You are on page 1of 81

Sustainable Construction

- A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering

BCA Sustainable Construction Series - 2

Sustainable Construction
- A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering

Sustainable Construction -

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Foreword
The Building and Construction Authority (BCA) has been working closely with industry partners to promote sustainable construction. Sustainable construction refers to the adoption of building designs, construction methods and materials that are environmentally friendly. It also means using materials and resources that have sustainable supplies and are readily available from many sources. I n s tea d of re ly i n g too hea v i ly o n ra w ma te r i a l s s u c h a s s a n d a n d g ra n ite, we s hould al so cons ider the adoption of steel, compos ite ma te r i a l s a n d ot he r fo r m s of co n s t r u ct i o n s u c h a s u s i n g d r y wa l l s . H owever one major concern among the building practitioners i s the l eve l o f f i re p rote c t i o n re q u i re d a n d t h e e f f e c t i ve n e s s o f t h e s e p rote ctive mea s ures. It i s therefore important to address these issues and clear the misperceptions that are associated with fire protection for s u stainable construction. Thi s publication i s timely a s the Fire Code h a d b e e n rev i ewe d a n d t h e rev i s e d Fi re C o d e wa s p u b l i s h e d i n J u n e 2 0 07 to a d d re s s t h e s e concerns. This is the second in the Sustainable Construction series. It aims to provide information on fire safety requirements for buildings adopting steel and other methods of sustainable construction, different passive fire protection methods and the concept of performance-based fire engineering. Special thanks go to the Working Committee members for their time and effort in preparing this publication. I am confident that it will promote a better understanding of re safety requirements for sustainable construction and serve as a useful guide for all building practitioners.

Dr John Keung Chief Executive Ofcer Building and Construction Authority

Sustainable Construction -

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Content
06 07 08 11 25 39 63 76 77 78
Introduction Terminology simply explained Using the Guide Section 1: General Requirements Section 2: Building Elements Section 3: Fire Protection Methods Section 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design References Acknowledgements Photographs/Graphics Credit

Sustainable Construction -

Introduction

The Building and Construction Authority has been actively promoting sustainable construction to the construction industry. Various efforts have been put in place to encourage wider use of sustainable materials and products such as steel, drywalls and recycled materials. One major concern on the use of sustainable construction is the level of re protection required and the effectiveness of these protective measures. Traditionally, designers follow a set of prescriptive Fire Code requirements in applying the required re protection. However, in recent years, performancebased fire safety engineering has gained popularity among designers, especially for big and complex buildings as more economic designs can be obtained through analysis and modeling. This Guide attempts to provide useful information on passive re protection and fire engineering for building practitioners who are involved in the development, design and construction of buildings using sustainable materials. It comprises four sections. Section One explains the general requirements pertaining to fire resistance. Section Two elaborates the application of metal decking system, drywall system, re-rated ceiling board system and other dry construction. Section Three highlights the different types of passive fire protection and Section Four explains the concept of performance-based re engineering. Detailed engineering analysis and/or calculations and active re protection measures such as sprinkler system and mechanical ventilation are beyond the scope of this Guide. Designers are advised to refer to technical journals for comprehensive design and analysis.

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Terminology simply explained


Combustible
Material that burns intensely, or has rapid rate of flame spread. A part of a building separated from all other parts of the same building by compartment walls and/or compartment floors. A roof space above the top storey of a compartment is included in that compartment. A wall or a floor which is provided for the purpose of dividing a building into compartments. The cubicle extent of a building or compartment is the volume of space contained within the building or compartment. A branch of engineering discipline that deals with the application of science and engineering principles to protect people and their environments from the destructive effects of fire and smoke. Prevention and reduction of the hazards associated with outbreak of fire. The minimum period of time during which an isolated structural or non-structural element may be expected to function satisfactorily while subjected to a standard fire test. The standard fire test referred to by the Fire Code is the British Standards BS 476 Part 20 to 23 or its equivalent. Material quality that could ignite easily when exposed to flame. Relevant Authority means the Commissioner of Singapore Civil Defence Force and includes officers authorised by him generally or specifically to exercise the powers, functions and duties conferred by the Fire Safety Act.

Compartment

Compartment wall/ compartment floor Cubical extent

Fire engineering/ Fire safety engineering Fire protection

Fire resistance/ Fire rating

Flammable

Relevant Authority

Sustainable Construction -

Using the Guide


This Guide is divided into 4 sections. Information pertaining to frequently asked questions are listed here for easy reference.

