BULETINUL INSTITUTULUI POLITEHNIC DIN IAŞI Publicat de Universitatea Tehnică „Gh. Asachi“, Iaşi, Tomul L (LIV), Fasc.


IOAN ŢENU*, CĂTĂLIN BERCOVICI** * Technical University ”Gh. Asachi” Iaşi, Iaşi,B-dul Mangeron nr.63-65,Romania, e-mail: itenu@ma.tuiasi.ro ** SC IMA SA Iasi, e-mail: ima@mail.dntis.ro
Key words: the milling of wheat, cleaning, technological line, machinery and equipment

Abstract: The wheat processing for to obtaining flour of high quality it achieves by complex technological line which have in their composition machinery which effect optimum technological operations such as: correcting of humidity, peeling the milling of the wheat and the sifting of the milling produce. On the base of the achieved studies it was designed and carried out complex machinery, which are able to achieve in good conditions, specific operations for milling process. For determination of the technological parameters it was effected tests on the laboratory and operating conditions. Analyzing the obtained results it can conclude that the designed technological line corresponds to requirement imposed both concerning the quality of the technological process and the ratability of the machinery.

1. General considerations The milling of the grain is one of the oldest occupation of the handicraftsman from our country and it has the purposal to change the grain into powders. A long time ago the milling equipment developped in the same time with general progres of the world through the application of the some proccedings and high performance technologies, so, extending the mechanization grad of the technological process. For the achievement of the increase of the technical and technological parameters at the wheat mills with 15-35to/24h capacity, it has been effected assesments and it has been analysed, having in view the respecting of the milling process. After this analysis, it was obtained the following negative aspects: - the flour does not corespond to the present requirements; - the building where are placed the mills have 11m, so that, the costs for investment being very high; - the survying of the equipment is very dificult; - the acces for intervention is very difficult and there is risk of accidents; - the energetical specific consumption per milling product unit is high; - the equipment for the making up of mills has reduced technical performances and low reliability.


Ioan Ţenu, Dimitris Karamousantas and Stamate Valentin

Taking in consideration these presented above it was designed a technological flow which is to corespond to technological needs, neccesary to milling process (fig.1) and which must include the following machinery: - machines and installations for the cleaning of the grain from impurities; - machines and installations for the conditioning of the grain; - the milling aggregates; - the sifting installations of the grain milling; - the installation and machinary for technological transport; - electrical installation for control and feeding of consumers.

Fig. 1: The technological flow scheme of the mill of 15-35 to/24h capacity:BA - receiving bin;

Bul. Inst. Polit. Iaşi, Tomul L (LIV), Fasc.VIB2, 2004


EL - elevator; SA - separator aspirator; SP - combistoner; TS1,2 - turboseparater; BO - rest bunker; AU - humectation installation; TU – moistening conveyer; TC – extractor conveyer;DI - intensive huller; BT - buffer bin; C-cyclon; VA- exhausting; C1-11–cyclones;P1-11–pneumatic receivers; SrI-IV - groatsing rolles; M1,2-roller mills; SP618 – square plan sieves;BC-cyclones battery; FS - filter with sacks; TDF - extractor conveyer for flour.

On the basis of these considerations and following the improvement of technical and technological performances of the mills of 15-35to/24h it redesigned the technological line, so that, the equipments and installations is to be placed horizontally on a concreted platform and without special foundation.

Fig. 2: The building of one wheat mill of middle capacity: 1-2-milling modulus; 3-sifting modulus; 4-bin with four cells for the resting of the humacted wheat; 5-modulus for the pneumatic conveying of the grain milling; 6-pneumatic installation for the separating of light impurities; 7-combined machine for the cleaning of the wheat; 8-humectation installation;9-elevator; 10-intensiv scourer; 11-combistoner; 12-exhausting module; 13-turboseparator;14-electrical panel.

2. The description of the construction solution


Ioan Ţenu, Dimitris Karamousantas and Stamate Valentin

For the satisfaction of the imposed requirements through the project theme it looked for the optimum constructive solutions for the setting of the equipment within of wheat milling technological line (fig.2) – it is presented a constructive scheme of the wheat mill of 15-35to/24h capacity. The machinary and the equipments have been grouped on modules depending on technological operation which is to be achieved. The module for the cleaning of wheat (fig.3) includes: aspirator separator; intensive huller and turboseparator. This technologic module achieves the separation of the impurities after dimension and specific wheight, taking off the mineral dust, remainings strowes and the beards of the wheat grain surface.

