You are on page 1of 34

Dr .

Abu Hassan Muhammad Ali
Department of Veterinary Services
MALAYSIA

ANIMAL PROTEIN AND ANIMAL
FEED PRODUCTION IN MALAYSIA

Introduction
 Animal proteins are more biologically

complete than plant proteins.
 Plant proteins lack one or more amino acids.
 Besides fish livestock products are major
source of animal proteins
 Eggs
 Milk
 Meat

 >60% of livestock production cost is feed

Consumption of livestock products
 Total consumption of

livestock products increased

CONSUMPTION in 2012 (Metric
tons)

 from 1.7 mmt (1991) to 3.16

173,815 ,
5%

mmt (2012)
 Average 3.6% increase per year

 Eggs and poultry meat

constitute 60% of total
consumption

24,523 ,
1%

248,409 ,
8%

807,990 ,
25%

561,300 ,
18%

1,348,630 ,
43%

 74% of total meat

consumption was poultry
meat.
Beef

Mutton

Pork

Poultry

Eggs

Milk

Per Capita Consumption

Milk and dairy products
remained the highest per
capita consumption

Beef

Mutton

Declining trend of pork
consumption, -0.6% per year
Increasing per capita
consumption @ 4.1%, 3% ,
0.6% and 0.3% per year for
mutton, beef, eggs and milk

Poultry

Egg

60
50

Poultry meat registered the
highest rate of increase,
average 5.2% per year

Pork

48.61
45.56

43.50

40

30
20

20.31
16.38

10

9.78

0

3.47
0.42
1991

18.48
8.39
5.75
0.80
2012

Milk

Projected demand in 2020

The human population is projected to
be 32.4 million in 2020.
The government policies is gearing
towards Malaysia being a high income
society.
Demand for meat especially beef and
poultry are expected to increase by
>58.8% and 53.3% respectively in 10
years (2010 – 2020)
Demand for mutton, eggs and milk are
expected to register >30% increase
while pork will register the lowest
increase of slightly >10%

300,000

245,203

250,000
200,000

209,413
154,402

150,000

Beef

100,000

Mutton

50,000

19,669

20,816

23,782

2010

2015

2020

-

14,000
12,000

11,459

10,000
8,000

9,879
8,572
Poultry meat

6,000

Eggs pcs

4,000
2,000

1,227

1,507

1,845

2010

2015

2020

-

Production of livestock products
 Total production
 increased from 1.05 mmt

PRODUCTION in 2012 (metric
tons)

(1991) to 2.38 mmt (2012)

75,000

51,277

 Average increase 5.8% per year

3,156
233,183

642,600

 Poultry meat and eggs

contribute 87.3% of total
production

1,374,500

 The ruminant subsectors

(milk, beef, mutton/sheep)
contribute only 5.6% of total
production
Beef

Mutton

Pork

Poultry

Eggs

Milk

Beef
Parameters

2000

2012

%
Increase

170,000

Production (mt)

17,510

51,277

192.8

150,000

Consumption (mt)

110,593

173,818

57.2

15.83

29.8

88.3

5.75

21.1

Per Capita (kg)

4.75

110,000
MT

SSL (%)

130,000

21.78

21.15

17.95

18.49

16.06

20

15.83

25

17.89

5

70,000
50,000
30,000

15
10

Production
Consumption

29.5

29.17

30.12

28.26

30

24.17

35

28.22

90,000

8.86
4.75 5.01 5.06 5.18 5.81 5.32 5.49 5.33 4.89 5.35 5.45

5.76

10,000

1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014
YEAR

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
SSL (%)

Per Cap (kg)

Beef
Population

2000

2012

% change

1,000,000

Buffalo

142,042

122,778

-13.56

900,000

Cattle

733,892

784,684

6.92

800,000

Total

875,934

907,462

3.60

700,000
600,000

No. of Farms (N=12,219)
• Commercial (n=971)
• Semi commercial (n=1,234)
• Traditional (n=10,014)

500,000
400,000
300,000
200,000
100,000

Buffalo

Cattle

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

Main source of imported beef
• India (buffalo meat - 98,650MT))
• Australia (beef – 12,081MT)

Mutton & Lamb
Parameters

2000

2012

%
Change

Production (mt)

