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- A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering
BCA Sustainable Construction Series - 2
- A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering
Sustainable Construction -
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering
The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) has been working closely with industry partners to promote sustainable construction. Sustainable construction refers to the adoption of building designs, construction methods and materials that are environmentally friendly. It also means using materials and resources that have sustainable supplies and are readily available from many sources. I n s tea d of re ly i n g too hea v i ly o n ra w ma te r i a l s s u c h a s s a n d a n d g ra n ite, we s hould al so cons ider the adoption of steel, compos ite ma te r i a l s a n d ot he r fo r m s of co n s t r u ct i o n s u c h a s u s i n g d r y wa l l s . H owever one major concern among the building practitioners i s the l eve l o f f i re p rote c t i o n re q u i re d a n d t h e e f f e c t i ve n e s s o f t h e s e p rote ctive mea s ures. It i s therefore important to address these issues and clear the misperceptions that are associated with fire protection for s u stainable construction. Thi s publication i s timely a s the Fire Code h a d b e e n rev i ewe d a n d t h e rev i s e d Fi re C o d e wa s p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e 2 0 07 to a d d re s s t h e s e concerns. This is the second in the Sustainable Construction series. It aims to provide information on fire safety requirements for buildings adopting steel and other methods of sustainable construction, different passive fire protection methods and the concept of performance-based fire engineering. Special thanks go to the Working Committee members for their time and effort in preparing this publication. I am confident that it will promote a better understanding of ﬁ re safety requirements for sustainable construction and serve as a useful guide for all building practitioners.
Dr John Keung Chief Executive Ofﬁcer Building and Construction Authority
Sustainable Construction - 4 .
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Content 06 07 08 11 25 39 63 76 77 78 Introduction Terminology simply explained Using the Guide Section 1: General Requirements Section 2: Building Elements Section 3: Fire Protection Methods Section 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design References Acknowledgements Photographs/Graphics Credit 5 .
performancebased fire safety engineering has gained popularity among designers. One major concern on the use of sustainable construction is the level of ﬁ re protection required and the effectiveness of these protective measures. This Guide attempts to provide useful information on passive ﬁ re protection and fire engineering for building practitioners who are involved in the development. Section Three highlights the different types of passive fire protection and Section Four explains the concept of performance-based ﬁ re engineering. Section Two elaborates the application of metal decking system. It comprises four sections. drywall system. However. Various efforts have been put in place to encourage wider use of sustainable materials and products such as steel.Sustainable Construction - Introduction The Building and Construction Authority has been actively promoting sustainable construction to the construction industry. ﬁ re-rated ceiling board system and other dry construction. especially for big and complex buildings as more economic designs can be obtained through analysis and modeling. designers follow a set of prescriptive Fire Code requirements in applying the required ﬁre protection. Detailed engineering analysis and/or calculations and active ﬁ re protection measures such as sprinkler system and mechanical ventilation are beyond the scope of this Guide. design and construction of buildings using sustainable materials. 6 . Section One explains the general requirements pertaining to fire resistance. Designers are advised to refer to technical journals for comprehensive design and analysis. drywalls and recycled materials. in recent years. Traditionally.
The cubicle extent of a building or compartment is the volume of space contained within the building or compartment. Prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with outbreak of fire. Compartment Compartment wall/ compartment floor Cubical extent Fire engineering/ Fire safety engineering Fire protection Fire resistance/ Fire rating Flammable Relevant Authority 7 . Relevant Authority means the Commissioner of Singapore Civil Defence Force and includes officers authorised by him generally or specifically to exercise the powers. or has rapid rate of flame spread. A part of a building separated from all other parts of the same building by compartment walls and/or compartment floors. Material quality that could ignite easily when exposed to flame. The minimum period of time during which an isolated structural or non-structural element may be expected to function satisfactorily while subjected to a standard fire test. A wall or a floor which is provided for the purpose of dividing a building into compartments. functions and duties conferred by the Fire Safety Act. A branch of engineering discipline that deals with the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. The standard fire test referred to by the Fire Code is the British Standards BS 476 Part 20 to 23 or its equivalent. A roof space above the top storey of a compartment is included in that compartment.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Terminology simply explained Combustible Material that burns intensely.
Sustainable Construction - Using the Guide This Guide is divided into 4 sections. SECTION 1: General Requirements • • • • • • • • • What are some of the revisions made to the Fire Code? Are ﬁre safety requirements more stringent for steel buildings than concrete building? How to verify that a ﬁre protection system or material has passed the ﬁre resistance test? Must compartment walls be constructed using concrete or masonry? Can bare steel structures be used for standalone carpark construction? What is the minimum requirement of ﬁre resistance for single-storey buildings? Is submission of ﬁre safety plan to the Relevant Authority required for a landed house? What is the ﬁre resistance requirement for fully automated mechanised car park? Do steel-framed buildings require more building inspections for fire protection systems? Page 12 13 14 16 20 21 22 23 24 SECTION 2: Building Elements • • • • • • • Is ﬁre protection required for composite metal decking ﬂoor system? Is there any other alternative dry construction for ﬂoor systems? Can drywall systems be used as party walls? Are combustible materials allowed to be used in external walls? Can drywalls be used to construct protected shafts? Are services allowed within the ceiling space if a ﬁre-rated ceiling board system is used to protect bare steel structures? Is ﬁre protection required for metal roofs? Page 27 29 30 33 36 37 38 8 . Information pertaining to frequently asked questions are listed here for easy reference.
52 53 Intumescent paint • • • • • • How does intumescent paint work? Do bigger steel sections require a thicker coat of intumescent paint? Can intumescent paint be applied to external areas? Is there any restriction to the use of intumescent paint? What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the intumescent paint? How to verify the thickness of intumescent paint? 54 55 56 57 58 60 9 .ﬁreprooﬁng? What are the do’s and don’ts when applying the spray-ﬁreprooﬁng? How can the surface appearance of the spray-ﬁreprooﬁng be improved? 49 50.53 51.A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering SECTION 3: Fire Protection Methods • • • What are the available methods to ﬁre protect steel-framed buildings? Is modiﬁcation to a proprietary ﬁre protection system allowed? What are the ways to achieve a cost-effective ﬁre protection system? Page 40-60 42 62 Fire-rated boards • • • • • Do the ﬁre-rated boards need to be in full contact with the steel element? Are ﬁre-rated boards suitable for circular steel members? Is there any restriction to the use of ﬁre-rated board systems? What are the good practices on storing and handling of ﬁre-rated boards? Are ﬁre-rated boards allowed at wet areas? 43 44 45 46 47 Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng • • • • Can cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng be used for all steel sections? What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the spray.
