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Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad


Pushing frontiers

April 2009 PREFACE

Theengineerscancreate a new kindofcivilization,basedontechnology,whereart,beautyand finerthingsof life are accepted aseveryonesdue. Engineers, whateverbetheirline ofactivity,mustbe proficient with all aspects of manufacturing. However, it should not be forgotten that practice without theory is blind and the theory without practice is lame. A person involved in acquiring manufacturing skillsmusthavebalancedknowledgeoftheoryaswellaspractice. This book is written to meet the objectives of the training courses in workshop practice for all the first year engineering courses in Indian institute of technology Hyderabad. It imparts basic knowledge of various tools and their use in different sections of manufacture such as fitting, carpentry, welding,machineshopetc. The study of workshop practice acts as the basis for further technical studies. This book gives the perception to build technical knowledge by acting as a guide for imparting fundamental knowledge. Numerous neatly drawn illustrations provided in the text will help the students in understanding the subject,andtheconceptsrelatedit,better. Sincere attempts have been made to present the contents in a simple language, supplemented withlinediagrams,whichareselfexplanatoryandeasytoreproduce. We would like to express our sincere thanks to professors and colleagues for their consistent support. Suggestions for improvement in this book will be thankfully acknowledged and incorporated in thenextedition. K.Sathyanarayana N.A.Somasundaram P.Raju 25April2009

Contents Preface TableofContents page 1.FittingShop 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Holdingtools 2 1.3 Markingandmeasuringtools 5 1.4 Cuttingtools 8 1.5 Finishingtools 10 1.6 Miscellaneoustools 11 1.7 Safepractice 12 1.8 Modelsforpreparation 13 Exercises 2.Carpentry 2.1 15 Introduction 15 2.2 Timber 16 2.3 Markingandmeasuringtools 17 2.4 Holdingtools 18 2.5 Planingtools 28 2.6 Cuttingtools 20 2.7 Drillingandboringtools 21 2.8 Miscellaneoustools 22 2.9 Woodjoints 24 2.10 Safepractice 25 Exercises 3.Welding 3.1 Introduction 28 3.2 Arcwelding 28 30 3.3 Weldingtools 31 3.4 Techniquesofwelding 32 3.5 Typesofjoints 33 3.6 Weldingpositions 33 3.7 Advantages&disadvantagesofarcwelding 34 3.8 Safepractice 35 Exercises 4.MachineShop 4.1 Introduction 39 4.2 Lathe 39 4.3 Workholdingdevices 40 4.4 Measuringtools 40 4.5 41 Cuttingparameters 41 4.6 Toolmaterials 42 4.7 Toolgeometry 42 4.8 Latheoperations 44 4.9 Safetyprecautions Exercises 45 References48



1.1INTRODUCTION Machine tools are capable of producing work at a faster rate, but, there are occasions when components are processed at the bench. Sometimes, it becomes necessary to replace or repair componentwhichmustbefitaccuratelywithanothercomponentonreassembly.Thisinvolvesacertain amount of hand fitting. The assembly of machine tools, jigs, gauges, etc, involves certain amount of benchwork.Theaccuracyofworkdonedependsupontheexperienceandskillofthefitter. Thetermbenchwork referstotheproductionofcomponentsbyhandon thebench, whereas fittingdealswhichtheassemblyofmatingparts,throughremovalofmetal,toobtaintherequiredfit. Both the bench work and fitting requires the use of number of simple hand tools and considerable manual efforts. The operations in the above works consist of filing, chipping, scraping, sawingdrilling,andtapping. 1.2HOLDINGTOOLS 1.2.1Benchvice Thebenchviceisaworkholdingdevice.Itisthemostcommonlyusedvice ina fitting shop.The benchviceisshowninFigure1.1.

Figure1.1:BenchVice It is fixed to the bench with bolts and nuts. The vice body consists of two main parts, fixed jaw and movable jaw. When the vice handle is turned in a clockwise direction, the sliding jaw forces the workagainstthefixedjaw.Jawplatesaremadeofhardenedsteel.Serrationsonthejawsensureagood grip.Jawcapsmadeofsoftmaterialareusedtoprotectfinishedsurfaces,grippedinthevice.Thesizeof theviceisspecifiedbythelengthofthejaws. The vice body is made of cast Iron which is strong in compression, weak in tension and so fracturesundershocksandthereforeshouldneverbehammered. 1.2.2Vblock Vblock is rectangular or square block with a Vgroove on one or both sides opposite to each other. The angle of the V is usually 900. Vblock with a clamp is used to hold cylindrical work securely, during layout of measurement, for measuring operations or for drilling for this the bar is faced longitudinally in the VGroove and the screw of Vclamp is tightened. This grip the rod is firm with its axisparalleltotheaxisofthevgroove. 1.2.3CClamp Thisisusedtoholdworkagainstanangleplateorvblockoranyothersurface,whengrippingis required.

ItsfixedjawisshapedlikeEnglishalphabetCandthemovablejawisroundinshapeanddirectly fitted to the threaded screw at the end .The working principle of this clamp is the same as that of the benchvice.

Figure1.2:Vblock Figure1.3:Cclamp 1.3MARKINGANDMEASURINGTOOLS 1.3.1Surfaceplate The surface plate is machined to fine limits and is used for testing the flatness of the work piece.It is also used formarking outsmall boxand ismorepreciousthanthemarkingtable.The degree of the finished depends upon whether it is designed for bench work in a fitting shop or for using in an inspection room; the surface plate is made of Cast Iron, hardened Steel or Granite stone. It is specified bylength,width,heightandgrade.Handlesareprovidedontwooppositesides,tocarryitwhileshifting fromoneplacetoanother.

Figure1.4:Surfaceplate Figure1.5:Angleplate 1.3.2Trysquare Itismeasuringandmarkingtoolfor900angle.Inpractice,itisusedforcheckingthesquareness of many types of small works when extreme accuracy is not required .The blade of the Try square is made of hardened steel and the stock of cast Iron or steel. The size of the Try square is specified by the lengthoftheblade. 1.3.3Scriber A Scriber is a slender steel tool, used to scribe or mark lines on metal work pieces. It is made of hardenedandtemperedHighCarbonSteel.TheTipofthescriberisgenerallygroundat12oto15o. Itisgenerallyavailableinlengths,rangingfrom125mmto250mm.Ithastwopointedendsthebentend isusedformarkinglineswherethestraightendcannotreach.


Figure1.7:Scriber 1.3.4OddlegCaliper This is also called Jenny Caliper or Hermaphrodite. This is used for marking parallel liners from a finished edge and also for locating the center of round bars; it has one leg pointed like a divider and theotherlegbentlikeacaliper.Itisspecifiedbythelengthoftheleguptothehingepoint. 1.3.5Divider It is basically similar to the calipers except that its legs are kept straight and pointed at the measuringedge.Thisisusedformarkingcircles,arcslayingoutperpendicularlines,bysettinglines.Itis made of case hardened mild steel or hardened and tempered low carbon steel. Its size is specified by thelengthoftheleg.


1.3.6Trammel Trammelisusedfordrawinglargecirclesorarcs. 1.3.7Punches These areusedformakingindentationsonthescribedlines,tomakethemvisibleclearly.These are made of high carbon steel. A punch is specified by its length and diameter (say as 150 12.5mm). It consists of a cylindrical knurled body, which is plain for some length at the top of it. At the other end, it isgroundtoapoint.Thetaperedpointofthepunchishardenedoveralengthof20to30mm. Dot punch is used to lightly indent along the layout lines, to locate center of holes and to provide a small center mark for divider point, etc. for this purpose, the punch is ground to a conical pointhaving60includedangle. Center punch is similar to the dot punch, except that it is ground to a conical point having 90 includedangle.Itisusedtomarkthelocationoftheholestobedrilled.


1.3.8Calipers Theyareindirectmeasuringtoolsusedtomeasureortransferlineardimensions.Theseareused with the help of a steel Rule to check inside and outside measurements. These are made of Case hardenedmildsteelorhardenedandtemperedlowcarbonsteel.Whileusing,butthelegsofthecaliper are set against the surface of the work, whether inside or outside and the distance between the legs is measured with the help of a scale and the same can be transferred to another desired place. These are specifiedbythelengthoftheleg.Inthecaseofoutsidecaliper,thelegsarebentinwardsandinthecase ofinsidecaliper,thelegsbentoutwards.


1.3.9VernierCalipers These are used for measuring outside as well as inside dimensions accurately. It may also be usedasadepthgauge.Ithastwojaws.Onejawisformedatoneendofitsmainscaleandtheotherjaw ismadepartofavernierscale.


1.3.10VernierHeightGauge TheVernierHeightgaugeclampedwithascriber.ItisusedforLayoutworkandoffsetscriberis used when it is required to take measurement from the surface, on which the gauge is standing. The accuracy and working principle of this gauge are the same as those of the vernier calipers. Its size is specifiedbythemaximumheightthatcanbemeasuredbyit.ItismadeofNickelChromiumSteel.