888

3,156

255.42
25,000

SSL (%)

5.96

12.87

115.94

Per Capita (kg)

0.64

0.80

25.00

11.2

10.3

10.17

8.99

8.6

7.7

5.94

8

5.96

10

8.76

10.36

14

20,000

12.87

76.56

11.73

24,523

12.13

13,889

Consumption (mt)

12

30,000

Production

15,000

Consumption

10,000

6
4
0.8

0.62

0.69

0.69

0.69

0.64

0.67

0.65

0.59

0.5

0.6

0.66

0.64

2

5,000

0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
SSL (%)

Per Cap (kg)

Linear (SSL (%))

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Mutton & Lamb
Population

2000

2012

% Change

Goat

237,634

505,034

112.53

Sheep

145,257

124,787

-14.09

Total

382,891

629,821

64.49

No. of Farms (N= 4,598 )
• Commercial (n = 22)
• Semi commercial = 235)
• Traditional (n = 4,241)

600,000

500,000

400,000

300,000

200,000

100,000

Goat

Sheep

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

-

2000

Importation of goat/sheep meat
• Australia (8,802MT)
• New Zealand (8,393MT)
• Others (325MT)

Pork
Parameters

2000

2012

%
Change

Production (mt)

159,818 233,183

45.91

Consumption (mt)

160,672 248,409

54.61

SSL (%)

99.24

93.87

-5.41

Per Capita (kg)

19.38

20.97

8.20

270,000

250,000

230,000

93.87

94.57

95.36

97.2

98.35

98.73

98.85

98.85

99.56

99.32

98.68

100

99.24

120

99.47

210,000

190,000

0

20.97

21.39

21.65

19

17.88

20.58

18.65

20

21.12

19.45

40

19.19

Consumption
19.92

60
19.38

Production

19.38

80

170,000

150,000
1998
SSL (%)

Per Cap (kg)

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

2010

2012

2014

Pork
Swine Population
2,500,000
2,000,000
1,500,000
1,000,000
500,000
-

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Sarawak

409,687 427,695 461,289 534,249 544,033

386,705 423,858 496,881 476,619 346,146

381,581

333,117

Sabah

93,400

112,224

99,179

114,780

83,299

120,000

91,091

82,200

105,075

83,972

77,926

72,315

S.Malaysia 1,391,3

1,432,6

1,486,7

1,421,6

1,483,5

1,528,9

1,514,1

1,441,0

1,407,1

1,401,1

1,462,8

1,395,8

Producers (N=644)

Close-house (n=2)
Open-house (n=642)

Importers of pork cuts (N=61)
• Distributors (n=53)
• Processors (n=8)

Source
• EU (8,615 MT)
• Canada (620 MT)
• China (260 MT)
• Thailand (507 MT)

Poultry meat
Parameters

2000

Production (‘000 mt)

714.27 1,375.50

%
Change
92.43

Consumption (‘000 mt)

635 .21 1,349.63

112.31

SSL (%)

112.45 101.92

1,400

1,300

1,200

27.3

43.5

-9.36
59.34

1,100
‘000 mt

Per Capita (kg)

2012

140

1,000

Production
Consumption

120

900

100
80

800

60
40

700

20
0
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
SSL (%)

Per Cap (kg)

600
1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

Imports (RM329 million)


China (22,726MT)
Thailand (16,493MT)
Others (2,049 MT)

1,237.05

1,214.37

1,096.25

1,058.97

998.17

907.72

891.01

839.73

103.60

105.75

115.31

2008

2009

2010

137.45

101.83

2007

2012

127.68
2006

120.10

89.05
2005

2011

87.76
2004

200.00

80.31

400.00

2003

Consumption (46,470 mt)
Local production (24, 737 mt)
Imports (41,266 mt)

74.32

600.00

2002

Processed product/special cuts

84.55

779.28

800.00

781.12

1,000.00

682.00

1,200.00

2001

Integrator (n=10)
Contract farm (n=2,983)

639.25

75.02

Poultry integrated system

1,400.00

2000

Production (‘000 mt)

1,180.29

POULTRY MEAT

0.00

S.Malaysia
75.6, 6%

Sabah & Sarawak

Production (‘000 mt) 2012

61.85, 4%
S.Malaysia

Exports (RM 404 million)