COC CP DOC EC Fire Code ISO PLS PSB QP SS American Society for Testing and Materials British Standard Clause Certificate of Conformity Code of Practice Declaration of Compliance European Code Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2007 International Organisation for Standardisation Product Listing Scheme Tüv Süd PSB Pte Ltd Qualified Person Singapore Standard 10 . prescriptive or performance-based) to ﬁre safety design? Is performance-based approach less stringent than prescriptive approach? When should performance-based approach be adopted? When are the Fire Safety Engineer (FSE) and Peer Reviewer required? Is it mandatory to engage a Registered Inspector (RI) who is an FSE for performancebased ﬁre safety works? Is it necessary to engage an FSE to re-evaluate addition and alteration works? Can a building be entirely designed to performance-based solutions? Page 64 65 66 68 69 70 70 71 Abbreviations The following abbreviations will be used in this publication: ASTM BS Cl.e.Sustainable Construction - SECTION 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design • • • • • • • • What is performance-based ﬁre engineering? What is the rationale of allowing developers/Qualiﬁed Persons to choose the type of approach (i.
A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering Section 1: General Requirements 11 .
The required fire resistance does not depend on the type of building materials used in the building. floor area. In the 2007 revision. In considering the types of structural materials to be used in a new building. the QP should consult the Relevant Authority. in areas that are likely to subject to the risks of explosion or where there is presence of corrosive atmosphere. However. What are some of the revisions made to the Fire Code? One of the major changes to the 2007 revision is the relaxation on the use of ﬁ re-rated boards and intumescent paint on structural steel beams and columns. In the earlier version. one must know that the minimum period of fire resistance depends on factors such as the usage. they are allowed to be used only on beams (excluding transfer beams). such methods are allowed for the protection of structural steel beams and columns. For buildings exceeding 24m in height. fired-rated boards and intumescent paint can be used to protect structural steel columns and beams in all types of buildings with no height restriction imposed. habitable height and cubicle extent of the building. provided the building does not exceed 24m in height.Sustainable Construction - One of the main provisions of the Fire Code requires building elements and building materials to achieve the appropriate fire resistance when they formed part of the building compartment. Materials such as rubber and wood are combustible. The structural elements of a building a re to be constructed with non -flammable or non combustible materials and with the desired rating in fire resistance. 12 .
and insulation (resistance to excessive temperature rise on exposed face). Fire resistance is a property of a particular building element which measures its ability to resist the spread of fire through the material characteristics of • • • stability (resistance to collapse or excessive deflection). 13 . The only difference is the method of protection which depends on whether the building is constructed using steel or concrete. ﬁ re resistance of a building element is expressed in terms of the minimum period of time during which the building element would function satisfactorily while subject to a standard ﬁ re test.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Are fire-safety requirements more stringent for steel buildings than concrete buildings? The ﬁ re-safety requirements are similar for both types of buildings. integrity (resistance to passage of flames and hot gases). Usually. measured in BS 476: part 20 to 23. It is the onus of the designer to accord additional and appropriate level of ﬁ re protection to materials used in the building which do not meet the required rating of ﬁ re resistance.
A partition system would consist of the steel stud frames with plaster (or gypsum) boards of certain thickness and sound insulation material (such as rockwool). the PLS is managed by Tüv Süd PSB Pte Ltd (formerly known as PSB Corporation).tuv-sud-psb. Any building material/system that is intended for ﬁre safety works listed under the PLS and used in compliance with the requirements stipulated in the Fire Code. anyone who intends to use a fire-rated material/ system should check with the manufacturers to ensure that the complete system is adopted.Sustainable Construction - How to verify that a fire protection system or material has passed the fire resistance test ? All testing of non-combustible materials and fire-rated construction have to be certified under the Product Listing Scheme (PLS) managed by an Accreditation Body. The said scheme took effect from 1 April 1998. 14 .rated ceiling board system. No separate approval is required. Therefore. The following URL provides more information about the PLS: http://www. would be deemed to be acceptable to the Relevant Authority.shtml These listed ﬁ re-rated building materials/systems are usually proprietary systems that have undergone vigorous ﬁ re tests to ensure that they are able to function satisfactorily in events of a real ﬁ re. the ceiling board and sound insulation material. A fire-rated ceiling board system would consist of the ceiling board hangers. Some examples are ﬁ red-rated partition system and ﬁ re.sg/testing/prodcert_prodlist. Currently in Singapore.
a supplier who has 3 types of products listed in the PLS will have 3 COCs. For instance.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering ABC Company 123 XYZ Road Singapore 999999 Products listed in the PLS will be granted a Certiﬁ cate of Conformity (COC) by PSB. SA LE P M The Declaration of Compliance (DOC) is a projectbased document that is given to each individual project after the application of the listed product. This is a product-based certificate that is given to each individual product. SA LE P M 15 . For instance. the manufacturer/applicator will apply to PSB for a DOC. after the application of intumescent paint onto a building.
currently measured in BS 476: Part 20 to 23. Drywalls that comply with the performance criteria stipulated in the Fire Code can also be used as compartment walls. loadbearing walls and external walls. contain the fire and prevent the spread of fire and smoke from one part of the building to another. 16 . co l umns. floors and other relevant separating structures. This is the most basic passive protection device to limit the fire size. The desired fire resistance of compartment wall. The same compartment rules apply to both concrete and steel-framed buildings.Sustainable Construction - Compartment walls and ﬂoors Must compartment walls be constructed using concrete or masonry? A compar tment is a par t of a building separated from other par ts of the same building by compar tment walls. The purpose of dividing a building into compartments is to prevent the spread of fire between specified parts of a building. floor and other relevant separating structures is the minimum period of time during which a particular building element may be expected to function satisfactorily while subject to a standard fire test. It is not necessary for compartment walls to be in concrete or masonry construction. Compar tment walls and floors form par t of e l e m e nt s of s t r u ct u re w h i c h i nc l u d e b ea m s . Therefore compartment walls and floors have to be in non-combustible materials to achieve the desired fire resistance rating.
