe (Refer Table 1.1 Perceived Impact of Globalization Regions of the World Africa Perceived Impact Badly hit by globalization because of unfair rules. HIV/AIDS. In Russia.2%. Dominated by oil exports & migration and the fears for the impact on cultural identity and local traditions.On a positive note. but there was large unemployment due to restructuring of industries and the farm sector. Legal and illegal migration also increased to a large extent . 1. p. it is blamed as a source of all contemporary ills” (ILO. Remaining 176 developing countries & territories: 25. Overshadowed by war & continuing Arab-Israeli conflict. reform f the educational system and control of migration.3% .) 1. it resulted in severe restraints on the finance of the welfare state. Brazil: 8. Venezuela: 1.0%. Chile: 2. Although not for all more than one billion people (approximately) have seen no reward.other end. foreign debts. except for new pressures on companies to be more competitive.1). Hong Kong SAR: 7.0%.7%. In India and China globalization resulted in poverty reduction.7%.7%.3%. It also led to the formation of the European Union as a response to the pressures of globalization. there were increased investment flows.

2006). hedge funds. 34 6 ILO Report (n. ibid. . illiterate and asset-less labour remain on the margins. (iii) opening up of capital accounts. The global production system is also pronounced in the service sector where technological advancement has made it possible for services such as software development. (iv) revolution in technology improving the speed of knowledge of foreign markets. n. mobile phones. Globalization has also brought a change in the governance structure of the global financial system with an increase in influence of private actors such as banks. factor availabilities and the congeniality of the investment climate” (ILO. governments and individuals. equity funds and rating agencies3. resulting in persistent poverty. The integration of the financial markets resulted in private financial flows and investments from North to South in “emerging markets”. This resulted in loss of jobs as well exploitation of workers rights by various MNCs leading to a reduction in the cost of goods. Production processes are unbundled and located across the globe to “exploit economic advantages arising from differences in costs. 2 3 4 5 The integration of financial markets after the fall of Bretton Woods system lead to (i) unification of exchange rates. Approximately today there are 65.000 Multi National Corporations (MNCs) with around 8. (ii) removal of controls over the allocation of credit in the domestic market. The key economic characteristics of globalization clearly indicate that though development in global systems have got us closer together economically.2 Social Impacts Due to globalization. Industrial restructuring in the face of competitive global markets and lack of imports have displaced previously protected domestic firms.d.000 foreign affiliates coordinating the global supply chains linking the decentralized production system outside the formal factory system4. and (vi) emergence of new financial instrument: derivatives. unskilled.). Revolution in information and communications technology and declining transportation costs have resulted in multi country based production of goods and services. With regard to rural and informal economies.5 in 2000. (v) development of new financial transactions. leading to an increase in the levels of unemployment (Lee et al. small enterprises have been impacted because of their inability to access capital. information and extension services thereby aggravating the problem of unemployment.2.and has also brought changes in the nature of financial flows by integrating the financial markets2. this has resulted in widening of income gaps between the rich and the poor leading to large scale income inequality6 within and amongst countries.). e-mail. the social impacts of globalization across the globe has varied negative impacts.. which are technically and economically feasible. p..50. Consequently.d. The process of globalization has resulted not only in increased global competition and efficiency but also in building convenient sources of transportation. low cost telephone services. p. better communication facilities etc. electronic conferencing The UN Human Development Report 2006 estimated the Gini Index – an indicator of income inequality – for India to be 32. machinery to churn out goods faster. financial services and call centers accessible from different countries around the globe. 27). n. Technology has not only enabled economic globalization but has also helped in increasing connectivity5 among civil societies. at the expense of basic access to humane conditions of work (ILO. credit. 33 Spread of internet.d. p. 8 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context 1.