1.4CUTTINGTOOLS 1.4.1HackSaw TheHackSaw is usedfor cutting metalbyhand.Itconsistsof a frame, which holds athin blade, firmly in position. Hacksaw blade is specified by the number of teeth for centimeter. Hacksaw blades haveanumberofteethranging from5 to15percentimeter(cm).Bladeshavinglesser numberofteeth percmareusedforcuttingsoftmaterialslikealuminum,brassandbronze.Bladeshavinglargernumber ofteethpercentimeterareusedforcuttinghardmaterialslikesteelandcastIron. Hacksawbladesareclassifiedas(i)Allhardand(ii)flexibletype.Theallhardbladesaremadeof H.S.S, hardened and tempered throughout to retain their cutting edges longer. These are used to cut hardmetals.Thesebladesarehardandbrittleandcanbreakeasilybytwistingandforcingthemintothe work while sawing. Flexible blades are made of H.S.S or low alloy steel but only the teeth are hardened and the rest of the blade is soft and flexible. These are suitable for use by unskilled or semiskilled persons.


The teeth of the hacksaw blade are staggered, as shown in figure and known as a set of teeth. Thesemakeslotswiderthanthebladethickness,preventingthebladefromjamming.


1.4.2Chisels Chisels are used for removing surplus metal or for cutting thin sheets. These tools are made from 0.9% to 1.0% carbon steel of octagonal or hexagonal section. Chisels are annealed, hardened and tempered to produce a tough shank and hard cutting edge. Annealing relieves the internal stresses in a metal.Thecuttingangleofthechiselforgeneralpurposeisabout60.

Figure1.15:Flatchisel 1.4.3TwistDrill Twist drills are used for making holes. These are made of High speed steel. Both straight and tapershanktwistdrills areused. The parallel shank twistdrillcanbeheld in an ordinary selfcentering drill check. The tapper shank twist drill fits into a corresponding tapered bore provided in the drilling machinespindle.


1.4.4TapsandTapwrenches A tap is a hardened and steel tool, used for cutting internal thread in a drill hole. Hand Taps are usually supplied in sets of three in each diameter and thread size. Each set consists of a tapper tap, intermediatetapandplugorbottomingtap.Tapsaremadeofhighcarbonsteelorhighspeedsteel.


1.4.5Diesanddieholders Dies are the cutting tools used for making external thread. Dies are made either solid or split type. They are fixed in a die stock for holding and adjusting the die gap. They are made of Steel or High CarbonSteel.


1.4.6BenchDrillingMachine Holes are drilled for fastening parts with rivets, bolts or for producing internal thread. Bench drillingmachineisthemostversatilemachineusedinafittingshopforthepurpose.Twistdrills,madeof toolsteelorhighspeedsteelareusedwiththedrillingmachinefordrillingholes. Followingarethestagesindrillingwork 1. Selectthecorrectsizedrills,putitintothecheckandlockitfirmly 2. Adjustthespeedofthemachinetosuittheworkbychangingthebeltonthepulleys.Usehighspeed forsmalldrillsandsoftmaterialsandlowspeedforlargediameterdrillsandhardmaterials. 3. Layoutofthelocationofthepoleandmarkitwithacenterpunch. 4. Holdtheworkfirmlyintheviceonthemachinetableandclampitdirectlyontothemachinetable. 5. Putonthepower,locatethepunchmarkandapplyslightpressurewiththeFeedHandle.

6. Once Drilling is commenced at the correct location, apply enough pressure and continue drilling. Whendrillingsteelapplycuttingoilatthedrillingpoint. 7. Release the pressure slightly, when the drill point pierces the lower surface of the metal. This preventsthedrillcatchinganddamagingtheworkordrill. 8. Oncompletionofdrillingretracethedrilloutoftheworkandputoffthepowersupply.


1.5FINISHINGTOOLS 1.5.1Reamers Reaming is an operation of sizing and finishing a drilled hole, with the help of a cutting tool called reamer having a number of cutting edges. For this, a hole is first drilled, the size of which is slightly smaller than the finished size and then a hand reamer or machine reamer is used for finishing theholetothecorrectsize. HandReamerismadeofHighCarbonSteelandhaslefthandspiralflutessothat,itisprevented from screwing into the whole during operation. The Shank end of the reamer is made straight so that it can be held in a tap wrench. It is operated by hand, with a tap wrench fitted on the square end of the reamer and with the work piece held in the vice. The body of the reamer is given a slight tapper at its working end, for its easy entry into the whole during operation, it is rotated only in clock wise direction andalsowhileremovingitfromthewhole.


1.5.2Files Filing is one of the methods of removing small amounts of material from the surface of a metal part.Afileishardenedsteeltoo,havingsmallparallelrowsofcuttingedgesorteethonitssurfaces. Onthe faces,theteethare usuallydiagonalto theedge. One endof the file is shapedtofit into a wooden handle. The figure shows various parts of a hand file. The hand file is parallel in width and tapering slightly in thickness, towards the tip. It is provided with double cut teeth. On the faces, single cutononeedgeandnoteethontheotheredge,whichisknownasasafeedge.

Figure1.21:Partsofahandfile Files are classified according to their shape, cutting teeth and pitch or grade of the teeth. The figureshowsthevarioustypesoffilesbasedontheirshape.


Needlefile Figure1.23:Typesoffiles

1.6MISCELLANEOUSTOOLS 1.6.1Filecard It is a metal brush, used for cleaning the files, to free them from filings, clogged inbetween the teeth.


1.6.2Spiritlevel Itisusedtocheckthelevelingofmachines. 1.6.3BallPeenHammer BallPeenHammersarenamed,dependingupontheirshapeandmaterialandspecifiedbytheir weight. A ball peen hammer has a flat face which is used for general work and a ball end, particularly usedforriveting.


1.6.4CrossPeenHammer It is similar to ball peen hammer, except the shape of the peen. This is used for chipping, riveting,bendingandstretchingmetalsandhammeringinsidethecurvesandshoulders. 1.6.5StraightPeenHammer This is similar to cross peen hammer, but its peen is inline with the hammer handle. It is used forswaging,rivetinginrestrictedplacesandstretchingmetals.

Figure1.26:Crosspeenhammer Figure1.27:Straightpeenhammer 1.6.6Screwdriver Ascrewdriverisdesignedtoturnscrews.Thebladeismadeofsteelandisavailableindifferent lengthsanddiameters.Thegrindingofthetiptothecorrectshapeisveryimportant. Astarscrewdriverisspeciallydesignedtofittheheadofstarscrews.Theendofthebladeisfluted insteadofflattened.Thescrewdriverisspecifiedbythelengthofthemetalpartfromhandletothetip.


Figure1.28:Screwdrivers 1.6.7Spanners Aspannerorwrenchisatoolforturningnutsandbolts.Itisusuallymadeofforgedsteel.There aremanykindsofspanners.Theyarenamedaccordingtotheapplication.Thesizeofthespanner denotesthesizeoftheboltonwhichitcanwork.


1.7SAFEPRACTICE The following are some of the safe and correct work practices in bench work and fitting shop, with respecttothetoolsused 1.Keephandsandtoolswipedcleanandfreeofdirt,oilandgrease.Drytoolsaresafertousethan slipperytools. 2.Donotcarrysharptoolsonpockets. 3.Wearleathershoesandnotsandals. 4.Dontwearlooseclothes. 5.Donokeepworkingtoolsattheedgeofthetable. 6.Positiontheworkpiecesuchthatthecuttobemadeisclosetothevice.Thispracticeprevents springing,sawbreakageandpersonalinjury. 7.Applyforceonlyontheforward(cutting)strokeandrelievetheforceonthereturnstrokewhile sawingandfiling. 8.Donotholdtheworkpieceinhandwhilecutting. 9.Usethefilewithaproperlyfittedtighthandle. 10.Afterfiling,removetheburrsfromtheedgesofthework,topreventcutstothefingers. 11.Donotuseviceasananvil.


12.Whilesawing,keepthebladestraight;otherwiseitwillbreak 13.Donotuseafilewithouthandle. 14.Cleantheviceafteruse. 1.8MODELSFORPRACTICE Preparethemodels,asperthedimensionsandfitsshowninbelow.







Exercise1 SquareFiling


Aim TofilethegiventwoMildSteelpiecesintoasquareshapeof48mmsideasshowninFigureFE1 Toolsrequired Benchvice,setofFiles,Steelrule, Trysquare,Verniercaliper,Vernierheightgauge,Ballpeen hammer, Scriber,Dotpunch,Surfaceplate,AngleplateandAnvil. Sequenceofoperations 1. Thedimensionsofthegivenpiecearecheckedwiththesteelrule. 2. The job is fixed rigidly in a bench vice and the two adjacent sides are filed, using the rough flat file firstandthenthesmoothflatfilesuchthat,thetwosidesareatrightangle. 3. Therightangleofthetwoadjacentsidesischeckedwiththetrysquare. 4. Chalkisthenappliedonthesurfaceoftheworkpiece. 5. Thegivendimensionsaremarkedbyscribingtwolines,withreferencetotheabovetwodatumsides byusingVernierheightgauge,AngleplateandSurfaceplate. 6. Usingthedotpunch,dotsarepunchedalongtheabovescribedlines. 7. Thetwosidesarethenfiled,byfittingthejobinthebenchvice;followedbycheckingtheflatnessof thesurfaces. Asthematerialremovalthroughfilingisrelativelyless,filingisdoneinsteadofsawing. Result Thesquarepiecesof48mmsideisthusobtainedbyfiling,asdiscussedabove.