Residential Unit Residential Unit Each residential unit has to be compartmented with a minimum one-hour fire resistance. f Compartment Walls & Floors Residential Unit OR • if the wall separates the residential section from the section of another purpose group that requires more than one-hour fire resistance. Compartments of different purpose groups 17 . higher fire resistance ratings prevail: • Res ide ntia l Un it if the wall forms part of the protected shaft which requires more than one-hour fire resistance.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Compartmentation requirements for different types of buildings For residential buildings. provision of compartmentation is required because of the dissimilar risk of the rooms and spaces. However. For a building that houses different purpose groups within the same building. compartment walls and ﬂoors have to be provided to separate a residential unit or maisonette from any other parts of the same building. unless otherwise stated and permitted under the Fire Code. the doors are required to have the same ﬁ re rating as the walls. g r tm pa l l s m o Wa en t Production Area Store C Office If it is necessary to provide doors at the compartment wall.
This requirement is to protect against fire and smoke spreading into sleeping quarters and the risk of fire starting within the privacy of bedrooms and spreading to other parts of the building.Ra ted Wa Half Hour Fire Doors f C en tm r pa all s m o W tg l te m s o H ro o d Be For hotels. As internal corridors are requisite means of escape. the internal corridor has to be compartmented from hotel bedrooms with one-hour fire rated compartment walls and half-hour ﬁre doors.Sustainable Construction - lls 1 Ho ur Fire. 18 . each hotel bedroom is to be enclosed with one-hour fire resistant construction.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Workers’ dormitories have similar fire resistance requirements as hotels. i.e. However. as cooking facilities are provided at the workers’ dormitory.hour fire resistant construction while the internal corridor has to be compartmented from dormitory bedrooms with one-hour fire resistant compartment walls and half-hour fire doors. 19 . and is not permitted to be located within the dormitory bedroom. each dormitory bedroom has to be enclosed with one . the kitchen has to be enclosed with one-hour ﬁre resistant construction and half-hour ﬁre doors.
Germany Constructor. Lilienthal multi-storey carpark. provided that they satisfy the stipulated conditions in the Fire Code.Sustainable Construction - Can bare steel structures be used for standalone carpark construction? Standalone carparks may be constructed with bare steel structures. Hamburg. the steel sections must comply with BS 5950 Part 8 or EC-3 Part 1-2 and all the floor beams are to be designed as composite structure within the ﬂoor slab. For standalone steel carparks. fabricator and erector of steelworks: Donges Stahlbau GmbH Standalone steel carpark at Club Street 20 .
Ascott Centre for Excellence 21 .A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering What is the minimum requirement of fire resistance for single-storey buildings? For single-storey buildings. the minimum period of fire resistance for elements of structure can be half an hour. provided that they satisfy the stipulated conditions in the Fire Code. The Ascott Group’s learning hub.
Small residential developments having more than 3 levels and townhouses are not covered by the Fire Safety (Exemption) Order 1994.Sustainable Construction - Is submission of fire safety plan to the Relevant Authority required for a landed house? Fire safety plan proposals for small residential developments like detached. The fire resistance requirement for such residential houses is usually half an hour for structures above ground and one hour for structures below ground. SUBMISSION OF FIRE SAFETY PLANS TO THE RELEVANT AUTHORITY IS REQUIRED. semi-detached. 22 . terraced or linked houses refer to houses meant for single family occupation only. unless otherwise permitted in attics (3) Separating walls between units are properly constructed to prevent ﬁ re spread It is important to note that such detached.detached. The above exemption. semi. The QPs are to self-regulate and ensure that: (1) The buildings are designed with proper means of escape (2) Walls and ﬂ oors are constructed of non-combustible materials. terraced and linked houses which do not exceed 3 storeys or levels (including basement and attic) are not required to be submitted to the Revelant Authority for approval as provided for under the Fire Safety (Exemption) Order 1994. Hence. does not mean that the QPs (Architects) need not comply with the relevant fire safety requirements in the Fire Code. however.
Other external walls (if required) need to have a minimum one-hour fire resistance. The separating walls/floors are required to have a fire resistance of two hours. 23 .A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering What is the fire resistance requirement for fully automated mechanised carpark? The fully automated mechanised car park (FAMCP) incoporates the revolutionary concept of parking and retrieving a vehicle by mechanical means without the driver entering the parking area. The FAMCP is classified as a storage building under the Fire Code. Fire resistant walls/floors have to be provided to separate the FAMCP from other usage if it is connected to another building.
as well as industrial buildings that fall within the stipulated criteria. spray-on materials and intumescent paints. Prior to the application or renewal of the Fire Certiﬁ cate. Generally the list of items to be inspected includes active ﬁ re protection measures such as sprinkler system and emergency power supply.Sustainable Construction - Do steel-framed buildings require more building inspections for fire protection systems? Under the current Fire Safety Act. inspection has to be carried out to ensure that ﬁ re safety systems and measures are properly maintained and in good working condition. hospitals and shopping complexes with an occupant load of more than 200 persons. This requirement is the same for buildings constructed using steel or concrete. are required to obtain a Fire Certiﬁ cate. It also includes passive ﬁ re protection systems such as ﬁ re-rated boards. Public buildings such as offices with occupant load of more than 200 persons are required to obtain the Fire Certificate. public buildings such as ofﬁ ces. This Fire Certiﬁ cate has to be renewed yearly. 24 .
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Section 2: Building Elements 25 .
Concrete and masonry construction are readily accepted when they are constructed according to “deemed to satisfy” provisions with appropriate covers.Sustainable Construction - STRUCTURAL FRAME The elements of structure – structural frame. compartment walls and protecting structure must have a minimum period of ﬁ re resistance rating. cementitious spray-ﬁ reprooﬁ ng or intumescent paint can be used to achieve the required fire resistance. ﬂ oors. For steel frame structures. In cases when designing in composite is not possible. protection such as fire-rated boards. Section 3 will provide more details of the various types of ﬁ re protection. 26 . loadbearing walls. The overall stability of the steel or composite frame will have to be checked at the fire limit state if a fire-resistant design is adopted. external walls. separating walls. they can be designed in composite construction to exploit the inherent ﬁ re resistance of the steel structures (please refer to page 61 for a quick guide).
Bon-Nut Some metal deck systems allow attachment of suspended loads to the underside of the metal deck.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering FLOORS • Metal deck with concrete topping The metal deck together with the concrete to p p i n g a ct s a s a c o m p o s i te s l a b m e m ber. As the metal deck is usually galvanized. designers would need to ensure that any applied fireproofing (if necessary) is compatible with the galvanizing. Designers would need to check with the manufacturers on the type of fasteners to be used to support ﬁttings such as pipes and ducting. Threaded Rod Service (Pipe/Ducting) 27 . The slab is usually supported by steel beams.