the UN General Assembly recognized that environmental problems were global in nature and determined that it was in the common interest of all nations to establish policies for sustainable development. The commission was created to address growing concern "about the accelerating deterioration of the human environment and natural resources and the consequences of that deterioration for economic and social development. Statistics reveals that FDI from the private sector into developing countries collectively has 7 8 Relative Poverty is defined in relation to the overall distribution of income or consumption in country. 9 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context 1.4 ROLE OF BUSINESS IN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Responsible business has always contributed for societal development. Sustainable development is defined by the Brundtland Commission8 as “Development that meets the need of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED. and over extension of credits to unstable local banks and firms resulting in financial crises of increasing frequency and severity. The Brundtland Commission. it has also led to corporate scandals. The primary objective of sustainable development is to reduce absolute poverty of the world's poor by providing lasting and secure livelihoods that minimize resource depletion. it has increased in Sub-Saharan Africa. The problem has further aggravated due to lack of regulations and implementation mechanisms at the national and global levels. formally the World Commission on Environment and Development (WCED). Due to this. Private financial institutions are exerting power over emerging markets in designing their economic policies. known by the name of its Chair. sex and drug trades. 1987. 1. migration (both in-migration & outmigration) has increased across the globe. Migrants from all regions particularly women are driven into an illegal economy in countries of destination leaving them vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking. Gro Harlem Brundtland. Though the increased influence of private institutions has led to better financial resource allocation. Globalization has disrupted the ecological balance. environmental degradation. Political and business leaders at the international and national levels are stressing the need for global sustainable development. The global natural environment has also been affected by globalization because of the following reasons: (i) increase in travel (ii) larger corporations with centralized distribution (iii) poor pollution control mechanisms of MNCs in foreign markets and (iv) extractive industries using natural resources nonjudiciously. thereby creating a (i) carbonconstrained and water-constrained world. Europe and Central Asia (82 million). cultural disruption and social instability (WCED.It is difficult to assess the impact of globalization on poverty. p. 1987). money laundering." In establishing the commission.3 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The challenges of globalization facing humanity are closely intertwined and tend to complicate the solutions for attaining sustainable development. Though people living in poverty have decreased in China. was convened by the United Nations in 1983. Latin America (14 million) and the Caribbean (8 million). There has been an increase in illicit cross-border activities like tax evasion. thus giving rise to unprecedented ecological challenges to the world in the 21st century. 8). Sustainable development being one of the greatest global challenges in this era has not escaped worldwide notice. Relative poverty7 has increased in majority of the countries as an effect of globalization. This has further created issues relating to sustainable development and poverty. . The fall in transportation costs and growth of mass tourism has made smuggling of people and drugs difficult to detect and punish. manipulations.

access to essential medicines and technology transfer. Today’s world is interdependent where problems of poverty. the World Bank and other international organizations FDI investments by private companies should enhance a process of sustainable growth that minimizes the damaging effects on the environment. which have been accepted at the global level. . and the contribution that developed countries should make through trade. 2005. Looking from this macro perspective. offices. The Government alone cannot deal with the issues of sustainable development. companies CSR policies have been framed. gender inequality. widespread hunger.2: Millennium Development Goals Goal 1: Target 1: Target 2: Goal 2: Target 3: Goal 3: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger Halve. 2006). debt relief. the private sector has already contributed to the reduction of poverty at the global level during the past decade. 2005). p. the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. In September 2000. between 1990 and 2015. the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Achieve universal primary education Ensure that. unemployment. maternal health. time-bound targets called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to address issues of inadequate incomes. companies are committing to take action through their core business in enhancing growth and help to meet the MDGs. 212). Thus. businesses. business spent more than 100 billion on building factories. Social upheavals impact the entire society in general and business in particular because to a large extent business is dependent on society for its growth and prosperity. Table 1. that of managing our own future as species” (Lawrence et al. 10 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context 1. AIDS and other diseases. By signing the Millennium Declaration. As per the United Nations. environmental deterioration. The Millennium Declaration of MDGs emphasizes the efforts to be taken by developing countries. Halve. However the challenges of sustainable development in the new millennium are a new imperative for governments.. businesses and civil societies is the call of the day. and society to collaborate and work to strengthen each sector and create a qualitatively better world to live in.exceeded the amount of financial aid granted by governments9 (World Bank Institute. world leaders belonging to the government. environmental degradation and social integration are causes of concern because they have an impact on society thereby impacting businesses worldwide. lack of education. “We now face the ultimate management challenge. between 1990 and 2015. nation states invested 50 billion dollars. If business has to develop.189 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve MDGs by the year 2015. by 2015. development assistance. businesses and NGOs in the gathering at the United Nations adopted eight specific. Collaborative partnership amongst governments. Table 1. Secretary General of the World Summit. and also aims at combating child mortality.2 provides a list of the MDGs. Business cannot flourish in any country if the environment required by business is not conducive. It is therefore essential to take the agenda of developing collaborations to address the issues of sustainable development and poverty in the new millennium. society needs to be developed.5 MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS The MDGs promote poverty reduction. healthcare and clean water( UNDP. will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling Promote gender equality and empower women 9 In 2004. children everywhere. boys and girls alike. shops and acquiring shares of foreign companies based in developing countries. based on these MDGs. measurable. and gender equality. education. inequality. To quote Maurice Strong.