Exercise2 VFitting


Aim TomakeVfitfromthegiventwoMSplatesanddrillingandTappingasshowninFigureFE2 Toolsrequired Bench vice, set of Files, Trysquare, Scriber, Steel rule, Ballpeen hammer, Dot punch, Hacksaw, Vernier caliper, Surface plate, Angle plate, Vernier height gauge, 5mm drill bit, 3mm drill bit, M6 tap set with wrench,AnvilandDrillingmachine. Sequenceofoperations 1. Theburrsinthepiecesareremovedandthedimensionsarecheckedwithsteelrule. 2. MakebothpiecessurfacelevelsandrightanglesbyfixingintheVice,useFilesforremovingmaterial togetlevel. 3. WiththehelpofTrysquarechecktherightanglesandsurfacelevels. 4. Using Surface plate and Angle plate mark the given two metal pieces as per drawing with Vernier heightgauge. 5. Punch the scribed lines with dot punch and hammer keeping on the Anvil. Punch to punch give 5 mmgap. 6. CutexcessmaterialwherevernecessarywithHacksawframewithblade,DrillbitsandTaps. 7. The corners and flat surfaces are filed by using square/flat and triangular file to get the sharp corners. 8. Dimensions are checked by vernier caliper and match the two pieces. Any defect noticed, are rectifiedbyfilingwithasmoothfile. 9. Care is taken to see that the punched dots are not crossed, which is indicated by the half of the punchdotsleftonthepieces. Result TherequiredVfittingisthusobtained,byfollowingthestages,asdescribedabove.

FigureFE2: VFitting




2.1INTRODUCTION Carpentry may be defined as the process of making wooden components. It starts from a marketable form of wood and ends with finished products. It6 deals with the building work, furniture, cabinet making. Etc. joinery, i.e., preparation of joints is one of the important operations in all wood works.Itdealswiththespecificworkofcarpenterlikemakingdifferenttypesofjointstoformafinished product. 2.2TIMBER Timber is the name given to the wood obtained from well grown trees. The trees are cut, sawn intovarioussizestosuitbuildingpurposes. The word, grain, as applied to wood, refers to the appearance or pattern of the wood on the cut surfaces. The grain of the wood is a fibrous structure and to make it strong, the timber must be so cut,thatthegrainsrunparalleltothelength. 2.2.1Timbersizes Timber sold in the market is in various sizes and shapes. The following are the common shapes andsizes. a. Log Thetrunkofthetreewhichisfreefrombranches. b. Balk Thelog,sawntohaveroughlysquarecrosssection. c. Post Atimberpiece,roundorsquareincrosssection,havingitsdiameterorside from175to300mm. d. Plank Asawntimberpiece,withmorethan275mminwidth,50to150mmin thicknessand2.5to6.5metersinlength. e. Board Asawntimberpiece,below175mminwidthand30to50mminthickness. f. Reapers Sawntimberpiecesofassortedandnonstandardsizes,whichdonotconfirm totheaboveshapesandsizes. 2.2.2ClassificationofTimber Wood suitable for construction and other engineering purposes is called timber. Woods in generalaredividedintotwobroadcategories:SoftwoodsandHardwoods. Soft woods are obtained from conifers, kair, deodar, chir, walnut and seemal. Woods obtained from teak, sal, oak, shisham, beach, ash mango, neem and babul are known as hard wood, but it is highlydurable. Another classification of woods is based on the name of the trees like teak, babul, shisham, neem,kair,chir,etc. 2.2.3SeasoningofWood A newly felled tree contains considerable moisture content. If this is not removed, the timber is likely to wrap, shrink, crack or decay. Seasoning is the art of extracting the moisture content under controlledconditions,atauniformrate,fromallthepartsofthetimber.Onlyseasonedwoodshouldbe usedforallcarpentryworks.Seasoningmakesthewoodresilientandlighter.Further,itensuresthatthe woodwillnotdistortafteritismadeintoanobject. 2.2.4CharacteristicsofGoodTimber Thegoodtimbermustpossessthefollowingcharacteristics a. Itshouldhaveminimummoisturecontent,i.e.,thetimbershouldbewellseasoned. b. Thegrainsofwoodshouldbestraightandlong. c. Itmustretainitsstraightnessafterseasoning. d. Itshouldproducenearmetallicsoundonhammering. e. Itshouldbefreefromknotsorcracks. f. Itshouldbeofuniformcolor,throughoutthepartofthewood. g. Itshouldrespondwelltothefinishingandpolishingoperations. h. Duringdrivingthenailsandscrew,itshouldnotspliteasily.


2.3MARKINGANDMEASURINGTOOLS Accurate marking and measurement is very essential in carpentry work, to produce parts to exact size. To transfer dimensions onto the work; the following are the marking and measuring tools thatarerequiredinacarpentryshop. 2.3.1SteelruleandSteeltape Steel rule is a simple measuring instrument consisting of a long, thin metal strip with a marked scale of unit divisions. It is an important tool for linear measurement. Steel tape is used for large measurements,suchasmarkingonboardsandcheckingtheoveralldimensionsofthework.

Figure2.1:SteelruleandSteeltape 2.3.2Markinggauge It is a tool used to mark lines parallel to the edge of a wooden piece. It consists of a square wooden stem with a sliding wooden stock (head) on it. On the stem is fitted a marking pin, made of steel.The stockis set atanydesireddistance fromthemarking point and fixed inpositionbya screw.It must be ensured that the marking pin projects through the stem, about 3 mm and the end are sharp enoughto make a very fineline. A mortisegaugeconsistsof two pins.Inthis, itis possibletoadjustthe distancebetweenthepins,todrawtwoparallellinesonthestock.

a.Markinggauge b.Mortisegauge Figure2.2:Markinggauges 2.3.3Trysquare Itisusedfor marking and testingthesquareness andstraightness ofplanedsurfaces. Itconsists ofasteelblade,fittedinacastironstock.Itisalsousedforcheckingtheplanedsurfacesforflatness.Its sizevariesfrom150to300mm,accordingtothelengthoftheblade.Itislessaccuratewhencompared tothetrysquareusedinthefittingshop.

Figure2.3:Trysquare 2.3.4Compassanddivider Compassanddivider,areusedformarkingarcsandcirclesontheplanedsurfacesofthewood.


2.3.5Scriberormarkingknife It is used for marking on timber. It is made of steel having one end pointed and the other end formedintoasharpcuttingedge. 2.3.6Bevel It is used for layingout and checking angles. The blade of the bevel is adjustable and may be heldinplacebyathumbscrew.Afteritissettothedesiredangle,itcanbeusedinmuchthesameway as a trysquare. A good way to set it to the required angle is to mark the angle on a surface and then adjustthebladetofittheangle.

Figure2.4:CompassandDivider Figure2.5:ScriberandBevel 2.4HOLDINGTOOLS 2.4.1Carpenter'svice Figure2.6 showsthe carpenter'sbenchvice, used asaworkholdingdevice in acarpenter shop. Itsonejawisfixedtothesideofthetablewhiletheotherismovablebymeansofascrewandahandle. TheCarpenter'svicejawsarelinedwithhardwooden'faces.



2.4.2Cclamp Figure2.7showsaCclamp,whichisusedforholdingsmallworks. 2.4.3Barcramp Figure 2.8 shows a bar cramp. It is made of steel bar of Tsection, with malleable iron fittings andasteelscrew.Itisusedforholdingwideworkssuchasframesortops.



2.5PLANINGTOOLS Planing is the operation used to produce flat surfaces on wood. A plane is a hand tool used for thispurpose.Thecuttingbladeused in aplane isverysimilartoachisel.Thebladeofaplaneisfittedin awoodenormetallicblock,atanangle. 2.5.1Jackplane It is the most commonly used general purpose plane. It is about 35 cm long. The cutting iron (blade) should have a cutting edge of slight curvature. It is used for quick removal of material on rough workandisalsousedinobliqueplanning. 2.5.2Smoothingplane Itis used for finishingworkand hence, theblade shouldhaveastraightcutting edge.It isabout 20to25cmlong.Beingshort,itcanfolloweventheslightdepressionsinthestock,betterthanthejack plane.Itisusedafterusingthejackplane. 2.5.3Rebateplane It is used for making a rebate. A rebate is a recess along the edge of a piece of wood, which is generallyusedforpositioningglassinframesanddoors. 2.5.4Ploughplane It is used to cut grooves, which are used to fix panels in a door. Figure 2.9 shows the various typesofplanesmentionedabove.


2.6CUTTINGTOOLS 2.6.1Saws A saw is used to cut wood into pieces. There are different types of saws, designed to suit differentpurposes.Asawisspecifiedbythelengthofitstoothededge. It is used to cut across the grains of the stock. The teeth are so set that the saw kerf will be widerthanthebladethickness.Thisallowsthebladetomovefreelyinthecut,withoutsticking.

18 It is used for cutting the stock along the grains. The cutting edge of this saw makes a steeper angle,i.e.,about60whereasthatofcrosscutsawmakesanangleof45withthesurfaceofthestock. Itisusedforcuttingthestockeitheralongoracrossthegrains.Itisusedforcuttingtenonsand infinecabinetwork.However,itisusedforsmallandthincuts.Thebladeofthissawisverythinandso itisstiffenedwithathickbacksteelstrip.Hence,thisissometimescalledasbacksaw.Inthis,theteeth areshapedlikethoseofcrosscutsaw. Ithasanarrow,longerandstrongertaperingblade,whichisusedforheavyworks(Fig.1.13).It ismostlyusedinradiuscutting.Thebladeofthissawisfittedwithanopentypewoodenhandle.

