History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

Term Paper for History of Architecture (AP131)

Mansi Jain Roll Number-07816901611 Sushant School of Art and Architecture

The famous Roman architect Vituvius's most famous work is entitled Ten Books on Architecture, and was written in approximately 20-30 BC. It is the only text on the subject of architecture to survive antiquity. It was also one of the first texts in history to draw the connection between the architecture of the body and that of the building. Vitruvius believed that an architect should focus on three central themes when preparing a design for a building: firmitas (strength),utilitas (functionality), and venustas (beauty). Vitruvius thought that a timeless notion of beauty could be learnt from the 'truth of nature', that nature's designs were based on universal laws of proportion and symmetry. He believed that the body's proportions could be used as a model of natural proportional perfection. He wrote of the way ancient scholars examined many examples of 'well shaped men' and discovered that these bodies shared certain proportions. He showed that the 'ideal' human body fitted precisely into both a circle and a square, and he thus illustrated the link that he believed existed between perfect geometric forms and the perfect body. So it followed, according to Vitruvius, that an architect's designs must refer to the unquestionable perfection of the body's symmetry and proportions. If a building is to create a sense of eurythmia - a graceful and agreeable atmosphere - it is essential that it mirrors these natural laws of harmony and beauty. The intent of this term paper is to study the influences of his theory on the subsequent periods of architecture.

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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

PAPER Vitruvius’s theory
Vitruvius’s ten books on architecture suggest the education of an architect which is as follows. The architect should be equipped with knowledge of many branches of study and varied kinds of learning, for it is by his judgement that all work done by the other arts is put to test. Practise is the continuous and regular exercise of employment where manual work is done with any necessary material according to the design of a drawing. Theory on the other hand, is the ability to demonstrate and explain the productions of dexterity on the principles of proportion. He should be educated, skilful with the pencil, instructed in geometry, know much history, have followed the philosophers with attention, understand music, have some knowledge of medicine, know the opinions of the jurists, and be acquainted with astronomy and theory of the heavens. An architect ought to be an educated man so as to leave a more lasting remembrance in his treatises. Secondly, he must have a knowledge of drawing so that he can readily make sketches to show the appearance of the work which he proposes .Geometry, also, is of much assistance in architecture, and in particular it teaches us the use of the rule and compasses, by which especially we acquire readiness in making plans for buildings in their grounds, and rightly apply the square, the level, and the plummet. Arithmetic(estimations)-It is true that it is by arithmetic that the total cost of buildings is calculated and measurements are computed, but difficult questions involving symmetry are solved by means of geometrical theories and methods History-Wide knowledge of history is requisite because, among the ornamental parts of architect's design for a work, there are many the underlying idea of whose employment he should be able to explain the inquirers. eg. Architect of a time in Caryae designed for public buildings statues of the women who were carried off into slavery, placed so as to carry a load, in order that the sin and punishment of the people of Caryae might be known and handed down even to posterity.

source: de architecture

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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

Music, the architect ought to understand so that he may have knowledge of the canonical and mathematical theory. Vitruvius mentions Pytheos's statement, “An architect ought to be able to accomplish much more in all the arts and sciences than the men who, by their own particular kinds of work and the practice of it, have brought each a single subject to the highest perfection. But this fact is not realised" Vitruvius says that the architect must at least have a theoretical knowledge of all the other fields. The function of an architect requires training in all the departments of learning. He also states basic architectural principles which are as follows. ARCHITECTURE depends on ORDER, ARRANGEMENT, SYMMETRY, ECONOMY, and PROPRIETY. ORDER gives due measure to the members of a work considered separately, and symmetrical agreement to the proportions of the whole. It is an adjustment according to quantity. SYMMETRY is a proper agreement between the members of the work itself, and relation between the different parts and the whole general scheme, in accordance with a certain part selected as standard. In case of temples symmetry may be calculated from the thickness of a column, from triglyph, or even from a module; in the ballista, from the hole; and in other things from various members. PROPRIETY is that perfection of style which comes when a work is authoritatively constructed on approved principles. ECONOMY denotes the proper management of materials and of site,as well as a thrifty balancing of cost and common sense in the construction of works.

Influence of Vituvius’s theory
The influence of Vitruvius at the time he wrote was very limited. His ambition to establish critical norms for architecture which was not fulfilled during that time reason being the techniques of building. Influence of Vitruvius on architecture really started during high middle ages, and lead to Renaissance. Vitruvius saw architecture as an imitation of nature, which must therefore follow rational principles; this idea was taken up by Alberti and Palladio, the architects of renaissance. Vitruvius distinguished three column types, Doric (with Tuscan), Ionic and Corinthian, each with its own capital, proportions, and symbolism, derived (respectively) from a man, a matron, and a young girl. Their structural origins in primitive wooden architecture provided a rationale for their developed forms, as instanced by the Doric frieze. Alberti understood the orders, and added the ornate Composite, omitted through Vitruvius's conservatism, but did not feel constrained to stick to rigid capital forms in his own architecture.