the maternal mortality ratio Combat HIV/AIDS.1 & Table 1. by 2020. Ensure environmental sustainability Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and program and reverse the loss of environmental resources. ( n. and other diseases Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS. landlocked countries.6 INDIA AND THE MDGS With impressive gains in improving primary education enrollment rate. Some of the indicators listed below will be monitored separately for the least developed countries. promoting gender equality and increasing forest cover. Address the special needs of the least developed countries (includes tariff-and quotafree access for exports enhanced program of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt. by 2015. non-discriminatory trading and financial system (includes a commitment to good governance.2 below) Box 1. between 1990 and 2015. Halve.Pacific Regional MDG report 2011-12 .1 Source: Asia . and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction) Address the special needs of landlocked countries and small island developing states (through the Program of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and 22nd General Assembly provisions) Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term. Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases. Africa. and small island developing states. rule-based. and poverty reduction—both nationally and internationally).d. the country's lackluster performance in reducing overall poverty and health indicators has dragged down the performance of the overall South Asian region. the under-five mortality rate Improve maternal health Reduce by three-quarters. development. between 1990 and 2015. a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Develop a global partnership for development Develop further an open. predictable. malaria. (See Box 1.Target 4: Goal 4: Target 5: Goal 5: Target 6: oal 6: Target 7: Target 8: Goal 7: Target 9: Target 10: Target 11: Goal 8: Target 12: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005 and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Reduce child mortality Reduce by two-thirds. 11 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Target 13: Target 14: Target 15: Source: World Bank Group. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Have achieved.) 1.

education and living standards) 53. the well-being of the average citizen is a measure of development. Bangladesh and Pakistan are ranked at 146 and 145. 9. between 1990 and 2015. 6. proportion of population below national poverty line Halve.6 percent. 4. 7. 10. 1. 8. 12.7 per cent Indians have been placed in the . the under-five mortality rate Reduce by three quarters. On the Multidimensional Poverty Index (deprivations such as in health.2 India’s progress on the MDGs for 2015 Target No. between 1990 and 2015. proportion of people who suffer from hunger Ensure that by 2015 children everywhere. It is estimated that malnourishment could decline to 40 percent by 2015. the proportion of underweight children below three years has declined by only one percent between 1998-99 and 2005-06 to 46 percent. according to the Asia . Since then. to have achieved. the maternal mortality ratio Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources Halve. will be able to complete a full course of primary education Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education. In the present context. between 1990 and 2015.Pacific Regional MDG report 2011-12. when the MDGs were formulated 53. According to the Human Development Report 2011. compared to most nations in the Asia Pacific. 5. Target Description Halve. between 1990 and 2015.Table 1. preferably by 2005. progress has been slow. 3.5 percent of all Indian children were malnourished. 11. In India. make available the benefits of new technologies. This would still be below the target of reducing malnourishment to 28. and in all levels of education no later than 2015 Reduce by two-thirds. especially information and communication 12 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Progress Signs ∆ Θ ∆∆ ∆ Θ∆ Θ∆ ∆ Θ∆ ∆∆ ∆Θ φ ∆∆ Source: UNDP in India ∆ : Moderately/almost nearly on track considering all indicators Θ : Slow/almost off-track considering all indicators ∆∆ : On-track or fast considering all indicators • Poverty India. has made very slow progress in eradicating poverty over the period of 10 years. In 1990. the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation By 2020. 2. a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers In cooperation with the private sector. Malnourishment is also an indicator of food insecurity. boys and girls alike. by 2015. the human development index (HDI) positions India at 134 out of 187 countries and territories. respectively.