Figure2.10:Typesofsaws 2.6.2Chisels Chisels are used for cutting and shaping wood accurately. Wood chisels are made in various blade widths, ranging from 3 to 50 mm. They are also made in different blade lengths. Most of the woodchiselsaremadeintotangtype,havingasteelshankwhichfitsinsidethehandle.Thesearemade offorgedsteelortoolsteelblades. Figure2.11:Partsofchisel

19 The word 'firmer' means 'stronger' and hence firmer chisel is stronger than other chisels. It is a generalpurposechiselandisusedeitherbyhandpressureorbyamallet.Thebladeofafirmerchiselis flat,asshowninFigure2.12a. It has a blade with a beveled back, as shown in Figure, due to which it can enter sharp comers forfinishing,asindovetailjoints. It is used for cutting mortises and chipping inside holes, etc. The crosssection of the mortise chisel is proportioned to withstand heavy blows during mortising. Further, the crosssection is made stronger neartheshank.

a.Firmerb.Dovetailc.Mortise Figure2.12:Typesofchisels

2.7DRILLINGANDBORINGTOOLS 2.7.1Carpentersbrace It is used for rotating auger bits, twist drills, etc., to produce holes in wood. In some designs, braces are made with ratchet device. With this, holes may be made in a corner where complete revolutionofthehandlecannotbemade.Thesizeofabraceisdeterminedbyitssweep. 2.7.2Augerbit It is the most common tool used for making holes in wood. During drilling, the lead screw of the bit guides into the wood, necessitating only moderate pressure on the brace. The helical flutes on thesurfacecarrythechipstotheoutersurface. 2.7.3Handdrill Carpenter's brace is used to make relatively large size holes; whereas hand drill is used for drilling small holes. A straight shank drill is used with this tool. It is small, light in weight and may be conveniently used than the brace. The drill bit is clamped in the chuck at its end and is rotated by a handleattachedtogearandpinionarrangement. 2.7.4Gimlet It has cutting edges like a twist drill. It is used for drilling large diameter holes with the hand pressure.



2.8.1Mallet Itis usedto drive thechisel,whenconsiderable force istobeapplied,which maybethecase in makingdeeproughcuts.Steelhammershouldnotbeused forthepurpose,asitmaydamagethechisel handle.Further,forbettercontrol,itisbettertoapplyaseriesoflighttapswiththemalletratherthana heavysingleblow. 2.8.2Pincer It is made of two forged steel arms with a hinged joint and is used for pullingout small nails fromwood.Theinnerfacesofthepincerjawsarebeveledandtheouterfacesareplain.Theendofone arm has a ball and the other has a claw. The beveled jaws and the claw are used for pulling out small nails,pinsandscrewsfromthewood. 2.8.3Clawhammer It has a striking flat face at one end and the claw at the other, as shown in figure. The face is used to drive nails into wood and for other striking purposes and the claw for extracting relatively large nailsoutofwood.Itismadeofcaststeelandweighsfrom0.25kgto0.75kg. 2.8.4Screwdriver It is used for driving screws into wood or unscrewing them. The screw driver of a carpenter is differentfromtheothercommontypes,asshowninfigure. The length of a screw driver is determined by the length of the blade. As the length of the blade increases,thewidthandthicknessofthetipalsoincrease. 2.8.5Woodraspfile It is a finishing tool used to make the wood surface smooth, remove sharp edges, finish fillets andotherinteriorsurfaces.Sharpcuttingteethareprovidedonits surfaceforthepurpose.Thisfileisexclusivelyusedinwoodwork. 2.8.6Bradawl Itisahandoperatedtool,usedtoboresmallholesforstartingascreworlargenail.





f.Screwdriver Figure2.14:Miscellaneoustools

2.9WOODJOINTS There are many kinds of joints used to connect wood stock. Each joint has a definite use and requires lay inout, cutting them together. The strength of the joint depends upon amount of contact area.If aparticular jointdoesnothavemuchcontactarea,thenitmustbereinforcedwithnails,screws ordowels.Thefigure2.15showssomecommonlyusedwoodjoints.





f.Mortiseandtenon Figure2.15:Commonwoodjoints


2.9.1Lapjoints Inlapjoints,anequalamountofwoodisremovedfromeachpiece,asshowninfigure2.16.Lap joints are easy to layout, using a trysquare and a marking gauge. Follow the procedure suggested for sawingandremovingthewastestock.Ifthejointisfoundtobetootight,itisbettertoreducethewidth of the mating piece, instead of trimming the shoulder of the joint. This type of joint is used for small boxestolargepiecesoffurniture.


Figure2.16:Lapjoints 2.9.2MortiseandTenonJoints It is used in the construction of quality furniture. It results in a strong joint and requires considerableskilltomakeit.Thefollowingarethestagesinvolvedinthework. a. Markthemortiseandtenonlayouts. b. Cut the mortise first by drilling series of holes within the layout line, chiseling out the waste stock andtrimmingthecornersandsides. c. Preparethetenonbycuttingandchiseling. d. Checkthetenonsizeagainstthemortisethathasbeenpreparedandadjustitifnecessary.

Figure2.17:MortiseandTenonjoints 2.9.3Bridlejoint Thisisthereverseofmortiseandtenonjointinform.Themarkingoutofthejointisthesameas for mortise and tenon joint. This joint is used where the members are of square or near square section andunsuitableformortiseandtenonjoint.



2.10SAFEPRACTICE Thefollowingaresomeofthesafeandcorrectworkpracticesincarpentryshop,withrespectto thetoolsused 1. Toolsthatarenotbeingusedshouldalwaysbekeptattheirproperplaces. 2. Makesurethatyourhandsarenotinfrontofsharpedgedtoolswhileyouareusingthem. 3. Useonlysharptools.Adulltoolrequiresexcessivepressure,causingthetooltoslip. 4. Woodenpieceswithnails,shouldneverbeallowedtoremainonthefloor. 5. Becarefulwhenyouareusingyourthumbasaguideincrosscuttingandripping. 6. Testthesharpnessofthecuttingedgeofchiselonwoodorpaper,butnotonyourhand. 7. Neverchiseltowardsanypartofthebody. 8. Donotusechiselswherenailsarepresent.Donotusechiselasascrewdriver. 9. Donotuseasawwithaloosehandle. 10. Alwaysusetriangularfileforsharpeningtheteeth. 11. Donotuseasawonmetallicsubstances. 12. Donotusemallettostrikenails. 13. Donotuseplaneattheplaces,whereanailisdriveninthewood.


Exercise1 TLapjoint


Aim TomakeaTlapjointasshowninFigure2.19,fromthegivenreaperofsize50x35x250mm. Toolsrequired Carpenter's vice, steel rule, jack plane, trysquare, marking gauge, 25 mm firmer chisel, crosscut saw, tenonsaw,scriberandmallet. Sequenceofoperations 1. Thegivenreaperischeckedtoensureitscorrectsize. 2. The reaper is firmly clamped in the carpenter's vice and any two adjacent faces are planed by the jackplaneandthetwofacesarecheckedforsquarenesswiththetrysquare. 3. Marking gauge is set and lines are drawn at 30 and 45 mm, to mark the thickness and width of the modelrespectively. 4. Theexcessmaterialisfirstchiseledoutwithfirmerchiselandthenplanedtocorrectsize. 5. ThematingdimensionsofthepartsXandYarethenmarkedusingscaleandmarkinggauge 6. Usingthecrosscutsaw,theportionstoberemovedarecutinboththepieces,followedbychiseling andalsothepartsXandYareseparatedbycrosscutting,usingthetenonsaw 7. Theendsofboththepartsarechiseledtotheexactlengths. 8. Afinefinishingisgiventotheparts,ifrequiredsothat,properfittingisobtained. 9. Thepartsarefittedtoobtainaslightlytightjoint. ResultTheTLapjointisthusmadebyfollowingtheabovesequenceofoperations.



Exercise2 Dovetaillapjoint


Aim TomakeadovetaillapjointasshowninFigure2.20,fromthegivenreaperofsize50x35x250mm. Toolsrequired Carpenters vice, steel rule, jack plane, trysquare, marking gauge, 25 mm firmer chisel, crosscut saw, tenonsaw,scriberandmallet. Sequenceofoperations 1. Thegivenreaperischeckedtoensureitscorrectsize. 2. The reaper is firmly clamped in the carpenter's vice and any two adjacent faces are planed by the jackplaneandthetwofacesarecheckedforsquarenesswiththetrysquare. 3. Marking gauge is set and lines are drawn at 30 anc145 mm, to mark the thickness and width of the modelrespectively. 4. Theexcessmaterialisfirstchiseledoutwithfirmerchiselandthenplanedtocorrectsize. 5. ThematingdimensionsofthepartsXandYarethenmarkedusingscaleandmarkinggauge. 6. Usingthecrosscutsaw,theportionstoberemovedarecutinboththepieces,followedbychiseling andalsothepartsXandYareseparatedbycrosscutting,usingthetenonsaw. 7. Theendsofboththepartsarechiseledtoexactlengths. 8. Afinefinishingisgiventotheparts,ifrequiredsothat,properfittingisobtained. 9. Thepartsarefittedtoobtainaslightlytightjoint. ResultThedovetaillapjointisthusmadebyfollowingtheabovesequenceofoperations.



