CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1

Background of Study Language is one aspect of culture. It expressed the human who use the culture.

Linguistic is one of element of culture. If we analyze and describe about language, automatically we must analyze and describe of culture. No one can be separeted from language. It holds an important sociocultural in human life, and it is always used in every activities of human life. Tarigan (987:6) explained that language is the principal modality of human communication and as a tool to convey human activities in the term of communication. Sumarlam (2004:173) states that cohession is semantic relation between one element in the text and some other element that is crucial for its interpretation. This other element must also be found within the text. Cohesion refers to the range of publisities that exist for linking something with what has gone before. Without cohesion the sentence system cannot be effectively activated all. Hassan and Halliday (1976) in their website, www://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ cohesion_ (linguistics), state that cohesion is the grammatical and lexical relationship within a text or sentence. Cohesion can be defined as the links that hold a text together and give it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of coherence. Further Hassan and Halliday (1976) said that kinds of relationship refer to reference, including lexical cohesion and conjunction.

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Within a text. the meaning of cohesion (Halliday 1994:170) refers to the sources within language that provide continuity in a text. Besides. cohesive relations are non-structural relations which help the text to be understood together. are related to each other with substantively and by cohesion. we would know what his conveyence is in good speaking or not.” (Texts usually have certain structure.Then Halliday and Hassan (1976:298-299) say that cohesion is a necessary though not sufficient condition for the creation of a text. Furthermore. According with Cahyono’s statements. Cohesion is the ties and ulationship found in the texts). Universitas Sumatera Utara . components of linguistic system. however. Kohesi adalah ikatan-ikatan dan hubunganhubungan yang ada dalam teks. The structure is also determined by the completeness of sentence structure. Some of the factor determining the completeness of sentence structure is given in the form of cohesion. What creates text i textual or text forming. and it is a characteristic of a text that the sequence of the sentence can not be disturbed without destroying or altering the meaning radically. Struktur itu juga ditentukan oleh kelengkapan struktur kalimat. above and over that is provided by clause structures and clause complexes. of which cohesion is one part. including its cohesive relations with other sentences. Cahyono (1995:231) states about cohesion in the context of linguistic follows: “Teks biasanya memiliki struktur tertentu. writer should know that the analysis of the cohesive relation will give us a clear view how the speaker conveys his ideas. The sentence of a text. sebagian faktor yang menentukan kelengkapan struktur kalimat itu diberikan dalam kohesi. Therefore. the meaning of each sentence depends on its environment.

Hassan (1984:320) presents five categories of general lexical cohesion: 1. This field tends to have specialized vocabularies and tend to engage in specialized activities. The field is discovered through the content words within a text. Hyponymy (classes / super ordination and subclasses / is a type of) Hyponymy is relation between two words in which the meaning of one of the words includes the meaning of another words. Repetition is the act or process instance of repeating or being repeated. Example: Rebecca is in the race on Saturday. 2. It is concerned with the content words and primarily related to that field. For example: They are taken to the clinic 3.Lexical cohesion refers to the relationship between or among word in a text. Synonymy (similarity of meaning) Synonymy is a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another word or other words in a language. Repetition / Re-iteration (including inflection and derivation). . Universitas Sumatera Utara . For examples: Wet season . For example: She’ll win a trophy.they are taken to the hospital. Everyone believes that she will win the race. Antonimy (opposite or contrastive meaning) Antonymy is a word having a meaning opposite that of another word. The prize won’t mean much to her.dry season 4.

government law. antonymy. Meronymy (whole part relation) Meronymy is a figure of speech in which one word or phrase is subtituted for another with which is closely. result. synonymy. For example: Law – family law. civil law. The previous explain has motivated the writer to analyze the lexical cohesion used in the short story “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find. In this short story. Ada faktor lain seperti relevansi dan faktor tekstual luar (extratextual factor) yang ikut mennetukan keutuhan wacana. contract law. Cook (in Abdul Rani et al. and compesation law. role. 2006:872) said that penggunaan alat kohesi itu memang penting untuk membentuk wacana yang utuh. They are also used a way of understanding a text (written discourse). international law. There are other factors such as relevance and external textual factors (extratextual factor) that will determine the integrity of the discourse). there are many such as repetition. and interaction. and meronymy. hyponymy.5. (the use of cohesion is important to form a whole discourse. The short story entitled “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find” is a short of written discourse wich provide the relationships between or among words in a text. They are used to give pressure and bolder in a context to describe similarity difference. but it is not enough if it uses such katon marker.” Universitas Sumatera Utara . position. tetapi tidak cukup menggunakan penanda katon tersebut.

1.” 1. conjunction. To find the dominant lexical cohesion used in short story “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find. but in this study the writer just discusses about the genereal lexical cohesion. To find the lexical cohession used in short story “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find”. 2. the problems are: 1. The writer expects to get some objectives. What kinds of lexical cohesion are used in the short story “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find”? 2. and ellipsis.3 Scope of the Analysis There are kinds of cohesion such as reference.4 Objective of the Study By writing this thesis (skripsi). Theoretically. this analysis is also expected to be usefull as references for the readers who are interested in analyzing the same subject. Universitas Sumatera Utara .2 Problem of the Analysis In accordance with the scope of the analysis. 1. Practically it is expected that this analysis will make me and the readers better understanding about lexical cohesion. What is the dominant lexical cohesion used in the short story “A Good Man It’s Hard to Find”? 1. tehy are: 1.5 Significance of the Study The analysis is expected to be able to give some contributions both practically and theoretically.

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