Much of this decline can be attributed to greater awareness and increasing condom .000 live births in 1990-91. child survival in India needs sharper focus. deliveries by skilled personnel have increased at the same pace. it is expected that India will be able to ensure only 62 percent of births in institutional facilities with trained personnel. Gross Enrolment Rates for both girls and boys in 2006-07 crossed 100 percent. Between 1990 and 2006. • Maternal Mortality From a Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 437 per 100.AIDS India has made significant strides in reducing the prevalence of HIV and AIDS across different types of high risk categories. Safe motherhood depends on the delivery by trained personnel. • Education 13 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context India is on-track and ahead of targets that relate to universalizing primary education in India. This means India would still fall short of the target of 42 per 1. However.000 live births by 2015. • HIV. the largest concentration of such poor persons in the world.6 per 1. there has been some improvement in the Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) which has declined to 254 per 100. U5MR is expected to further decline to 70 per 1. universal coverage remains to be achieved. particularly among vulnerable communities. By 2015. • Empowerment of Women Government of India MDG Report 2009 notes. from 33 percent to 52 percent in the same period. • Infant Mortality India’s Under Five Mortality (U5MR) declined from 125 per 1.000 live births in 1990 to 74. particularly through institutional facilities. Eighty-six percent of transmissions of HIV and AIDS in India are caused by sexual activity. delivery in institutional facilities has risen slowly from 26 percent in 1992-93 to 47 percent in 2007-08. India is required to reduce MMR to 109 per 100.000 live births by 2015. In view of these statistics.” The labour market openness to women in industry and services has only marginally increased from 13-18 percent between 1990-91 and 2004-05.000 live births as compared to 327 in 1990.000 live births in 2005-06. Thus. Consequently.bracket of multi-dimensionally poor (612 million). “participation of women in employment and decision-making remains far less than that of men. and the disparity is not likely to be eliminated by 2015. India is expected to fall short of the 2015 target by 26 points. This includes better managing neonatal and childhood illnesses and improving child survival. despite this progress. However.000 live births by 2015.

Forest cover has increased to 21.45 percent in 2002.52 percent in 2009. Most of the objectives and targets under the goal are set for developed countries to achieve a “global partnership for development” by supporting fair trade. debt relief for developing nations. malaria prone states such as the north. Madhya Pradesh. The overall proportion of households having access to improved water sources increased from 68. Reducing the energy intensity of GDP growth through higher energy efficiency will be the key to achieving energy security. Treatment success rates have remained steady at 86-87 percent over the last five years and prevalence of TB has steadily declined. The proportion of households without toilet facilities declined from 70 percent in 1992-93 to about 51 percent in 2007-08. .745 percent in 2005 to 1. and encouraging technology transfer. the country is unlikely to achieve the target of reducing the proportion of households having no access to sanitation to 38 percent by 2015.eastern states. but India has made progress in halting its prevalence.02 percent and protected areas cover to about 4. Gujarat. both in terms of prevalence and death has declined. At current progress.2 percent in 1992-93 to 84. Maharashtra. increasing aid and access to affordable essential medicines.83 percent of the country’s total land area. Sixty-six percent of rural households do not have toilet facilities as against 19 percent of urban households in 2007-08.34 percent in 2007 to 0.4 percent in 2007-08. has not recorded similar progress in improving sanitation facilities over the last decade. Malaria diagnosis has declined from 1. The rural urban gap in access and use of sanitation facility continues to be very high. Rajasthan and West Bengal have recorded fewer malaria deaths since 2006. Karnataka. Orissa. India is on-track in achieving the MDG target for sustainable access to safe drinking water. • Environmental Sustainability India has made some progress towards the Seventh Millennium Development Goal of ensuring environmental sustainability. which is one of the most densely populated countries in the world.use. • Tuberculosis India accounts for one-fifth of the global incidence of tuberculosis (TB). Adult prevalence has come down from 0. towards developing the global partnership for development. Goal 8 of the MDGs is unique in the sense that it essentially focuses on donor government commitments and achievements. • Malaria 14 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Malaria. Further. However India.