Exercise3 MortiseandTenonjoint


Aim TomakeamortiseandtenonjointasshowninFig.1.34b,fromthegivenreaperofsize50x35x250 mm. Toolsrequired Carpenter's vice, steel rule, jack plane, trysquare, marking gauge, 25 111m firmer chisel, 6 mm mortise chisel,crosscutsaw,tenonsaw,scriberandmallet. Sequenceofoperations 1. Thegivenreaperischeckedtoensureitscorrectsize. 2. Thereaperisfirmlyclampedinthecarpenter'sviceandoneofitsfacesareplanedbythejackplane andcheckedforstraightness. 3. Theadjacentfaceisthenplanedandthefacesarecheckedforsquarenesswiththetrysquare. 4. Marking gauge is set and lines are drawn at 30 and 45 mm, to mark the thickness and width of the modelrespectively. 5. Theexcessmaterialisfirstchiseledoutwiththefirmerchiselandthenplanedtocorrectsize. 6. ThematingdimensionsofthepartsXandYarethenmarkedusingthescaleandmarkinggauge. 7. Usingthecrosscutsaw,theportionstoberemovedinpartY(tenon)iscut,followedbychiseling. 8. ThematerialtoberemovedinpartX(mortise)iscarriedoutbyusingthemortise andfirmerchisels. 9. ThepartsXandYareseparatedbycrosscuttingwiththetenonsaw 10. Theendsofboththepartsarechiseledtoexactlengths. 11. Finishchiselingisdonewhereverneededsothat,thepartscanbefittedtoobtainaneartightjoint. ResultThemortiseandtenonjointisthusmadebyfollowingtheabovesequenceofoperations.





3.1INTRODUCTION Welding is the process of joining similar metals by the application of heat, with or without application of pressure or filler metal, in such a way that the joint is equivalent in composition and characteristics of the metals joined. In the beginning, welding was mainly used for repairing all kinds of worn or damaged parts. Now, it is extensively used in manufacturing industry, construction industry (construction of ships, tanks, locomotives and automobiles) and maintenance work, replacing riveting andbolting,toagreaterextent. Thevariousweldingprocessesare: 1. Electricarcwelding, 2. Gaswelding 3. Thermalwelding 4. ElectricalResistanceweldingand 5. Frictionwelding However,onlyelectricarcweldingprocessisdiscussedinthesubjectpointofview. 3.2ELECTRICARCWELDING Arcwelding isthe weldingprocess, in which heatisgenerated byan electricarcstruckbetween an electrode and the work piece. Electric arc is luminous electrical discharge between two electrodes throughionizedgas.

Figure3.1:Arcweldingsetup. Anyarcweldingmethodisbasedonanelectriccircuitconsistingofthefollowingparts: a. Powersupply(ACorDC); b. Weldingelectrode; c. Workpiece; d. Weldingleads(electriccables)connectingtheelectrodeandworkpiecetothepowersupply. Electric arc between the electrode and work piece closes the electric circuit. The arc temperaturemayreach10000F(5500C),whichissufficientforfusiontheworkpieceedgesandjoining them. When a long joint is required the arc is moved along the joint line. The front edge of the weld poolmeltstheweldedsurfaceswhentherearedgeoftheweldpoolsolidifiesformingthejoint. Transformers, motor generators and rectifiers sets are used as arc welding machines. These machinessupplyhighelectriccurrentsat lowvoltageandanelectrodeisusedtoproducethenecessary arc. The electrode serves as the filler rod and the arc melts the surface so that, the metals to be joined areactuallyfixed together. Sizes of welding machines are rated according to their approximate amperage capacity at 60% duty cycle, such as 150,200,250,300,400,500 and 600 amperes. This amperage is the rated current outputattheworkingterminal.


3.2.1Transformers The transformers type of welding machine produces A.C current and is considered to be the leastexpensive.Ittakespowerdirectlyfrompowersupplylineandtransformsittothevoltagerequired forwelding.Transformersareavailableinsinglephaseandthreephasesinthemarket. 3.2.2Motorgenerators These are D.C generators sets, in which electric motor and alternator are mounted on the same shaft to produce D.C power as pert the requirement for welding. These are designed to produce D.C current in either straight or reversed polarity. The polarity selected for welding depends upon the kind ofelectrodeusedandthematerialtobewelded. 3.2.3Rectifiers Theseareessentiallytransformers,containinganelectricaldevicewhichchangesA.CintoD.Cby virtueofwhichtheoperatorcanusebothtypesofpower(A.CorD.C,butonlyoneatatime).Inaddition totheweldingmachine,certainaccessoriesareneededforcarryingouttheweldingwork. 3.2.4Weldingcables Two welding cables are required, one from machine to the electrode holder and the other, fromthemachinetothegroundclamp.Flexiblecablesareusuallypreferredbecauseofthecaseofusing andcoilingthecables.Cablesarespecifiedbytheircurrentcarryingcapacity,say300A,400A,etc. 3.2.5Electrodes Filler rods are used in arc welding are called electrodes. These are made of metallic wire called core wire, having approximately the same composition as the metal to be welded. These are coated uniformly with a protective coating called flux. While fluxing an electrode; about 20mm of length is left at one end for holding it with the electrode holder. It helps in transmitting full current from electrode holder to the front end of the electrode coating. Flux acts as an insulator of electricity. Figure.4 shows thevariouspartsofanelectrode.

Figure3.2:Partsofanelectrode In general, electrodes are classified into five main groups; mild steel, carbon steel, special alloy steel, cast iron and nonferrous. The greatest range of arc welding is done with electrodes in the mild steelgroup. Various constituents like titanium oxide, potassium oxide, cellulose, iron or manganese, Ferro silicates, carbonates, gums, clays, asbestos, etc., are used as coatings on electrodes. While welding, the coatingorfluxvaporizesandprovidesagaseousshieldtopreventatmosphericattack. The size of electrode is measured and designated by the diameter of the core wire in SWG and length,apartfromthebrandandcodenames;indicatingthepurposeforwhichtherearemostsuitable. Electrodesmaybeclassifiedonthebasisofthicknessofthecoatedflux.As 1.Dustcoatedorlightcoated 2.Semiormediumcoatedand 3.Heavilycoatedorshielded Electrodesarealsoclassifiedonthebasisofmaterials,as 1.Metallicand 2.Nonmetallicorcarbon Metallicarcelectrodesarefurthersubdividedinto 1.Ferrousmetalarcelectrode(mildsteel,low/medium/highcarbonsteel,castiron,stainlesssteel,etc) 2.Nonferrousmetalarcelectrodes(copper,brass,bronze,aluminum,etc). Incaseofnonmetallicarcelectrodes,mainlycarbonandgraphiteareusedtomaketheelectrodes.


3.3WELDINGTOOLS 3.3.1Electrodeholder The electrode holder is connected to the end of the welding cable and holds the electrode. It should be light, strong and easy to handle and should not become hot while in operation. Figure shows one type of electrode holder. The jaws of the holder are insulated, offering protection from electric shock.

Figure3.3:Electrodeholder Figure3.4:Groundclamp 3.3.2Groundclamp It is connected to the end of the ground cable and is clamped to the work or welding table to completetheelectriccircuit.Itshouldbestronganddurableandgivealowresistanceconnection. 3.3.3Wirebrushandchippinghammer Awirebrushisusedforcleaningandpreparingtheworkforwelding.Achippinghammerisused forremovingslagformationonwelds.Oneendoftheheadissharpenedlikeacoldchiselandtheother, to a blunt, round point. It is generally made of tool steel. Molten metal dispersed around the welding heads, in the form of small drops, is known as spatter. When a flux coated electrode is used in welding process, then a layer of flux material is formed over the welding bead which contains the impurities of weld material. This layer is known as slag. Removing the spatter and slag formed on and around the weldingbeadsonthemetalsurfaceisknownaschipping.



3.3.4Weldingtableandcabin It is made of steel plate and pipes. It is used for positioning the parts to be welded properly. Weldingcabinismadeupbyanysuitablethermalresistancematerial,whichcanisolatethesurrounding bytheheatandlightemittedduringtheweldingprocess.Asuitabledraughtshouldalsobeprovidedfor exhaustingthegasproducedduringwelding. 3.3.5Faceshield A face shield is used to protect the eyes and face from the rays of the arc and from spatter or flyingparticlesofhotmetal.Itisavailableeitherinhandorhelmettype.Thehandtypeisconvenientto use wherever the work can be done with one hand. The helmet type though not comfortable to wear, leavesbothhandsfreeforthework. Shieldsaremadeoflightweightnonreflectingfiberandfittedwithdarkglassestofilteroutthe harmfulraysofthearc.Insomedesigns,acoverglassisfittedinfrontofthedarklenstoprotectitfrom spatter.