Singapore (43 million birds/yr)

1237.05,
90%

Sabah
Sarawak

Poultry Slaughtering & Processing
Central slaughter
• 20 plants with cold chain facilities
• VHM accredited by DVS
• 30% market share

1.14 mil birds per day
Commersial Abatoir
342,000 birds (514 mt
per day)

SME Slaughter 798,000
birds (1,197 mt per day)

SME slaughtering
• 70% market share

Processing (commercial)
• 33 plants VHM accredited
• RM 1.6 bil annual turnover

1,710 mt slaughtered chicken
1,438 mt marketed

272 mt further
processed

Processing (SME)
• 86 plants
• RM 108 mil annual turnover

Commercial
Processing
(154 mt/day

SME
(118 mt/day)

Eggs
Parameters

2000

2012

Production (million)

6,642

10,710

%
Change
61.25

Consumption (million)

5,727

9,354

63.32

SSL (%)

115.95

114.49

-1.26

Per Capita (pcs)

246

308

25.2

Per Capita (kg)

14.78

12,000

11,000

10,000

9,000

18.50

25.2
8,000

350

7,000
114.49

115.35

114.63

117.53

119.38

114.58

109.06

108.7

111.7

113.82

150

115.29

200

302 314 308
Production

112.39

250

260 267 263
246 251 248 251 243
115.95

300

283 283

6,000

Consumption

100

5,000

50

1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014

0
2000200120022003200420052006 2007 200820092010 2011 2012
SSL (%)

Per Cap (pcs)

6,000

6,500

6,391

6,143

6,085

7,000

 Export (~RM2 bil)
• Singapore (RM1.7 bil)

5,817

7,485

8,000

7,045

8,482

9,000

8,002

Integrator (n=6)
Contract farms (n=270)

5,763


10,000

9,221

Farms (Chicken=338, Duck=205)

5,810

8,941

Eggs

5,000
4,000

Production (million eggs) 2012

S.Malaysia
Sabah
9221, 86%

1,000
0

Sarawak
S. Malaysia

Sabah & Sarawak

1,489

1,417

1,344

1,268

1,230

1,156

1,251

993

1,088

1,080

2,000

1,186

632, 6%

1,003

3,000

832

857, 8%

Dairy
Parameters

2000

2012

%
Change

Production (m lt)

29.49

75.00

154.28

1,050.16

807.99

-23.06

SSL (%)

2.82

9.28

229.08

Per Capita (kg)

45.14

27.75

-38.52

Consumption (m lt)

1,600.00

1,400.00

1,200.00

1,000.00

800.00

Livestock

Dairy cows – 15,851 hd

Dairy cattle & buffalo – 34,698 hd
Farms (N=783)
• Commercial (n=30)
• Semi commercial (n=43)
• Traditional (n = 710)
Liquid milk importsd (7,867 MT)

Australia (4,595 MT)

New Zealand (2,581 MT)

Indonesia (690 MT)

600.00

400.00

200.00

1998

2000

2002

2004

Production

2006

2008

Consumption

2010

2012

2014

Value (RM million)

Total ex-farm value of
livestock products
 RM 5.9 billion (2001)
 RM 13.2 billion (2012)

Estimated total economic
value of livestock industry in
2012 was RM79.35 billion

7,000.00
6,000.00
5,000.00
4,000.00
3,000.00
2,000.00

Total Ex-Farm Value (RM mil)

1,000.00

16,000

Beef

2001
283.38

2012
929.17

Mutton

18.60

69.66

1,269.69
3,064.45
1,224.52

2,053.60
6,866.31
3,143.39

40.88

150.00

5.28

12.63

Pork
Poultry

Eggs
Milk
Skin & Hides

14,000
12,000
RM million

0.00

10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
2001

2005

2010

2011

2012

Value (RM million)

Poultry continued to be the major sub-sector with ex-farm value of RM 10
billion in 2012, contributing 76% of total livestock value

The ruminants sub-sector although remained comparatively small has shown
positive growth , contributing > RM 1 billion ex-farm value since 2010.
Ex-farm value of livectock products (2012)