1 3 2

Fig. 3: The cleaning module: 1-aspirator separator; 2- stone separator; 3-intensive scourer.

Fig. 4: The humectation installation: 1,6-naps for the adjustement of water flow; 2,7-electrovalves; 3-rotometer;

Fig. 5: The milling module: 1- support; 2- double roller mill; 3- dosimeter; 4- sight glass;5- cyclon; 6- receiving bin; 7,8- electromotors;9- chain transmission;

Bul. Inst. Polit. Iaşi, Tomul L (LIV), Fasc.VIB2, 2004
4,8-pipe conectings; 5,9-water spraying nozzles.


10- receiver cover;12- grain milling collector.

The conditioning module includes: (fig.4) the humectation installation, the humidity unifier, the bunker with 8 cells for resting, intensive huller and turboseparator. The humectation installation achieves the adjustement of the wheat humidity on levels: the humectation of conditioning and the humectation of milling. (Q a) – the water flow needed of the humectation it is determinated depending on (Qp) (kg/h) operation capacity of installation, (Ui) (%) initiale humidity and (Uf) (%) finale humidity of the wheat is to calculated by the relation:  100 − Ui  Qa = Qp − 1  (kg/h) (1)  100 − Uf  The transportation of the wheat on the conditioning process is carried out mechanically by elevators. For the milling-sifting process, the mill was designed to be equipped by three milling modules and one sifting module. The conveying of the grain millings is carried out pneumatically. (fig.5) The milling module is a subanssembly formed from: (1) roller mill support; (2) double roller mill; (3) dosing-feeding; (4) sight glass; (3) cyclone; (10) pneumatic receiver; (8,9) driving mechanism and the groast it contains a buffer bin. For the increase of the technological performances of the middle capacity mill, it was designed and achieved a new type of double roller mill with the rolls set on horizontal plan. By the setting of the rolls on horizontal plan (on classical roller mill, the rolls are set on inclined plan) is achieved a significative increase of a specific loading of the roller mill both because of the optimization of filling coefficient of the space between rolls and because of the achievement of the absorbtion system of fine dust from operation area of the rolls, which allows a growing of the rotation of the smooth rolls. The surface of the rolls is grooved depending on position of the roller mill on the milling diagrame. So, for the mill of 15-35to/24h capacity, equipped with three double roller mills, it was stated the groaves from fig.6. The double roller mill with the setting of the rolls in horizontal plane, have the following characteristics: - the type of the roller mill: VDU-825; - the characteristics of the rolls: D=250mm; - L=800 mm, surface hardness 450-520HB;- dimensions of the feeding cylinders:d=75mm and L=808 mm; - the type of action coupling-uncoupling of the rolls: pneumatic; - rotation of the feeding cylinder:120-175 rot/min; - the tangential speed of the fix rolls: for breaking: 7,95 m/s; for milling-peeling: 6,3m/s and for fine-milling: 5 m/s; - the transmission ratio between fix roll and mobile roll: for breaking: 2,5789; for milling-peeling: 1,5185 and for fine-milling : 1,1935. The transport of the products between roller mills and sieves is pneumatically. The sifting module is a complex subassembly formed from a welded chassis (1) which is the resistance structure, the feeding plate (3), the deflector boxes (11), flour collector conveyer (10) and intermediate products (12), the pneumatical receiver (13) and sieve (2).