3.3.6Handgloves Theseareusedtoprotectthehandsfromelectricshocksandhotspatters

Handheldtype Figure3.7:Handgloves

Helmettype Figure3.8:Faceshield

3.4TECHNIQUESOFWELDING 3.4.1Preparationofwork Before welding, the work pieces must be thoroughly cleaned of rust, scale and other foreign material. The piece for metal generally welded without beveling the edges, however, thick work piece shouldbebeveledorveedouttoensureadequatepenetrationandfusionofallpartsoftheweld.But,in eithercase,thepartstobeweldedmustbeseparatedslightlytoallowbetterpenetrationoftheweld. Beforecommencingtheweldingprocess,thefollowingmustbeconsidered a) Ensurethattheweldingcablesareconnectedtoproperpowersource. b) Settheelectrode,asperthethicknessoftheplatetobewelded. c) Settheweldingcurrent,asperthesizeoftheelectrodetobeused. Table3.1ElectrodecurrentVselectrodesizeVsplatethickness. Platethickness,mm Electrodesize,mm Electrodecurrentrange,amp 1.6 2.5 4.0 6.0 8.0 25.0 1.6 2.5 3.2 4.0 5.0 6.0 4060 5080 90130 120170 180270 300400

NOTE: While making butt welds in thin metal, it is a better practice to tackweld the pieces intervals to holdthemproperlywhilewelding. 3.4.2Strikinganarc Thefollowingarethestagesandmethodsofstrikinganarcandrunningabead a) Select an electrode of suitable kind and size for the work and set the welding current at a proper value. b) Fastenthegroundclamptoeithertheworkorweldingtable. c) Startorstrikethearcbyeitherofthefollowingmethods Strikeandwithdraw Inthismethodthearcisstartedbymovingtheendoftheelectrodeontotheworkwithaslow sweepingmotion,similartostrikingamatch. Touchandwithdraw Inthismethod,thearcisstartedbykeepingtheelectrodeperpendiculartotheworkand touchingorbouncingitlightlyonthework.Thismethodispreferredasitfacilitatesrestartingthe


momentarilybrokenarcquickly.Iftheelectrodestickstothework,quicklybenditbackandforth, pullingatthesametime.Makesuretokeeptheshieldinfrontoftheface,whentheelectrodeis freedfromsticking. d) As soon as the arc is struck, move the electrode along, slowly from left to right, keeping at 15 to 25fromverticalandinthedirectionofwelding.

Strikeandwithdraw Touchandwithdraw Figure3.9:strikinganarc 3.4.3Weaving A steady, uniform motion of the electrode produces a satisfactory bead. However, a slight weaving or oscillating motion is preferred, as this keeps the metal molten a little longer and allows the gas to escape, bringing the slag to the surface. Weaving also produces a wider bead with better penetration. 3.5TYPESOFJOINTS Welds are made at the junction of the various pieces that make up the weldment. The junctions of parts, or joints, are defined as the location where two or more numbers are to be joined. Parts being joined to produce the weldment may be in the form of rolled plate, sheet, pipes, castings, forgings, or billets.Thefivebasictypesofjointsarelistedbelow.


Abuttjointisusedtojointwomembersalignedinthesameplane(fig.3.10,viewA).Thisjointis frequently used in plate, sheet metal, and pipe work. A joint of this type may be either square or grooved.


Corner and tee joints are used to join two members located at right angles to each other (fig. 3.10,views BandC). In cross section,the cornerjointformsanLshape, andtheteejointhasthe shape oftheletterT.Variousjointdesignsofbothtypeshaveusesinmanytypesofmetalstructures. A lap joint, as the name implies, is made by lapping one piece of metal over another (fig. 3.10, viewD).Thisisoneofthestrongesttypesofjointsavailable;however,formaximumjointefficiency,you should overlap the metals a minimum of three times the thickness of the thinnest member you are joining.Lapjointsarecommonlyusedwithtorchbrazingandspotweldingapplications. An edge joint is used to join the edges of two or more members lying in the same plane. In most cases, one of the members is flanged, as shown in figure 3.10, view E. While this type of joint has some applications inplatework, itis more frequentlyused in sheet metalwork. An edge joint shouldonly be usedforjoiningmetals1/4inchorlessinthicknessthatarenotsubjectedtoheavyloads. 3.6WELDINGPOSITIONS Depending upon the location of the welding joints, appropriate position of the electrode and handmovementisselected.Thefigureshowsdifferentweldingpositions.

Figure3.11:Weldingpositions 3.6.1Flatpositionwelding Inthisposition,theweldingisperformedfromtheuppersideofthejoint,andthefaceoftheweld is approximately horizontal. Flat welding is the preferred term; however, the same position is sometimescalleddownhand. 3.6.2Horizontalpositionwelding In this position, welding is performed on the upper side of an approximately horizontal surface andagainstanapproximatelyverticalsurface. 3.6.3Verticalpositionwelding Inthisposition,theaxisoftheweldisapproximatelyverticalasshowninfigure. 3.6.4Overheadpositionwelding Inthisweldingposition,theweldingisperformedfromtheundersideofajoint. 3.7ADVANTAGES&DISADVANTAGESOFARCWELDING Advantages 1.Weldingprocessissimple. 2.Equipmentisportableandthecostisfairlylow. 3. All the engineering metals can be welded because of the availability of a wide variety of electrodes. Disadvantages 1.Mechanizedweldingisnotpossiblebecauseoflimitedlengthoftheelectrode. 2.Numberofelectrodesmayhavetobeusedwhileweldinglongjoints. 3.Adefect(slaginclusionorinsufficientpenetration)mayoccurattheplacewhereweldingisrestarted withafreshelectrode.


3.8SAFEPRACTICE Always weld in a well ventilated place. Fumes given off from welding are unpleasant and in some casesmaybeinjurious,particularlyfromgalvanizedorzinccoatedparts. 1. Donotweldaroundcombustibleorinflammablematerials,wheresparksmaycauseafire. 2. Never weld containers, which have been used for storing gasoline, oil or similar materials, without firsthavingthemthoroughlycleaned. 3. Check the welding machine to make sure that it is properly grounded and that all leads properly insulated. 4. Never look at the arc with the naked eye. The arc can burn your eyes severely. Always use a face shieldwhilewelding. 5. Prevent welding cables from coming in contact with hot metal, water, oil, or grease. Avoid dragging thecablesaroundsharpcorners. 6. Ensureproperinsulationofthecablesandcheckforopenings. 7. Alwayswearthesafetyhandgloves,apronandleathershoes. 8. Alwaysturnoffthemachinewhenleavingthework. 9. Applyeyedropsafterweldingisoverfortheday,torelievethestrainontheeyes. 10. Whilewelding,standondryfootingandkeepthebodyinsulatedfromtheelectrode,anyotherparts oftheelectrodeholderandthework.


Exercise1 SingleVButtjoint


Aim Tomakeasinglevbuttjoint,usingthegivenmildsteelpiecesofandbyarcwelding. Materialused Twomildsteelpiecesof100X40X6mm. Toolsandequipmentused Arcweldingmachine,Mildsteelelectrodes,Electrodeholder,Groundclamp,flatnoseTong,Faceshield, Apron,Handgloves,MetallicworkTable,Benchvice,Roughflatfile,Trysquare,Steelrule,Wirebrush, Ballpeenhammer,Chippinghammer,ChiselandGrindingmachine. Sketch

Figure3.12:SingleVbuttjoint Operationstobecarriedout 1. Cleaningtheworkpieces 2. tackwelding 3. fullwelding 4. cooling 5. chipping 6. finishing Procedure 1. Takethetwomildsteelpiecesofgivendimensionsandcleanthesurfacesthoroughlyfromrust,dust particles,oilandgrease. 2. Removethesharpcornersandburrsbyfilingorgrinding. 3. Oneedgeofeachpieceisbeveled,toanangle30. 4. Thetwopiecesarepositionedontheweldingtablesuchthat,theyareseparatedslightlyforbetter penetrationoftheweld. 5. Theelectrodeisfittedintotheelectrodeholderandtheweldingcurrentissettoapropervalue. 6. Thegroundclampisfastenedtotheweldingtable.ThemachineisswitchedON 7. Wearingtheapron,handgloves,usingthefaceshield,thearcisstruckandtheworkpiecesaretack weldedattheendsandholdingthetwopiecestogether;firstrunoftheweldisdonetofilltheroot gap. 8. Secondrunoftheweldingisdonewithproperweavingandwithuniformmovement.Duringthe processofwelding,theelectrodeiskeptatangleof15to25fromverticalandinthedirectionof welding. 9. Theslagformationontheweldisremovedbychippinghammer. 10. Filingisdonetoremovespattersaroundtheweld. ResultThesinglevbuttjointisthusmade,usingthetoolsandequipmentasmentionedabove.


Exercise2 DoubleLapjoint


Aim Tomakeadoublelapjoint,usingthegivenmildsteelpiecesandbyarcwelding. Materialused Twomildsteelpiecesof100X40X6mm. Toolsandequipmentused Arcweldingmachine,Mildsteelelectrodes,Electrodeholder,Groundclamp,flatnoseTong,Faceshield, Apron,Handgloves,MetallicworkTable,Benchvice,Roughflatfile,Trysquare,Steelrule,Wirebrush, Ballpeenhammer,Chippinghammer,ChiselandGrindingmachine. Sketch

Figure3.13:Doublelapjoint Operationstobecarriedout 1. Cleaningtheworkpieces 2. tackwelding 3. fullwelding 4. cooling 5. chipping 6. finishing Procedure 1. Takethetwomildsteelpiecesofgivendimensionsandcleanthesurfacesthoroughlyfromrust,dust particles,oilandgrease. 2. Removethesharpcornersandburrsbyfilingorgrindingandpreparetheworkpieces. 3. Theworkpiecesarepositionedontheweldingtable,toformalapjointwiththerequiredover lapping. 4. Theelectrodeisfittedintotheelectrodeholderandtheweldingcurrentissettoapropervalue. 5. Thegroundclampisfastenedtotheweldingtable. 6. Wearingtheapron,handgloves,usingthefaceshieldandholdingtheoverlappedpiecesthearcis struckandtheworkpiecesaretackweldedattheendsofboththesides 7. Thealignmentofthelapjointischeckedandthetackweldedpiecesarereset,ifrequired. 8. Weldingisthencarriedoutthroughoutthelengthofthelapjoint,onboththesides. 9. Removetheslag,spattersandcleanthejoint. ResultThedoublelapjointisthusmade,usingthetoolsandequipmentasmentionedabove.