Sustainable Construction - Is fire protection required for composite metal decking floor system? Metal deckings that have been listed as fire rated floor systems under the Product Listing Scheme DO NOT require additional fire protection. Another situation where the metal deck does not require fire protection is when the metal deck is used as a permanent formwork and does not form part of the design of the slab. These systems have been tested together with the concrete topping as a composite slab and can achieve the required ﬁ re resistance. Fire protection would be required for any other non-listed metal decking systems. 28 .
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Is there any other alternative dry construction for floor system? Another alternative to achieve dry construction for ﬂ oors is to use ﬁ bre cement ﬂ oor boards. Designers should note that the entire design of the building should satisfy the ﬁ re safety requirements of the Fire Code. 29 . These boards are supported on steel sections such as C-channels without any concrete topping. Cement screed can be added for tiling purpose.
30 . many for ward .looking developers have used the dr y wall system as internal par tition walls for residential projects. provided that they meet the performance criteria of: Impact (BS 5588 Pt 5 Appendix A) Deflection (BS 5234 Pt 2) Water Absorption and bending strength (BS 1230 Pt 1 – gypsum plaster board) (ISO 1896 – calcium silicate/ cement board) For use in lift shafts. the drywall system has to meet an additional requirement of cyclic loading and dynamic test as specified under Cl. Drywalls can also be used to construct protected shafts.8. Designers should select drywall systems that are certiﬁ ed under the PLS. Can drywalls be used as party walls? Drywall system can also be used as a compartment wall or party wall separating 2 dwelling units. 3.Sustainable Construction - WALLS • Drywall System In recent years. provided that it meets the ﬁ re resistance requirement.3 of Building Code of Australia Specification C 1. The dry wall system consists of dry boards (non-combustible plaster boards or ﬁ bre cement boards) attached to metal studs and sound-insulated by rockwool.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Typical Drywall System Wall track Joints to be staggered Studs Acoustic insulation if required 1 layer Plasterboard each face Fasteners Wall track Pack 31 .
Thin wall finish of maximum 1 mm thick onto non-combustible substrate need not be subjected to surface flame spread requirements.Sustainable Construction - Thin veneers and wall papers / coverings which are 1 mm thick (or less) and bonded to noncombustible surface (such as drywalls) need not be tested for surface flame spread. 32 .
Any beam or column forming part of an external wall has to be constructed of non-combustible material as well.0m Boundary Line/Wall 15m External wall to be of non-combustible construction External walls need not be in concrete or masonry construction. 33 . Dry construction is permitted.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Are combustible materials allowed to be used in external walls? External walls located within 1 m of boundaries or exceeding 15 m in height have to be of noncombustible construction and meet the ﬁre-rating requirements of external walls. External wall to be of non-combustible construction Distance of external wall from boundary is less than 1. provided that it satisﬁes the ﬁre resistance and other stipulated requirements.
Sustainable Construction - Materials like timber can be used as external wall systems provided that the external wall is situated 1 m or more from the relevant boundary and the building does not exceed 15 m in height. Residential building not exceeding 3 storeys Distance of external wall from boundary is more than 1m Boundary Line Wooden louvres at external wall allowed for buildings < 15 m in height and the ex ternal wall 1 m or more from boundar y This relaxation of rule comes with a condition: The external walls must be provided with minimum period of 15 minutes insulation (method of fire exposure . Designers who intend to use any form of plastic material as external walls system would need to seek approval from the Relevant Authority. The setback of 1 m or more from the boundary is to prevent fire spreading from one building to another. 34 .from inside the building) under BS 476: Parts 20 to 23.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Unprotected openings. such as windows and curtainwall cladding Unprotected openings in external walls refer to windows. Unprotected openings are required to be determined and limited to prevent radiant heat from causing fire to start in adjacent buildings. and any part of the external wall which has nonﬁ re-rated cladding attached to its external face. Appropriate setback distance of buildings from relevant boundaries may be computed as prescribed in the Fire Code. doors or other openings. This rule is normally applied to buildings close to boundaries or when adjacent building s are within close proximity. 35 .
Traditionally bricks or reinforced concrete walls are used to construct such shafts. An exit passageway. or A duct. 36 . Compartment floor Protected shaft may penetrate compartment floor Can drywalls be used to construct protected shafts? Protected shafts must be constructed of non-combustible materials.Sustainable Construction - Protected Shafts A protected shaft is one which enables persons. objects or air to pass from one compartment to another without loss of integrity. Sustainable materials such as drywalls can also be used to construct the protected shafts provided they are designed to meet the performance criteria stipulated in the Fire Code. A lift. Protected shafts can be : • • • • • An exit staircase. A chute.
X X Fire-rated ceiling contributes to fire resistance of floor Services in ceiling space are prohibited unless fire protected 37 . no ducting is permitted within the space above the fire resistant suspended ceiling (which forms part of the fire resistant floor ceiling system) unless the ducting is also ﬁre protected. Bare Steel Beam Steel Hanger Slab Mineral Wool Fire Rated Ceiling Board Are services allowed within the ceiling space if a ﬁre-rated ceiling board system is used to protect bare steel structures? In such cases.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Ceilings For a steel-framed building. firerated ceiling board system can be installed to provide the required fire resistance for bare steel structures.
However for buildings of different heights that abut each other. Minimum 9m of external wall to be fire-rated Minimum 5m of roof to be ﬁred-rated 38 . In such cases. This is to prevent vertical spread of fire through the roof from the lower part of the building to the higher part. the metal roof need not be ﬁre protected. fire-rated ceiling board system can be used to provide the necessary fire protection. 5m width of the roof over the lower part requires 1 hour fire resistance OR 9m height of the external wall abutting the lower area requires at least 1 hour fire resistance.Sustainable Construction - Is ﬁre protection required for metal roofs? For standalone buildings.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Section 3: Fire Protection Methods 39 .