2012

8,000.00

Ruminant

6,866.31

7,000.00

Pork
1,174.88 ,
9%

2,053.60 ,
15%

6,000.00

RM million

Poultry

5,000.00
4,000.00

3,143.38
3,000.00

10,009.69 ,
76%

2,053.60
2,000.00
1,174.88
1,000.00
Ruminant
products

Pork

Poultry meat

Eggs

Increase in ex-farm value from 2001 to 2012
 Contributed by
Milk

 increase in

production (69% )
 Increase in price
(22%)

Eggs

Poultry

Pork

Mutton

Beef
0.00%

50.00%

100.00%

150.00%

200.00%

250.00%

Beef
Production 165.42%

Mutton
236.47%

Pork
26.25%

Poultry
79.31%

Eggs
58.29%

Milk
148.67%

Price

11.28%

28.11%

24.96%

62.17%

47.55%

23.54%

Self Sufficiency Level (SSL %)


The SSL for poultry meat and eggs
remained above 100% since early
1980’s
The SSL for pork started to decline
below 100% since the year 2000
The SLL for ruminant products
(milk, beef and mutton/lamb) is
steadily increasing
The production balance has not
changed much from deficit 712,716
mt (1991) to deficit 784,951 mt
(2012) . The deficit has increased on
average 0.5% per year.

Beef

Mutton

Pork

Poultry

Egg

Milk

140.00
129.77
120.00

116.79
111.95

114.49
101.92
93.87

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00

29.50
20.00
-

22.42
8.81
3.46
1991

12.87
9.28
2012

ANIMAL FEED REQUIREMENT
Feed constitute 60-70% of total cost of livestock production.
Annual requirement of animal feed approx. 7 million tonnes.
Major users of feed are intensive livestock industries (poultry & swine)
Ruminant industry, extensive and semi-intensive system depend mainly on pasture and
locally available feedstuff.
Feed milling industry produces 5 mil. tonnes of compounded feeds annually

Imported ingredients : 70-80% : Mainly maize and soya bean meal
Local ingredients : 20-30% : Mainly PKC and agro-industrial products

FEED MILLING
Feed Millers

Home mixers

 No. : 53

 No. : 250

 Production : approx. 5 mil.

 Production : approx.

tons.
 Product : commercial
compounded feed.

350,000 tons.
 Product : Mainly for farm
use.

 Poultry, duck & swine (>90%)

 Swine (95%)

 Quail, fish, ruminants and

 Poultry & duck (5%)

others (<10%)

Poultry Feed

2,000

 42 feedmills

1,900

 90% imported ingredients

1,848
1,801

1,800

 Major feed ingredients
 Corn (50 – 55%)

1,733
1,686

RM/mt

1,700

 Soya bean (25 – 30%)

 Cost of feeds increased
60% for past 10 years

1,745
1,698

1,600
1,539
1,492

1,500

11

1,400
7

6

6
4

2

2

1,300

1,333
1,286

3
1

1,200

2006

2007

Broiler Starter (RM/ t.m.)

2008

2009

2010

Broiler Finisher (RM/t.m.)

Quantity of animal feedstuffs imported
(2010) : Semenanjung Malaysia
 4.06 million metric tons of feeds &

ingredients imported in 2010
(Semenanjung Malaysia)
 Maize (72%)
 Sayabean meal (16%)

16%

72%

Maize

Soyabean meal

Bran & Residue of wheat

Rapeseed meal

Copra cake

Rice bran

Meat meal

Fish meal

Starch meal

Other feed preparations

Other animal feed

IMPORTS (mt)
Maize
Soyabean meal
Bran & Residue of
wheat
Rapeseed meal
Copra cake
Rice bran
Meat meal
Fish meal
Starch meal
Other feed
preparations
Other animal feed

2000
2,267,214
540,244

2010
%change
2,934,728
29.4%
634,646
17.5%

33,128

165,975

401.0%

16,262
103
3,936
54,939
7,063
25,644

16,288
707
0
38,002
25,304
9,001

0.2%
586.4%
-100.0%
-30.8%
258.3%
-64.9%

131,655

180,382

37.0%

55,863

58,732

5.1%

Value of animal feedstuffs imported
(2010) : Semenanjung Malaysia

52%

RM 4.55 billion value of feedstuffs
imported in 2010 (Semenanjung
Malaysia)