Exercise3 Cornerjoint


Aim Tomakeacornerjoint,usingthegivenmildsteelpiecesandbyarcwelding. Materialused Twomildsteelpiecesof100X40X6mm. Toolsandequipmentused Arcweldingmachine,Mildsteelelectrodes,Electrodeholder,Groundclamp,flatnoseTong,Faceshield, Apron,Handgloves,MetallicworkTable,Benchvice,Roughflatfile,Trysquare,Steelrule,Wirebrush, Ballpeenhammer,Chippinghammer,ChiselandGrindingmachine. Sketch

Figure3.14:Cornerjoint Operationstobecarriedout 1. Cleaningtheworkpieces 2. tackwelding 3. fullwelding 4. cooling 5. chipping 6. finishing Procedure 1. Takethetwomildsteelpiecesofgivendimensionsandcleanthesurfacesthoroughlyfromrust,dust particles,oilandgrease. 2. Removethesharpcornersandburrsbyfilingorgrindingandpreparetheworkpieces. 3. Theworkpiecesarepositionedontheweldingtablesuchthat,theLshapeisformed. 4. Theelectrodeisfittedintotheelectrodeholderandtheweldingcurrentissettoapropervalue. 5. Thegroundclampisfastenedtotheweldingtable. 6. Wearingtheapron,handgloves,usingthefaceshieldandholdingthepiecesthearcisstruckand theworkpiecesaretackweldedatboththeends. 7. Thealignmentofthecornerjointischeckedandthetackweldedpiecesarereset,ifrequired. 8. Weldingisthencarriedoutthroughoutthelength. 9. Removetheslag,spattersandcleanthejoint. ResultTheCornerjointisthusmade,usingthetoolsandequipmentasmentionedabove.


Exercise4 Tjoint


Aim TomakeaTjoint,usingthegivenmildsteelpiecesandbyarcwelding. Materialused Twomildsteelpiecesof100X40X6mm. Toolsandequipmentused Arcweldingmachine,Mildsteelelectrodes,Electrodeholder,Groundclamp,flatnoseTong,Faceshield, Apron,Handgloves,MetallicworkTable,Benchvice,Roughflatfile,Trysquare,Steelrule,Wirebrush, Ballpeenhammer,Chippinghammer,ChiselandGrindingmachine. Sketch

Figure3.15:Tjoint Operationstobecarriedout 1. Cleaningtheworkpieces 2. tackwelding 3. fullwelding 4. cooling 5. chipping 6. finishing Procedure 1. Takethetwomildsteelpiecesofgivendimensionsandcleanthesurfacesthoroughlyfromrust,dust particles,oilandgrease. 2. Removethesharpcornersandburrsbyfilingorgrindingandpreparetheworkpieces. 3. Theworkpiecesarepositionedontheweldingtablesuchthat,theTshapeisformed. 4. Theelectrodeisfittedintotheelectrodeholderandtheweldingcurrentissettoapropervalue. 5. Thegroundclampisfastenedtotheweldingtable. 6. Wearingtheapron,handgloves,usingthefaceshieldandholdingthepiecesthearcisstruckand theworkpiecesaretackweldedatboththeends. 7. ThealignmentoftheTjointischeckedandthetackweldedpiecesarereset,ifrequired. 8. WeldingisthencarriedoutthroughoutthelengthoftheTjointasshowninthefigure. 9. Removetheslag,spattersandcleanthejoint. ResultTheTeejointisthusmade,usingthetoolsandequipmentasmentionedabove.




4.1INTRODUCTION Inamachineshop,metalsarecuttoshapeondifferentmachinetools.Alatheisusedtocutand shape the metal by revolving the work against a cutting tool. The work is clamped either in a chuck, fittedontothelathespindleorinbetweenthecenters.Thecuttingtoolisfixedinatoolpost,mounted on a movable carriage that is positioned on the lathe bed. The cutting tool can be fed on to the work, either lengthwise or crosswise. While turning, the chuck rotates in counterclockwise direction, when viewedfromthetailstockend. 4.2PRINCIPALPARTSOFALATHE Figure4.1showsacenterlathe,indicatingthemainparts.Thenameisduetothefactthatwork piecesareheldbythecenters.

Figure4.1:Partsofacenterlathe 4.2.1Bed It is an essential part of a lathe, which must be strong and rigid. It carries all parts of the machine and resists the cutting forces. The carriage and the tail stock move along the guide ways providedonthebed.Itisusuallymadeofcastiron. 4.2.2Headstock It contains either a cone pulley or gearings to provide the necessary range of speeds and feeds. Itcontainsthemainspindle,towhichtheworkisheldandrotated. 4.2.3Tailstock It isusedtosupporttherighthandendofalongworkpiece.Itmaybeclamped in anyposition along the lathe bed. The tail stock spindle has an internal Morse taper to receive the dead center that supports the work. Drills, reamers, taps may also be fitted into the spindle, for performing operations suchasdrilling,reamingandtapping. 4.2.4CarriageorSaddle It is used to control the movement of the cutting tool. The carriage assembly consists of the longitudinalslide,crossslideandthecompoundslideandapron.Thecrossslidemovesacrossthelength ofthebedandperpendiculartotheaxisofthespindle.Thismovementisusedforfacingandtoprovide thenecessarydepthofcutwhileturning.Theapron,whichisboltedtothesaddle,isonthefrontofthe latheandcontainsthelongitudinalandcrossslidecontrols. 4.2.5CompoundRest Itsupportsthetoolpost.Byswivelingthecompoundrestonthecrossslide,shorttapersmaybe turnedtoanydesiredangles.


4.2.6ToolPost Thetoolpost,holdsthetoolholderorthetool,whichmaybeadjustedtoanyworkingposition. 4.2.7LeadScrew It is a long threaded shaft, located in front of the carriage, running from the headstock to the tailstock.Itisgearedtothespindleandcontrolsthemovementofthetool,eitherforautomaticfeeding orforcuttingthreads. 4.2.8Centers There are two centers known as dead center and live center. The dead center is positioned in the tail stock spindle and the live center, in the headstock spindle. While turning between centers, the deadcenterdoesnotrevolvewiththeworkwhilethelivecenterrevolveswiththework. 4.3WORKHOLDINGDEVICES 4.3.1Threejawchuck It is a work holding device having three jaws (selfcentering) which will close or open with respect to the chuck center or the spindle center, as shown in figure. It is used for holding regular objectslikeroundbars,hexagonalrods,etc.



4.3.3Faceplate Itisa plateof largediameter,usedforturningoperations.Certaintypesof work thatcannotbe heldinchucksareheldonthefaceplatewiththehelpofvariousaccessories.

Figure4.4:Faceplate Figure4.5:Lathedoganddrivingplate 4.3.4Lathedogsanddrivingplate These are used to drive a work piece that is held between centers. These are provided with an opening to receive and clamp the work piece and dog tail, the tail of the dog is carried by the pin providedinthedrivingplatefordrivingtheworkpiece. 4.4MEASURINGINSTRUMENTS 4.4.1OutsideandinsideCalipers Firmjointorspringcalipersareusedfortransferofdimensionswiththehelpofasteelrule.


Figure4.6:Calipers 4.4.2VernierCalipers Vernier caliper is a versatile instrument with which both outside and inside measurements may bemadeaccurately.Theseinstrumentsmayhaveprovisionfordepthmeasurementalso.

Figure4.7:VernierCaliper 4.4.3Micrometers Outside and inside micrometers are used for measuring components where greater accuracy is required. 4.5CUTTINGPARAMETERS 4.5.1Cuttingspeed It is defined as the speed at which the material is removed and is specified in meters per minute. Ti depends upon the work piece material, feed, depth of cut, type of operation and so many othercuttingconditions.Itiscalculatedfromtherelation, Spindlespeed(RPM)=cuttingspeedx1000/(D) WhereDistheworkpiecediameterinmm. 4.5.2Feed Itisthedistance traversed bythetoolalongthebed, duringonerevolutionof thework.Itsvalue dependsuponthedepthofcutandsurfacefinishoftheworkdesired. 4.5.3DepthofCut It is the movement of the tip of the cutting tool, from the surface of the work piece and perpendicular to the lathe axis. Its value depends upon the nature of operation like rough turning or finishturning. 4.6TOOLMATERIALS General purpose hand cutting tools are usually made from carbon steel or tool steel. The single point lathe cutting tools are made of high speed steel (HSS).the main alloying elements in 1841 HSS


tools are 18 percent tungsten, 4 percent chromium and 1 percent vanadium.5 to 10 percent cobalt is alsoaddedtoimprovetheheatresistingpropertiesofthetool. Carbidetippedtoolsfixedintoolholders,aremostlyusedinproductionshops. 4.7TOOLGEOMETRY Asinglepointcuttingtoolusedonlathemaybeconsideredasasimplewedge.Figure4.8shows the common turning tools used for different operations. Figure 6.9 shows the basic angles of a simple turningtool.