Ioan Ţenu, Dimitris Karamousantas and Stamate Valentin

The sieve for sifting has the role to assure the sorting of the grain milling in several fractions of the same or different granulations. The number of the fractions is established by the milling diagram and depending on this one, it can organize the interior scheme of the compartiments from a passage. The moving of the products on the sifting surface is due to the circular motion on the horizontal plane of the machinary. The motion is done of the central mechanism which includes a rotor provided with a counterweight mounted eccentrically. The size of the counter weight has to be calculated in such way that the centrifugal force done of the counterweight to be equal centrifugal force determinated of the mass of the passage with sieves, including the products subjected to sifting (Fcp), namely: Fcg = Fcp sau Gg . rg = Gp . rp (2) where Gg and Gp represents the mass of the counter weight and the mass of the passage of the sieve, including the products which are to be sifted; rg – the distance between the weight center at the rotation axis of the mechanism; rp – the radius of the circle described of the weight center of the passage packages. Although the plane sieve with rectangular frames has a simple construction presents several deficiences (the specific

loading with product is low, it does not exceed 800-900 kg/m2/24h, the reliability on exploatation reduced; the interventions inside of the sieve are achieved by dismounting of whole passage, etc.). Thus, it was necessary the redesigning and the building up of the one plane sieve with square frames. This type of sieve is a complex machinary, specific to the mill of high performance and conditions directly the finit product.
Fig. 6: The grooving of the rolls surface: a - for breaking the groast 1 and 2; b - for breaking the groast 3; c - for milling-undoing 1 and 2; d - for milling-peeling 3.

The plan sifter with square frames is made up from the following component parts: metallical frame; sieve support; the device for the clamping of the frame; driving

Bul. Inst. Polit. Iaşi, Tomul L (LIV), Fasc.VIB2, 2004


central mechanism; the cassette of evacuation; the feeding device and technical equipment. The technical equipment mounted in 6 compartiments of the sieve includes the set of square frames for sifting; the feeding frames and exterior technological equipment depending on required sifting diagram. The choose of the technological scheme for the plane sieve with square frames is to do depending on sifting system from the technological flow of the mill in which is mounted the sieve and which has to as generally corespond to the majority of the present technological requirement from milling industry.

Fig. 7: The building of the sifting module: 1- welded chassis; 2- plan sieve; 3-feeding plate; 4- cyclones; 5- sight glass; 6- dosimeters; 7- motoreductor; 8- acces stair; 9- balustrade; 10- conveyer-finite products collecter; 11- deflection boxes; 12- intermediate products collecter; 13- pneumatic receivers; 14- bran loading hole.

In (fig.8) is presented the representative scheme for the erection of the sifting frames inside of sieve. The driving mechanism assures the plan-paralel motion of the sieve, so that, each point describes on its plane a circle with the radius equal to eccentricity imposed of the technological requirements. The adjustement of the eccentricity is achieved by the modification of the angle between the two counter weight which have a role to do the circular plan motion of the machinary, but and the role to balance the whole system through respecting the equation (2). The sifting of the milling products by the plane sieve with square frames is a new procceding which corresponds to the present requirements concerning to: the quality of product; the capacity of production; the specific loading with the product on the sifting surface unit and energetical specific consumption per unit of obtained finite product. The sieve with square frame presents the following characteristics: the overall dimensions (L x lx h) (mm): 2345 x 2375 x 3200; the number of compartiments: 6; the


Ioan Ţenu, Dimitris Karamousantas and Stamate Valentin

number of the square frames for one compartiment:18; the dimensions of the square frames (mm): 600x600; the dimensions of the frame of the sieve (mm): 538x500; the

radius of the maximum eccentricity in the operation normal regime (mm): 45; the sifting surface (m2): 29; the sifting specific capacity (kg/m2/24 ore): 1000-1200; the power of the electromotor (kW): 3,0; the rotation frequency in operation regime of the square frame sieve (rot/min): 220.
Fig. 8: The erection scheme of the sifting frames from the inside of the sieve.

3. Results and discussions For the determination of the technical and technological performances it was effected tests on exploitation conditions. The experiments are been achieved for mills with clasical roller mills (the rolls are positioned on inclined plane) and with square frames and for the mill equipped with modern rolls (the rolls positioned on horizontal plane) and sieves with square frames. During the experimentation it has been determinated depending on operating capacity the following parameters: the absorbed power from the net (Pe); the extraction coeficient (Ce); the contain of the ash of the finite product (Cc) and specific consumption of energy per finite product unit (Ps). The pneumatic transport was calculated so that to allow the charging of the mill up to a capacity of 1750 kg/h. For tests it was milled wheat with the following characteristics: hectoliter weight 78.5 kg/hl; humidity 13.6% and impurities 2.7%. The results of the tests are presented in (Table 1).