Vertical members such as columns usually require a four-sided protection. fire protection entails a series of measures that lead to the provision of escapes. An appropriate type of protection can be selected based on the needs of the development. compartments and suppression systems to either prevent or mitigate an outbreak of fire. A wide range of materials and products are available to protect structural steelwork from fire. The fire protection system can be applied using the profile. Profile Box Solid Protection technique for three-sided protection Profile Box Solid Protection technique for four-sided protection 40 . Steel beams that are designed as a composite section with the slab usually require a three-sided protection. box and solid methods.Sustainable Construction - What are the available methods to fire protect Steel-framed buildings? In buildings.
is one such method of fire protection for structural steelwork. The advantages of concrete encasement are: ✓ durable and robust. designers would provide the fire protection in accordance to the prescriptive fire code. abrasion and weather exposure are important ✓ elements can be designed as composite members to enhance the load resistance The disadvantages are: ✕ building weight increases considerably due to thick encasement ✕ time consuming at site to carry out encasement works ✕ overall section size can be quite large for concrete encasement compared to bare steel and other systems 41 .A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Traditionally. used mostly in cases where resistance to impact damage. Concrete encasement or concrete infill of hollow steel sections.
s pray. the intumescent paint primer used at the site must be the same as the one used in the mock-up fire test.on material s and intumescent paint to enhance the fire resistance of structural steel members. The fire tests are carried out on a mock-up that is built for the purpose of testing. Therefore the protection system applied at site must be similar to the set. the system has to be re-tested at an approved laboratory.up of the mock.rated board s . Hence. if the proprietary systems have to be modified to suit the project. 42 Mock-up of fire test .up. before they can be listed in the PLS. there are other f i re protection systems s uch a s fire .Sustainable Construction - Besides concrete encasement and concrete infill of hollow steel sections. Fire-Rated Board Intumescent paint Is modification to a proprietary fire protection system allowed? Most of these fire protection systems are proprietary systems fire-tested in approved laboratories according to standards stipulated by the Relevant Authority. For instance.
ra te d b o a rd s y s te m s t h a t m e et t h e re quired fire resistance rating are permitted to be used for protection to structural steel beams a n d c o l umns in buildings. However. 43 Joints to be filled with non-combustible materials such as gypsum or cement grout . Such boards are usually made from calcium silicate or gypsum plaster and are used for cladding steelworks. Jointing and Fixing Proprietary board systems (including the framing and fixing details) must be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s specifications. The purpose of the joint ﬁ lling is to provide support to the boards to prevent them from being damaged due to impact.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Fire-Rated Board Systems F i re . The boards may vary from 15 mm to 30 mm thick and can provide up to 4 hours of fire-rating. Do the ﬁre-rated boards need to be in full contact with the steel element? The ﬁ re-rated boards need not be in full contact with the steel element. all board joints should be ﬁ lled with non-combustible materials such as gypsum or cement grout. Gaps between the board and steel element are allowed.
The exposed nose of the bead helps to prevent damage from impact and provides a screed for ﬁnishing. It provides a key for the jointing compound and eliminates shadowing and edge cracking.Sustainable Construction - Fire-Rated Board Systems Are fire-rated boards suitable for circular steel members? Fire-rated boards can also be used to clad circular steel members and any other non-standard steel members. b) Control Joint The purpose of the control joint is to relieve stresses of expansion and construction across the joint in large wall areas.mixed joint com pound may be u sed. dent-resistant finished corner. Architectural Treatment a) Corner Reinforcement Corner beads made of rigid vinyl create a rust-proof. 44 . Materials such as rolled formed zinc with perforated flangers may be used for this purpose. c) Joint Compound All purpose ready.
ﬁre-rated boards should not be used to protect structural steel in industrial areas which may be subjected to accidental blasts as the boards may be displaced by the force of the blast. The advantages of fire-rated boards are: ✓ easy to install in a dry process ✓ easy to finish with decorative materials The disadvantages are: ✕ holes cut into the board (e. CORROSIVE However. ✕ Gypsum plasterboard will lose its insulation property after a fire. so replacement is likely to be required. for services) have to be filled with a compatible fire protection material. If QPs intend to use the fire-rated boards at areas where corrosive atmosphere may be present.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Fire-Rated Board Systems Is there any restriction to the use of fire-rated board systems? The Fire Code does not restrict the use of fire-rated boards for any particular type of building. they are to consult the Relevant Authority.g. 45 .
the total stack height should not exceed 3200 mm. even if the boards are already in provided packing. It is recommended that pallets stack to a maximum height of 800 mm high and on firm level ground. 46 . Use additional coverings.Sustainable Construction - Fire-Rated Board Systems What are the good practices on storing and handling of fire-rated boards? Store the boards flat and clear of the ground Protect the boards from weather. If two or more pallets are stacked.
at areas that are permanently wet. 47 . or in areas of high humidity. Limitations Are fire-rated boards allowed at wet areas? Generally. always lift boards from the stack below rather than slide board on board.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Fire-Rated Board Systems Wherever possible. boards are not recommended to be used for fire protection of external steelworks. Always carry the boards on edge but do not store on edge. This will prevent damage or scratches to the lower boards.
the spray thickness would vary according to the product manufacturer’s speciﬁcations. gypsum or Portland cement. 48 . The fire rating performance of these products is veriﬁ ed through a series of ﬁ re tests. Therefore. Some products possess fast-setting characteristics that facilitate higher field application efficiency.Sustainable Construction - Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng Cementitious spray applied fireproofing is a form of plaster which requires only addition of water at site to form a consistent. It is then conveyed by pumping and dispersed onto building structures by compressed air at the spray nozzle. and other binders. pumpable slurry. and these points have to be considered by the designer. Environmental conditions such as humidity. for the same fire rating requirement. There are a number of spray-applied ﬁ reprooﬁ ng products available in the market. All these products are factory-mixed formulations consisting of dry ingredients including aggregates or fibres. temperature and abrasion will affect the working life of the spray-on system.
fitting-out or renovations ✕ Not suitable for off-site application due to the risk of damaging the protection during transportation and erection 49 . Therefore the site personnel should exercise care to ensure that the applied protection remains in place. and can be messy when the building is in use ✕ Compared to architectural finishes. for application on columns. beams. However. ﬁtting-out or maintenance. trusses. the resulting textured surface finish is not as aesthetically pleasing ✕ Spray-on material needs to be protected from damage during construction. the spray-on material will be more susceptible to damage during construction. The advantages of spray-fireproofing are: ✓ Lower cost compared with other passive fire protection system ✓ Easy to apply onto complicated detailing and connections ✓ Quicker in application through spraying ✓ Higher productivity for fast-setting versions The disadvantages are: ✕ Application method is wet. joists. floor and roof decking.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng Can cementitious spray-fireproofing be used for all steel sections? Cementitious spray-fireproofing can be used on structural steel columns.
Designers should check with the product manufacturer on the requirement. grease. loose mill scale. excess rust. 50 . Bonding Agent A bonding agent may be required to be applied to the steel substrates to receive the spray fireproofing.Sustainable Construction - Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the spray-fireproofing? r Before spraying. excess rolling compounds or lubricants. non-compatible primer or any other substance that will impair proper adhesion. the steel to be ﬁ re protected has to be free of oil.