4.8.1Turning Cylindricalshapes,both external andinternal,areproducedbyturningoperation.Turning is the processinwhichthematerialisremovedbyatraversingcuttingtool,fromthesurfaceofarotatingwork piece.Theoperationusedformachininginternalsurfacesisoftencalledtheboringoperationinwhicha holepreviouslydrilledisenlarged. For turning long work, first it should be faced and center drilled at one end and then supported bymeansofthetailstockcentre. 4.8.2Boring Boring is enlarging a hole and is used when correct size drill is not available. However, it should benotedthatboringcannotmakeahole. 4.8.3Facing Facing is a machining operation, performed to make the end surface of the work piece, flat and perpendicular to the axis of rotation. For this, the work piece may be held in a chuck and rotated about the lathe axis. A facing tool is fed perpendicular to the axis of the lathe. The tool is slightly inclined towardstheendoftheworkpiece. 4.8.4TaperTurning A taper is defined as the uniform change in the diameter of a work piece, measured along its length. It is expressed as a ratio of the difference in diameters to the length. It is also expressed in degreesofhalftheincluded(taper)angle. Taperturningreferstotheproductionofaconicalsurface,ontheworkpieceonalathe. Short steep tapers may be cut on a lathe by swiveling the compound rest to the required angle. Here, thecuttingtoolisfedbymeansofthecompoundslidefeedhandle.Theworkpieceisrotatedinachuck orfaceplateorbetweencenters.


4.8.5Drilling Holesthatareaxiallylocatedincylindricalpartsareproducedbydrillingoperation,usingatwist drill. For this, the work piece is rotated in a chuck or face plate. The tail stock spindle has a standard taper.Thedrillbitisfittedintothetailstockspindledirectlyorthroughdrillchuck.Thetailstockisthen moved over the bed and clamped on it near the work. When the job rotates, the drill bit is fed into the workbyturningthetailstockhandwheel. 4.8.6Knurling It is the process of embossing a diamond shaped regular pattern on the surface of a work piece using a special knurling tool. This tool consists of a set of hardened steel rollers in a holder with the teethcutontheirsurfaceinadefinitepattern.Thetoolisheldrigidlyonthetoolpostandtherollersare pressed against the revolving work piece to squeeze the metal against the multiple cutting edges. The purposeofknurlingistoprovideaneffectivegrippingsurfaceonaworkpiecetopreventitfromslipping whenoperatedbyhand. 4.8.7Chamfering It is the operation of beveling the extreme end of a work piece. Chamfer is provided for better look, to enable nut to pass freely on threaded work piece, to remove burrs and protect the end of the workpiecefrombeingdamaged. 4.8.8Threading Threading is nothing but cutting helical groove on a work piece. Threads may be cut either on the internal or external cylindrical surfaces. A specially shaped cutting tool, known as thread cutting tool, is used for this purpose. Thread cutting in a lathe is performed by traversing the cutting tool at a definiterate,inproportiontotherateatwhichtheworkrevolves.



4.9SAFETYPRECAUTIONS 1. Always wear eye protection preferably industrial quality safety glasses with sideshields. The lathe can throw off sharp, hot metal chips at considerable speed as well as spin off spirals of metal that canbequitehazardous.Don'ttakechanceswithyoureyes. 2. Wearshortsleeveshirts,loosesleevescancatchonrotatingworkandquicklypullyourhandorarm intoharm'sway. 3. Wear shoes preferably leather work shoes to protect your feet from sharp metal chips on the shopfloorandfromtoolsandchunksofmetalthatmaygetdropped. 4. Remove wrist watches, necklaces, chains and other jewelry. Tie back long hair so it can't get caught intherotatingwork.Thinkaboutwhathappenstoyourfaceifyourhairgetsentangled. 5. Always double check to make sure your work is securely clamped in the chuck or between centers beforestartingthelathe.Startthelatheatlowspeedandincreasethespeedgradually. 6. Get in the habit of removing the chuck key immediately after use. Some users recommend never removing your hand from the chuck key when it is in the chuck. The chuck key can be a lethal projectileifthelatheisstartedwiththechuckkeyinthechuck. 7. Keep your fingers clear of the rotating work and cutting tools. This sounds obvious, but I am often temptedtobreakawaymetalspiralsastheyformatthecuttingtool. 8. Avoid reaching over the spinning chuck. For filing operations, hold the tang end of the file in your lefthandsothatyourhandandarmarenotabovethespinningchuck. 9. Neveruseafilewithabaretangthetangcouldbeforcedbackintoyourwristorpalm.


Exercise1 Facingandplainturning


Aim Toobtainrequireddiameterofacylindricalworkpiecewiththegivenlength(Fig4.11). Tools&Equipment Lathe machine. Mild steel bar, right hand cutting tool, box key or tool post key, chuck key, steel rule, outsidecalipersorverniercalipers. Sketch 2x45 28.50.2 1300.2 FigureMSE1: Plain Turning Theory Facingistheoperationsoffinishingtheendsofworktomakeendsflat,smoothandtorequiredlength. Roughturningoperationisusedwhereexcessivestockistoberemovedandsurfacefinishisnotcritical. For such a operation deep cuts with coarse feed are used. During rough machining, maximum metal is removedandverylittleoversizedimensionisleftforfinishingoperation. Procedure 1. Thegivenworkpieceisheldinthe3jawchuckofthelathemachineandtightenedfirmlywithchuck key. 2. Right hand single point cutting tool is taken tightened firmly with the help of box key in the tool post. 3. Machine is switched on and the tool post is swiveled and the cutting point is adjusted such that it positioned approximately for facing operation then the tool is fed into the work piece and the tool postisgiventhetransversemovementbyrotatingthehandwheelofthecrossslide. 4. With this facing is completed and the tool post is swiveled and cutting point is made parallel to the axisofworkpiece. 5. Depth of cut is given by cross slide to the tool post and the side hand wheel is rotated to give the longitudinalmovementforthetoolpostandjobisturnedtotherequiredlengthanddiameter. 6. After completion of the job it is inspected for the dimensions obtained with the help of steel rule andoutsidecaliperorverniercaliper. Precautions 1. Workpieceshouldbeheldfirmly. 2. Inroughturningoperationdonotoverfeedthetool,asitmaydamagethecuttingpointofthetool. 3. Exercise over hung of tool should be avoided as it results in chatter and causes rough machined surface. 4. It is important to ensure that during facing operation the cutting is performed from center point to theouterdiameteroftheworkpiece. ResultThejobisthusmadeaccordingtothegivendimensions.


Exercise2 Stepturning


Aim Toobtainrequireddiameters(steps)onacylindricalworkpiecewiththegivenlengths. Tools&Equipment Lathe machine. Mild steel bar, right hand cutting tool, box key or tool post key, chuck key, steel rule, outsidecalipersorverniercalipers. Theory Step turning is the operation of creating various cylindrical cross sections on a metal blank. Rough turning operation is used where excessive stock is to be removed and surface finish is not critical. For such a operation deep cuts with coarse feed are used. During rough machining maximum metal is removedandverylittleoversizedimensionisleftforfinishingoperation. Sketch


40 33 27

FigureMSE2:StepTurning Procedure 1. The given work piece is held in the 3jawchuck of the lathe machine and tightened firmly with chuckkey. 2. Right hand single point cutting tool is taken tightened firmly with the help of box key in the tool post. 3. Machine is switched on and the tool post is swiveled and the cutting point is adjusted such that it positioned approximately for facing operation then the tool is fed into the work piece and the tool postisgiventhetransversemovementbyrotatingthehandwheelofthecrossslide. 4. Withthis facing iscompletedandthetoolpostis swiveledandcuttingpoint ismadeparalleltothe axisofworkpiece. 5. Depth of cut is given by cross slide to the tool post and the side hand wheel is rotated to give the longitudinal movement for the tool post and job is turned to the required length and diameters accordingtothesketchshowninfigure. 6. After completion of the job it is inspected for the dimensions obtained with the help of steel rule andoutsidecaliperorverniercaliper. Precautions 1. Workpieceshouldbeheldfirmly. 2. In rough turning operation do not over feed the tool, as it may damage the cutting point of the tool. 3. Exercise over hung of tool should be avoided as it results in chatter and causes rough machined surface. 4. Itisimportanttoensurethatduringfacingoperationthecuttingisperformedfromcenterpointto theouterdiameteroftheworkpiece. ResultThejobisthusmadeaccordingtothegivendimensions.


Exercise3 Shoulderturning


Aim Toobtainrequireddiametersonacylindricalworkpiecewiththegivendimensions. Tools&Equipment Lathe machine, Mild steel bar, right hand cutting tool, box key or tool post key, chuck key, steel rule, outsidecalipersorverniercalipers. Sketch

Figure4.13:ShoulderTurning Procedure 1. Thegivenworkpieceisheldinthe3jawchuckofthelathemachineandtightenedfirmlywithchuck key. 2. Right hand single point cutting tool is taken tightened firmly with the help of box key in the tool post. 3. Machine is switched on and the tool post is swiveled and the cutting point is adjusted such that it positioned approximately for facing operation then the tool is fed into the work piece and the tool postisgiventhetransversemovementbyrotatingthehandwheelofthecrossslide. 4. With this facing is completed and the tool post is swiveled and cutting point is made parallel to the axisofworkpiece. 5. Depth of cut is given by cross slide to the tool post and the side hand wheel is rotated to give the longitudinalmovementforthetoolpostandjobisturnedtotherequiredlengthanddiameters. 6. After completion of the job it is inspected for the dimensions obtained with the help of steel rule andoutsidecaliperorverniercaliper. Precautions 1. Workpieceshouldbeheldfirmly. 2. Inroughturningoperationdonotoverfeedthetool,asitmaydamagethecuttingpointofthetool. 3. Exercise over hung of tool should be avoided as it results in chatter and causes rough machined surface. 4. It is important to ensure that during facing operation the cutting is performed from center point to theouterdiameteroftheworkpiece. ResultThejobisthusmadeaccordingtothegivendimensions.


References WorkshopmanualbyP.Kannaiah&K.L.Narayana