Bul. Inst. Polit. Iaşi, Tomul L (LIV), Fasc.VIB2, 2004


Analysing the obtained results it can find that through the equipping of the mill with high performance equipment the milling process is improved both which concerning the productivity and the finite product quality. The energetical specific consumption per finite product unit decrease in case of the use of sieves with square frames and of the double roller mills.
Table 1. Technological parameters of the mills of 25-35 to/24 h Mill equipped with clasical machinery Investment cost for Pe Ce Cc Ps Total Equipment Specific (kw) (%) (%) kw/kg (Euro) (Euro) invest. ( Euro/Kg ) 66.2 70.8 0.50 0.088 74.4 70.1 0.62 0.074 165000 85000 13.2 97.8 68.7 0.65 0.073 Mill equipped with redesigned machinery 62.3 74.2 0.51 0.083 76.6 72.8 0.53 0.070 85.0 72.3 0.55 0.068 148000 72000 84.6 97.5 71.8 0.56 0.065 108.5 70.3 0.57 0.062

Operation capacity kg/h 750 1000 1250 750 1000 1250 1500 1750

4. Conclusions Analysing the results of the experimental tests, as well as the behaviour of this type of wheat mill in the exploitation conditions, it can conclude: - the costs for the investement of the achievement of the building where is to mount the modulated mill by pneumatic transport set on horizontally decreases with at least 50-55%, because of the erection height decreases from 11-12 m at maximum 6m, all equipments are mounted without foundation only on concreted platform; - the erection time to purchase is reduced from 40-50 zile to maximum 15 days; - the surveying of the mill, the maintenance and the repearing of the machinary are achieved more comfortable as the whole activity is running on only one platform, opposite to the classical mills which are mounted on at least 2-3 levels; - the flour quality increases substantially, the operating conditions of the mill are very much improved due to the using the pneumatic transport for the transfer of the intermediate products between roller mills and sifting sieve; - by assimilation in fabrication of the double roller, mills with the rolls set on horizontal plane and of the sieve with square frames it achieves a new generation of mills compaired with the highest performances machinary worldwide; - it decreases the number of workers needed with at least 1-2 people on shift; - it decreases the energetical consumption with 8-12% and the exploitation costs with 11-15% for the grain milled unit; In conclusion, through the achievement of the studies and researches effected, I determinated the optimization of the conception and the building of wheat mill with 1535 to/24 h capacity.

Ioan Ţenu, Dimitris Karamousantas and Stamate Valentin 1 0 1. Banu C., 1999 - Manualul inginerului de industrie alimentară, Vol.II, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti; 2. Costin I., 1983 - Tehnologii de prelucrarea cerealelor în industria morăritului, Editura Tehnică, Bucureşti; 3. Moraru C., 1985 - Tehnologia şi utilajul industriei morăritului şi crupelor, Editura Universitatea „Dunărea de Jos” Galaţi; 4. Ţenu I.,s.a., 2002 - The optimization of the technological line of middle capacity for the wheat processing, Proccedings of the union of scientists – ROUSE, Blugaria; 5. Ţenu I., 1999 - Tehnologii, maşini şi instalaţii pentru industrializarea produselor vegetale, Editura Junimea Iaşi. CONCEPTII NOI ÎN CONSTRUCŢIA MORILOR DE GRÂU DE MICĂ CAPACITATE (Rezumat) Procesul de măcinare a grâului, în vederea obţinerii făinei de calitate, este complex şi se realizează cu linii tehnologice care includ utilaje si echipamnete capabile să efectuieze următoarele operaţii tehnologice; curăţirea, corectarea umidităţii, decojirea partială, măcinarea grâului şi cernerea măcinişurilor. Pentru realizarea operaţiilor tehnologice s-au proiectat şi fabricat utilaje şi echipamente specifice cu grad ridicat de complexitate. Pentru determinarea parametrilor constructivi şi tehnlogici ai echipamentelor s-au efectuat încercări în condiţii de laborator şi explotare. Din analiza rezultatelor experimentale rezultă că procesul tehnologic de măcinare a grâului se realizează în condiţii optime şi echipamentele au performanţe ridicate.

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