Maize (52%)
Sayabean meal (23%)

23%

Maize

Soyabean meal

Bran & Residue of wheat

Rapeseed meal

Copra cake

Rice bran

Meat meal

Fish meal

Starch meal

Other feed preparations

Other animal feed

IMPORTS (RM mil)
Maize
Soyabean meal
Bran & Residue of
wheat
Rapeseed meal
Copra cake
Rice bran
Meat meal
Fish meal
Starch meal
Other feed
preparations
Other animal feed

2000
988.90
416.97

2010
%change
2,372.03 12.7%
1,021.20 13.2%

15.47

177.97

95.5%

8.25
0.04
1.09
54.27
13.55
31.12

14.51
0.42
1.01
79.09
74.52
16.38

6.9%
87.1%
-0.7%
4.2%
40.9%
-4.3%

343.30

648.16

8.1%

55.43

147.25

15.1%

IMPORT & EXPORT


Imports increased faster than exports
Animal feeds constitute 57% of total
imports, followed by dairy products (21%)
and beef (10%)
Major exports were animal feed (38%),
dairy products (23%), live poultry (18%) and
eggs (11%)

14,000.00

live animals

livestock products

animal feeds

627.5, 18%
1318.55,
38%
1498.21,
44%

12,025.29

12,000.00

10,000.00

EXPORT (RM million & %) - 2011

IMPORT (RM million & %) - 2011
8,751.40

live animals

8,000.00

livestock products

animal feeds

224.75 , 2%

6,000.00
4,000.00

2,719.43

3,444.26
6,836.04 ,
57%

2,000.00
2007
IMPORT

2011
EXPORT

4,964.50 ,
41%

Balance of Trade

The Balance of Trade deficit increased
from (RM 6.0 billion) in 2007 to (RM 8.6
billion) in 2011.

Importation of animal feed ingredients
was the major cause.

Increased in imported price of goods was
the major reason to the rising deficit.

Balance of Trade
1,000.00
306.79

370.61

322.63

302.68

402.75

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

(1,000.00)

(5,517.49)

(2,000.00)
(2,263.09)
(3,000.00)

(5,168.71)

(2,830.78) (2,731.96)
(3,120.64)

(4,000.00)

(3,507.98)

(3,466.29)

(3,701.30)

(4,548.83)
(3,701.30)

(5,000.00)

(4,548.83)
(3,507.98)

(5,168.71)
(5,517.49)

(6,000.00)
live animals

livestock products

animal feeds

Trade balance

2011
2010
2009
2008
2007

1,318.55
974.24
706.14

6,142.95
5,254.97

1,215.49

1,001.46

animal feeds (Export)

6,836.04

4,916.79
4,509.44

animal feeds (Import)

Challenges in Livestock Production

Production
resources
and
functional
factors, eg

• Land
• Labour
• Capital
• Resources
• Feed
• Breed
• Services
• Providers
• Information

Environmental
factors
• Political
• Economy
• Social
• Technology
• Ecology
• Legal/policy

Sustainability of livestock farming
 Protection of environment
 Biodiversity
 Waste
 Greenhouse gas

 Economic efficiency



Quality of product
Efficiency of animals
Herd size
Farm economy

 Social acceptability
 Rural development
 Insuring minimum income
 Food security

Protection of
the
environment

Social
acceptability

Economic
efficiency

Science & Technology as the drivers
of change
Breeding and genetics



Rate of genetic change
Predominance of few highly specialised breed
More application of molecular genetic
Policy framework required that encourage sustainable use of local
genetic resources

Animal nutrition
• Quality & availability of novel feed resources
• Improve efficiency and productivity of livestock production
• Public health issues with regard to residues
Animal Health and Diseases

• New emerging and reemerging diseases and zoonoses
• Effect of climate change

CONCLUSION
The livestock industry will continue to contribute towards food security and
income generation.

Demand will continue to increase due to human population growth , higher
income and urbanisation.
Challenges have to be addressed effectively especially to ensure sustainability
of the industry. Feed being one of the most important input that influence the
cost of production need close attention of all stake holders
Science and technology will continue to be the driver of change a sustainable
future of the livestock industry

Thank You