1. in harmonization with the Government of India’s Five Year Plans – the overarching policy document for development planning in the country. maternal mortality and child mortality. The areas that require redoubled efforts include literacy. environmental degradation and social disintegration are concerned. companies and governments of different countries Sustainable Development: Balancing the present needs and future needs Millennium Development Goals: Eight internal goals that members of UN and other organizations have agreed to achieve till 2015 Corporate Social Responsibility: A form of self regulation integrated into business 1. Today’s world is interdependent where problems of poverty. In India. National Development Goals articulated in the Government of India’s Five Year Plans (Refer Table 1. The trend worldwide is to tackle the problems by adopting collaborative and consultative models through a judicious mix of government. UN Development Assistance Framework – the overarching policy document for UN country assistance to India. The Government has launched several large programmes with regard to the MDGs. unemployment. . State whether the following statements are true or false: (a) Globalization has led to easier access of information and labour from around the globe.15 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context The Twelfth Five-Year Plan (2012-2017) proposes specific targets to achieve MDGs.7 LET US SUM UP The impact of globalization on society is largely from technological and social change. The world faces unprecedented ecological and social challenges in the 21st century which cannot be tackled by yesteryear’s rule of governance anymore.3) The new UNDAF (2013-2017) cycle and 12th Five Year Plan (2012-2017) implementation overlap fully with the remaining period left to achieve the MDGs. 2. (b) Globalization has brought the economies closer. businesses and non-government initiatives. nutrition. 1. inequality. the work of the UN entities on the Millennium Development Goals takes place within the framework of the: 1.8 KEYWORDS Globalization: Integration and interaction between people. The UNDAF is implemented under a five-year cycle. (c) Globalization has facilitated illegal trade practices and illegal migration.9 SELF ASSESSMENT 1.

(e) It is the government of the country who can lead sustainable development.10 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Choose the appropriate answer: (a) Globalization integrates: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (b) (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (c) People Companies Governments All of the above Cultures Environment Political systems All of the above 16 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context Globalization impacts: Which one of these is one of the economic impacts of globalization? (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Increase in FDI Expansion of production facilities Increased global competition Decrease in local competition Resource depletion Environmental degradation Current demands Social instability (d) Sustainable development calls for minimizing: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (e) Which of these is not a MDG? (i) Promote education (ii) Reduce gender inequality (iii) (iv) Reduce child labour Reduce infant mortality 1. How do you think globalization has impacted trade and finance around the world? 2.(d) The aim of sustainable development is to reduce relative poverty. What in your opinion can be done to mitigate the negative social impacts of globalization? 3. What are the Millennium Development Goals? How can business contribute towards achieving these goals? Answers: Self-Assessment . What is sustainable development? How can business contribute towards promoting sustainable development? 4. 2.

J.1. United Nations Development Programme.in.).org/INTWDR2005/Resources/complete_report.d. Institute for the Study of Labor.undp. The Millennium Development Goals 2015. Volume I –Inclusive Growth. A. (2008). Singapore : McGraw-Hill. Lee.pdf. DC: The World Bank and Oxford University Press.shtml United Nations Documents.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/11th/11_v1/11th_vol1.. (2006). Available at http://www. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Available at http://ftp. Available at www. Planning Commission Government of India.iza.net/wced-ocf. False 2. E. Eleventh Five year Plan 2007-2012. World Development Report: A Better Investment Climate for Everyone. (2008). About the MDGs: Basics. Available at http://planningcommission.nic. UNDP.pdf.htm. (1987).).undp. (e) iii (a) True (a) iv (b) True (b) iv (c) True (c) iv (d) False (d) iii (e) 17 Corporate Social Responsibility: The Global Context 1. The Social Impact of Globalization in the Developing Countries. Weber.ilo. & Post.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press.org/mdg/basics. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. (2005). (n.pdf.nic. Globalization and its Impact.pdf Lawrence. (n. Available at http://www. The World Bank. Washington. M.org/public/english/wcsdg/docs/rep2. (2005). Millennium Development Goals.. Eleventh Five year Plan 2007-2012. Business and Society. Available at http://planningcommission.d.html .org/content/india/en/home/mdgoverview. Planning Commission Government of India. & Vivarelli. Retrieved from http://www. (n.org/dp1925. The Planning Commission.11 SUGGESTED READINGS International Labour Organisation. Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future.pdf.d.un-documents. J. Available at http://siteresources. Volume II – Social Sector.worldbank.in/plans/planrel/fiveyr/11th/11_v2/11th_vol2. The Planning Commission.

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