51 .A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng What are the do’s and don’ts when applying the spray-fireproofing? To prevent damage to the spray-fireproofing. Similarly. fireproofing application works should be carried out after the completion of concrete work on steel decking. fireproofing to the underside of roof deck assemblies should start only after roofing application is complete and there is no more roof traffic.
Sustainable Construction - Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng BEFORE AFTER Installation of trades such as clips. p i p i n g . 52 . e q u i p m e nt o r other suspended items should be done AFTER the ﬁ reprooﬁ ng is completed and inspected. support sleeves. Installation of services such as ducts. and other attachments which are required to penetrate the fireproofing should be done BEFORE the application of the fireproofing material. hangars.
Hand troweling may be applied to some spraya p p l i ed f i re p roof i n g p rod u ct s to i m p rove t he surface appearance of the products. Other important considerations: a) Primed/Painted Steel Substrates Spray-fireproofing obtains its maximum bond when applied to unprimed/unpainted structural steel. 53 . The use of non-compatible primer may result in bond failure. Unpainted steel member b) Experienced fireproofing applicators To ensure the fireproofing is properly carried out. surface colouring or to increase light reflection. Designers should consult the product manufacturer for guidance.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng How can the surface appearance of the spray-fireproofing be improved? 1. 2. c) Track records The applicator and manufacturer are to provide a list of local project references for review by the designers. Sur face decorative paint may be used as an overspray on spray-applied fireproofing products for sealing. it is recommended that the manufacturer confirm the applicator has been properly trained and has the experience to meet the qualification of an approved applicator for the spray-fireproofing product. Priming of interior structural steel is generally unnecessary.
Intumescent paint coatings may be applied to give up to 120 minutes of fire protection. How does intumescent paint work? In the event of fire. Only intumescent paint products listed in the PLS are acceptable to the Relevant Authority.Sustainable Construction - Intumescent Paint The use of intumescent coating to give fire protection to steel structure is permissible as long as it is applied appropriately and the environment in which the structure is subjected to is non-detrimental to the fire protective properties of the coating. These act to produce large volumes of non-inﬂammable gases which blow up the charring starch within the softened binder of the intumescent paint into an insulating cellular carbon layer. the thin coating of intumescent paint expands up to 50 times to form a layer of insulating foam. is charred whilst the heat also causes the release of acids. typically starch. The carbonaceous material in the intumescent paint. 54 .
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Intumescent Paint Generally intumescent paints are applied in three layers – primer.g. a bigger steel section will require a thinner intumescent paint coating as compared to a smaller section. The thickness of the intumescent layers depends on: (a) (b) (c) steel size steel type steel section used as column or beam fire rating required (e. • 4th coat: Finishing Coat • 3rd coat: Finishing Coat • 2nd coat: Intumescent Layer • 1st coat: Primer Coat (d) (e) • Steel Surface Do bigger steel sections require thicker coat of intumescent paint? For the same level of fire resistance requirement. 3 or 4-sided) and so on. intumescent layer and the finishing coat. 60 minutes or 120 minute) exposure (2. 55 .
One advantage of intumescent paint is that it allows the architects to express the architectural intent of the building through the steel sections.Sustainable Construction - Intumescent Paint The intumescent paints have to be tested to BS 476: Part 20/21 and BS 8202: Part 2. to suit different designs. prior to listing in the PLS. they have to pass a 2year local weathering test in accordance to BS8202: Part 2. The ﬁnish external coats also come in various colours. C a n i nt u mescent pa i nt a p plied to external areas? be For intumescent paints intended for external area. NUS Cultural Hub fire protected by intumescent paint External coats come in various colours Steel-framed building adopts a red finishing coat for its intumescent paint 56 .
The advantages of intumescent paints are: ✓ Do not require architectural cladding ✓ Allow building’s structure to be expressed architecturally ✓ Can be applied off-site The disadvantages are: ✕ Require regular inspection and maintenance ✕ Fire resistance is limited to 2 hours 57 . However in buildings where there may be presence of corrosive atmosphere that may affect the effectiveness of protection by the intumescent paints.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Intumescent Paint Is there any restriction to the use of intumescent paint? The Fire Code does not restrict the use of intumescent paints for any particular type of building. please refer to Appendix F of the Fire Code. QPs are to consult the Relevant Authority. CORROSIVE Building Owners Take Note: Highly flammable/combustible materials should not be stored within the vicinity of any structural steel members protected by intumescent paint. For submission procedures and documents required for submission.
This requirement is also stated in the work section on Protective Works for Structural Steelworks in the National Productivity and Quality Speciﬁ cations (NPQS). the surface must be “etched” using a compatible and approved etching primer. For galvanized steel.5 (95 -99 % clean) for priming purpose. the untreated surface has to be blasted to grade Sa 2.Sustainable Construction - What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the intuescent paint? For mild steel. Sa 2.5 Sand-blasted Material Surface Galvanised steel must be “etched” using a compatible and approved etching primer Hot-dip Galvanized Material Surface 58 .
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Intumescent Paint Application Process Application of primer coat Application of intumescent layer Intumescent layer completed The final product Application of finishing coat 59 .
03 1. and prior to the application of the ﬁnishing coat.0m 2 4.5m 3 3. Dry film thickness readings should be taken when the intumescent coat is sufﬁ ciently hard to prevent the probe indenting the surface.96 4. The application of intumescent paint on each member has to be recorded by the applicator in detail.91 3. Col marking C3/1-1 Location 1 2 3 4 5 6 0. only a few sides are indicated) 60 .99 3.04 1.98 4.95 3.94 3.02 3.99 4.06 Average 3.5m 1 4.88 4.Sustainable Construction - Intumescent Paint How to vertify the thickness of intumescent paint? The thickness of the intumescent paint can be checked by using a Dry Film Thickness (DFT) gauge.05 3.80 3.96 3.05 4. An example of such records submitted to PSB for the purpose of DOC is illustrated below.98 3.95 4.04 3.07 3.96 3.97 3.04 (for simplicity.91 4.