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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

THE TEMPIETTO, Donato Bramante

Source:http://www.italiannotebook.com/art-archaeology/bramante-tempietto/ Vitruvian influence    Symmetry Doric columns - the first renaissance building to employ the full Vitruvian Doric. Proportions Use of sculptures

It is one of the earliest examples of consistent use of the Doric order which stated by Vitruvius is the relationship between the Order and the nature of the divinity to whom the temple is dedicated to. A Doric order is well suited for strong male gods (such as Hercules) so Doric was well suited for St. Peter. It is meant to mark the traditional exact spot of St. Peter's martyrdom. ALBERTI

Basilica of Sant Andreas Source:http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/sant-andrea-in-mantua.html Sant’Andrea is built of bricks, though they are mostly concealed by painted stucco. The patron, Ludovico Gonzaga, estimated that at least 2 million bricks were needed. The bricks were baked in onsite kilns, making the church far less expensive and faster to erect than a building made with stone, which had to be quarried, transported, and finished as suggested by Vitruvian.
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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

From the very start, Alberti establishes the basic elements of architecture much like Vitruvius. Alberti lists locality, area, wall, roof, and openings as those beginning characteristics as opposed to those of Vitruvius; order, arrangement, eurythmy, symmetry, propriety, and economy PALLADIO

Villa Rotunda by Palladio Source:http://static.tumblr.com/7wframi/CnUlomuu3/villa_rotonda_plan1.jpg Vitruvian Influence  Symmetry  Columns in Elevation  Raised Plinth  Proportions Palladio’s establishment of rules for proportion was based on precedents set by Vitruvius and Alberti, as well as the development of Renaissance mathematics.

Vitruvius’s theory of a city
DEPARTMENT OF ARCHITECTURE 3 classes of public buildings: the first for defensive, the second for religious, and the third for utilitarian purposes. Under the defence comes the planning of walls, towers ,and gates, permanent devices for resistance against hostile attacks; under religion, the erection of fanes and temples to the immortal gods; under utility the provision of meeting places for public use, such as harbours, markets, colonnades, baths, theatres, promenade’s , and all other similar arrangements in public places. Durability, convenience and beauty is a concern for all of the above. SITE OF A CITY For fortified towns the following general principles are to be observed. The site will be high, neither misty nor frosty and in a climate neither hot nor cold, but temperate, without marshes in the neighbourhood. For the morning breezes blow toward the town at sunrise, if they bring with them mists

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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

from marshes and mingled with the mist, the poisonous breath of the creatures of the marshes to be wafted into the bodies of the inhabitants, they will make the site unhealthy. Again, if the town is on the coast with a southern or western exposure, it will not be healthy, because in summer the southern sky grows hot at sunrise and is fiery at noon, while a western exposure grows warm after sunrise, is hot at noon , and at evening all glow. THE CITY WALLS The thickness of the fortified walls should be such that armed men meeting on top of it may pass one another without interference. The towers should be set at intervals of not more than a bow shot apart, so that in cased of an assault upon any of them, the enemy may be repulsed with scorpions from the towers to the right and left.

A circular bastion The towers must be either round or polygonal. Square towers are sooner shattered by military engines, for the battering rams pound their angles to pieces; but in case of round towers they can do no harm, being engaged, as it were, in driving wedges to their centre. DIRECTIONS OF THE STREETS By shutting out the winds from our dwellings, we shall not only make the place healthful for people who are well, but also in the case of diseases due perhaps to unfavourable situations elsewhere, the patients, who in other healthy places might be cured by a different form of treatment, will here be more quickly cured by the mildness that comes from the shutting out of the winds. A mild, thick air, without draughts and not constantly blowing back and forth, builds up their frames by its unwavering steadiness, and so strengthens and restores people who are afflicted with these diseases. The lines of houses must be directed away from the quarters from which the winds blow, so that as they come in they may strike against the angles of the blocks and their force thus be broken and dispersed.

Influences on the following citiesWALLS OF NICOSIA Nicosia is the capital of Cyprus and the last divided capital of Europe. The Venetian fortification complex of Nicosia has a circumference of 3 miles, and contains eleven pentagon-shaped bastions named after eleven families, pillars of the Italian aristocracy of the town, who donated funds towards the construction of the walls and the three gates: Porta San Domenico (Paphos Gate), Porta Guiliana (Famagusta Gate), and Porta del Proveditore (Kyrenia Gate). Experts have considered the walls to be a prime example of 16th century military architecture. Their design marks the beginning of a renaissance era in fortification construction. These include the positioning of gates to the side of the adjoining bastions, so they could be more easily protected in times of siege, and leaving the upper half of the wall unlined with masonry, to increase its ability to absorb the impact from cannon shot. These fortifications were in vain, and the city fell to the forces of the Ottoman admiral Lala Mustafa Pasha in 1570 before the Venetians had completed their construction. The Ottomans captured the
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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

bastions almost intact, and they remained almost unchanged until the British era.

Title: Nicosia City Walls Photo By: Glen Bowman Category: Nicosia Photos

HERAKLION Heraklion, or Heraclion ,the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete, Greece. It is one of the largest cities in Greece.Heraklion is the capital of Heraklion regional unit. The Venetians improved on the ditch of the city by building enormous fortifications, most of which are still in place, including a giant wall, in places up to 40 m thick, with 7 bastions, and a fortress in the harbour.

source:http://www.libritis.gr/Photo/Crete_Photo/Older_highRes_Photo/Photo_Crete_Heraklion_Koule. jpg

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History of Architecture (AP313) | Term Paper | 2013

Bibliography 1. Vitruvius,de architecture,20BC 2. http://designtheory.fiu.edu/documents/paper_palladio.pdf 3. http://smarthistory.khanacademy.org/sant-andrea-in-mantua.html 4. http://www.italiannotebook.com/art-archaeology/bramante-tempietto/ 5. http://www.libritis.gr/Photo/Crete_Photo/Older_highRes_Photo/Photo_Crete_Heraklion_Koule.jpg 6. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/631310/Vitruvius/

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