The Steel Construction Institute. Newman. Fire resistance (min) Beam type Column type protected unprotected slim ﬂoor systems shelf angle partially encased > 60 protected 15 60 60 > 60 15 15 15 15 15 Table extracted from “The design of steel framed buildings without applied fire protection” by C.G.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Quick Guide on Fire Resistance for Steel Members The following table shows the level of ﬁ re resistance period which a combination of columns and beams can achieve.M. Bailey and G. unprotected 30 blocked-in 15 30 30 30 60 partially encased (unreinforced) 15 60 60 60 > 60 partially encased (reinforced) 15 60 60 > 60 > 60 concrete-ﬁlled hollow sections 15 60 60 > 60 61 .
the need for additional finishes and future maintenance will have an impact on the overall cost. Steel members protected with cementitious spray-fireproofing may retain their rough ﬁnishes if they are hidden above the ceiling boards. For example. steel members receiving intumescent paint have to be primed with a compatible and approved primer. which incurs additional costs. For aesthetics reasons. Failure to communicate such useful information to steel fabricators early may result in abortive or remedial works. Nevertheless. designers should consider building the steel members into walls and floors wherever possible. the steel beams and columns are integrated with precast concrete. Fabricators need to know the type and brand of fire protected system prior to preparing the steel surface. Alternatively. instead of fire protection costs alone. For example in the case of the Supreme Court. concrete (b) Integrate ﬁre protection methods with the architectural intent Fire protection method should integrate with the architectural finishes. On the other hand. 62 . some cementitious spray-ﬁreprooﬁng bond better on unprimed/unpainted steel members than primed surface. Hence to reduce the cost of ﬁre protection. intumescent paint may be preferred for exposed columns and beams as it provides a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. hand trowelling may be applied to the spray-ﬁreprooﬁng to improve the surface appearance of the steel elements which are exposed. Spray fireproofing is used on the beams (c) Communicate with the steel fabricators early on the requirements of ﬁre protection Designers should involve the steel fabricators early and state the fire protection requirements. The time required for the fire protection works. the following pointers should be useful in achieving a more cost-effective fire protection system. The use of precast concrete provides both fire protection to the steel members and unblemished off-form Steel sections integrate with precast surface finish. (a) Design the members to be built into walls and ﬂoors wherever possible Any exposed face of a steel section will usually require fire protection.Sustainable Construction - What are the ways to achieve a cost-effective ﬁre protection system? Cost comparisons made between different systems should be based on total costs.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Section 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design 63 .
Sustainable Construction - What is performance-based ﬁre engineering? The performance-based approach to ﬁre safety design relies on the use of ﬁre engineering principles. This new approach provides alternative means of meeting the intentions of the Fire Code. 64 . The building practitioner will need to substantiate that the proposed solution fully meets the intent of the Fire Code using established ﬁre safety engineering methodology. The performance-based approach is unique in that its provisions spell out the intent of the code qualitatively but the means of achieving the desired intent of the code is open to the building practitioner. The performance-based regulatory system was ofﬁcially launched on 1 July 2004. Building practitioners will have the added ﬂ exibility in the application of ﬁ re safety for their buildings by having a choice of using the performance-based approach. the prescriptive approach or a combination of both. calculations and/or appropriate software modelling tools to satisfy the intentions of the Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2007 (Fire Code).
however.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering What is the rationale of allowing developers/Qualified Persons (QPs) to choose the type of approach (i. The performance-based approach. 65 .e. The prescriptive approach is more restrictive in the sense that the building designers have to adhere strictly to the requirements stipulated in the Fire Code. prescriptive or performance-based) to fire safety design? The introduction of a performance-based approach to fire safety design offers building designers greater flexibility in design and possible cost optimisation. provides a platform for customised building designs so long as fire safety standards are maintained.
but it is definitely less restrictive. such as the Changi International Airport and the Singapore Expo. New Zealand. The use of the performance-based approach to complement the prescriptive approach is widely accepted in many countries. such as Australia. 66 . Sweden and Japan. USA. In Singapore. there are several buildings where the performance-based approach has been successfully used.Sustainable Construction - Is performance-based approach less stringent than prescriptive approach? The performance-based approach should not be viewed as less stringent. UK.
the largest most flexible event venue in Singapore.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Singapore Expo Convention and Exhibition Centre. 67 . All photos courtesy of Singex Venues Pte Ltd.
the decision may then be made to use the performance approach. If there is possible cost optimisation or design constraints faced when using the prescriptive method. 68 . it is a decision to be made by the developers and QPs. Ultimately.Sustainable Construction - When should performance-based approach be adopted? Only registered Fire Safety Engineers (FSEs) are qualified to assess a performance-based design approach. It is a norm in the industry that the prescriptive approach is used for standard-design buildings whereas the performance-based approach is for more complex buildings.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering When are the Fire Safety Engineer (FSE) and Peer Reviewer required? The Building Developer should engage the FS E on the onset of building project involving per formance-based works. The Project QP is responsible to submit all the mentioned documents to the Relevant Authority for final plan approval. and not as a remedial solution to resolve deadlocks in the approval process. 69 . It is important that the Peer Reviewer does not participate or interfere with the design process prior to this stage. The Peer Reviewer will make his comments in his Peer Reviewer’s Report. during the conceptual design stage. The Building Developer should engage the Peer Reviewer only after the FSE has completed his Fire Safety Engineering Report (FSER) . the FSE and the Peer Reviewer will need to discuss objectively to resolve the outstanding issues. detailed specifications and drawings and the Building Operations and Maintenance manual (O & M). In the event that the Peer Reviewer has disagreeable comments on the documents reviewed.
Is it necessary to engage an FSE to re-evaluate addition and alteration works? For buildings designed to a performancebased fire safety design. the Building Owner has the responsibility to engage an FSE to reevaluate addition and alteration works where necessary. The O&M manual would spell out the extent of the performance-based solution in the building. Based on the information provided. These RIs are qualiﬁed ﬁre safety engineers and are in a better position to highlight any irregularities in the fire safety engineering works that are implemented on-site for a building. FSE may be required to re-evaluate addition and alteration works 70 .Sustainable Construction - Is it mandatory to engage a Registered Inspector (RI) who is a n FSE for performance-based ﬁre safety works? Yes. it is mandatory to engage an RI who is an FSE for inspection of the completed performance-based ﬁre safety works. the Building Owner can refer to the O&M manual prepared by the orginal FSE.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering
Can a building be entirely designed to performance-based solutions?
Theoretically, it is possible to design a building entirely to performance-based solutions. In practice, most performance-based submissions are likely to be a hybrid of performance-based and prescriptive solutions to meet the fire safety requirements stipulated in the Fire Code. FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS
HYBRID PERFORMANCE & DEEMED-TO-SATISFY SOLUTION
Approach to a Performance-based design
“Performance-based design” is a tool that can be used to look at ﬁ re safety from a “whole building” perspective. “Performance-based design” is an engineering approach to fire safety design based on (1) established fire safety goals and objectives, (2) analysis of fire scenarios, and (3) quantitative assessment of design alternatives against the fire safety goals and objectives using engineering tools, methodologies, and performance criteria.
IDENTIFY SAFETY GOALS FOR BUILDING
ESTABLISH FIRE SCENARIOS
SELECT FIRE PROTECTION STRATEGIES
EVALUATE USING ENGINEERING TOOLS AND MODELS
• Determine whether fire safety goals are met for each fire scenario
• • • •
Life Safety Property protection Business continuity Environmental protection
• Types of fires from which the building is intended to provide protection
• • • •
Detection Suppression Egress Fire endurance
Sustainable Construction -
Case Study: The National Library
The National Library is one of the first few buildings in Singapore to have performance-based fire safety design for its structural steel.
• 16-storey building with basement, divided into 2 blocks (Function and Programme Blocks) interconnected by link bridges on most floors library areas, drama centre, associated ancillary areas, and offices steel-framed construction for all the above ground floors 72
• • •
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering
• • • • A fire starts in a given building, and Occupants fail to extinguish the fire, and Automated fire sprinklers fail to control or extinguish the fire, and Fire continues to grow, but only on the storey of origin or on floors connected by a void, until the fire fighters intervene to control and extinguish it.
In the event that a major fire develops and the automated fire sprinklers fail to control or extinguish the fire, the performance-based design is to ensure that the structural adequacy of the building frame is maintained until the ﬁ re ﬁ ghters intervene.
Sustainable Construction -
Analyse the risk of fire starting in building. • • • Check the effectiveness of the automated fire sprinkler system Take measures to increase the reliability of the automated fire sprinkler system Study the fire growth and compartment fire conditions, taking into consideration the fire fighters intervention
In terms of structural performance, allow: • • Load-carrying mechanisms for beams and slabs in a structural frame to include membrane action Load redistribution from members
The performance-based design allows most of the steel floor beams to be unprotected while maintaining the building’s structural stability in a fire. This enabled the bare steel structure to be expressed and enabled cost-effective construction of the building. The performance-based solution also allowed the two blocks to face each other with no additional fixed fire protection systems. Only selected beams were fire rated. These key steel beams were chosen to be fire-rated for enhanced safety factor and they generally occur in critical areas like corners of the building or in long span areas.
A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Steel Framing Plan of Typical Floor The red line indicate the key steel beams with 90-minute ﬁ re-rated protection while the secondary steel beams are not fire protected 75 .
mace.edu.html http://www.gov.uk/ 76 .asfp.ac.sg/Building_Professionals/Publications/index.org.gov.scdf.fire-research.html Nanyang Technological University Fire Engineering Research Group http://www.shef.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/ University of Sheffield Fire Engineering Group http://www.html University of Manchester One-Stop Shop in Structural Fire Engineering http://www.uk/index.Sustainable Construction - References The following URLs provide information on fire protection and fire engineering.sg/cee/research/research_groups/fireresearch/research.ac.manchester. Association for Specialist Fire Protection.scdf.ntu. UK http://www.group.sg/Building_Professionals/Fire_Safety_Plan_Approval/performance /index.htm Singapore Civil Defence Force http://www.
The Steel Construction Institute • • • • • • Promat Building System Pte Ltd Singex Venues Pte Ltd The Ascott Group TTJ Design and Engineering Pte Ltd W. Grace (Singapore) Pte Ltd Yongnam Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd 77 . Members of the Working Committee: Mr Lim Tee Yoke (Chairman) Ms Goh Siam Imm Ms Rose Nguan Ms Phua Hui Chun Er. University of Manchester and Mr Gerald Newman. Germany DP Architects Pte Ltd Industrial Contracts Marketing (2001) Pte Ltd Professor Colin Bailey. Teh Poh Suan Assoc Professor Tan Kang Hai LTC Philip Tham Mr Song Yew Kee (DP Architects Pte Ltd) Er.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Acknowledgements This publication was developed with inputs from members of the Working Committee and fire protection specialists. Tay Yak Hong (TYH Consulting Engineers) From Building and Construction Authority From Housing & Development Board From Nanyang Technological University From Singapore Civil Defence Force Representing Singapore Institute of Architects Representing Singapore Structural Steel Society BCA would also like to thank the following persons/ organizations for their consent to use their materials and photographs: • • • • • • • Arup BlueScope Lysaght (Singapore) Pte Ltd Boral Plasterboard (M) Sdn Bhd Donges Stahlbau GmbH.R. BCA would like to thank them for their valuable contributions towards the completion of this Guide.
59. 42 (bottom). 55. 56 (bottom left). Grace (Singapore) Pte Ltd Yongnam Engineering & Construction (Pte) Ltd Page 27. 34 (left). 37. 44. 17. 33. and 60 16. 43.Sustainable Construction - Photographs/Graphics Credit: Copyright to photographs and graphics from the following pages are held with the respective company who has granted permission to BCA for reproduction in this publication. 28 and 51 (top) 14 15. Company BlueScope Lysaght (Singapore) Pte Ltd Boral Plasterboard (M) Sdn Bhd Industrial Contracts Marketing (2001) Pte Ltd Promat Building System Pte Ltd TTJ Design and Engineering Pte Ltd W. 46. 38. 32. 36.R. 52 (top) and 54 (bottom) 53 (bottom) and 58 (left) 39. 18. 42 (top left and top right). 48 (top). 49 (top) and 51 (bottom) 58 (right top and right bottom) 78 . 47.
Singapore. contributed to the development of this publication. This publication may include information of suppliers who have. its employees or agents and members of the Working Committee shall not be responsible for any mistake or inaccuracy that may be contained herein and all such liability and responsibility are expressly disclaimed by these said parties. This document or any part thereof may not be reproduced for any reason whatsoever in any form or means whatsoever and howsoever without the prior written consent and approval of the Building and Construction Authority. in one way or another. ISBN 978-981-05-9686-6 a touche design production @ 6743 5450 79 . The Building and Construction Authority does not endorse the products included. It is the responsibility of the users to select the appropriate products and ensure the selected products meet their specific requirements. the Building and Construction Authority.A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering Copyright @ 2008 Building and Construction Authority. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication. All rights reserved.
5 Maxwell Road.sg ISBN 978-981-05-9686-6 Printed on Recycled Paper .gov. Singapore 069110 Tel: +65 6325 7720 Fax: +65 6325 4800 Website: www.bca. #16-00 Tower Block MND Complex.
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