SECTION 1: General Requirements What are some of the revisions made to the Fire Code? Are re safety requirements more stringent for steel buildings than concrete building? How to verify that a re protection system or material has passed the re resistance test? Must compartment walls be constructed using concrete or masonry? Can bare steel structures be used for standalone carpark construction? What is the minimum requirement of re resistance for single-storey buildings? Is submission of re safety plan to the Relevant Authority required for a landed house? What is the re resistance requirement for fully automated mechanised car park? Do steel-framed buildings require more building inspections for fire protection systems?

Page 12 13 14 16 20 21 22 23 24

SECTION 2: Building Elements Is re protection required for composite metal decking oor system? Is there any other alternative dry construction for oor systems? Can drywall systems be used as party walls? Are combustible materials allowed to be used in external walls? Can drywalls be used to construct protected shafts? Are services allowed within the ceiling space if a re-rated ceiling board system is used to protect bare steel structures? Is re protection required for metal roofs?

Page 27 29 30 33 36 37 38

A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering

SECTION 3: Fire Protection Methods What are the available methods to re protect steel-framed buildings? Is modication to a proprietary re protection system allowed? What are the ways to achieve a cost-effective re protection system?

Page 40-60 42 62

Fire-rated boards Do the re-rated boards need to be in full contact with the steel element? Are re-rated boards suitable for circular steel members? Is there any restriction to the use of re-rated board systems? What are the good practices on storing and handling of re-rated boards? Are re-rated boards allowed at wet areas? 43 44 45 46 47

Cementitious spray-reproong Can cementitious spray-reproong be used for all steel sections? What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the spray- reproong? What are the dos and donts when applying the spray-reproong? How can the surface appearance of the spray-reproong be improved? 49 50,53 51,52 53

Intumescent paint How does intumescent paint work? Do bigger steel sections require a thicker coat of intumescent paint? Can intumescent paint be applied to external areas? Is there any restriction to the use of intumescent paint? What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the intumescent paint? How to verify the thickness of intumescent paint? 54 55 56 57 58 60

Sustainable Construction -

SECTION 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design What is performance-based re engineering? What is the rationale of allowing developers/Qualied Persons to choose the type of approach (i.e. prescriptive or performance-based) to re safety design? Is performance-based approach less stringent than prescriptive approach? When should performance-based approach be adopted? When are the Fire Safety Engineer (FSE) and Peer Reviewer required? Is it mandatory to engage a Registered Inspector (RI) who is an FSE for performancebased re safety works? Is it necessary to engage an FSE to re-evaluate addition and alteration works? Can a building be entirely designed to performance-based solutions?

Page 64 65 66 68 69 70 70 71

Abbreviations
The following abbreviations will be used in this publication: ASTM BS Cl. COC CP DOC EC Fire Code ISO PLS PSB QP SS American Society for Testing and Materials British Standard Clause Certificate of Conformity Code of Practice Declaration of Compliance European Code Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2007 International Organisation for Standardisation Product Listing Scheme Tv Sd PSB Pte Ltd Qualified Person Singapore Standard

10

A Guide on Fire Protection and Performance-based Fire Engineering

Section 1: General Requirements

11

Sustainable Construction -

One of the main provisions of the Fire Code requires building elements and building materials to achieve the appropriate fire resistance when they formed part of the building compartment. The structural elements of a building a re to be constructed with non -flammable or non combustible materials and with the desired rating in fire resistance.

In considering the types of structural materials to be used in a new building, one must know that the minimum period of fire resistance depends on factors such as the usage, floor area, habitable height and cubicle extent of the building. The required fire resistance does not depend on the type of building materials used in the building.

Materials such as rubber and wood are combustible.

What are some of the revisions made to the Fire Code?


One of the major changes to the 2007 revision is the relaxation on the use of re-rated boards and intumescent paint on structural steel beams and columns. In the earlier version, such methods are allowed for the protection of structural steel beams and columns, provided the building does not exceed 24m in height. For buildings exceeding 24m in height, they are allowed to be used only on beams (excluding transfer beams). In the 2007 revision, fired-rated boards and intumescent paint can be used to protect structural steel columns and beams in all types of buildings with no height restriction imposed. However, in areas that are likely to subject to the risks of explosion or where there is presence of corrosive atmosphere, the QP should consult the Relevant Authority.

12

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Are fire-safety requirements more stringent for steel buildings than concrete buildings?
The re-safety requirements are similar for both types of buildings. The only difference is the method of protection which depends on whether the building is constructed using steel or concrete. Fire resistance is a property of a particular building element which measures its ability to resist the spread of fire through the material characteristics of stability (resistance to collapse or excessive deflection); integrity (resistance to passage of flames and hot gases); and insulation (resistance to excessive temperature rise on exposed face).

Usually, re resistance of a building element is expressed in terms of the minimum period of time during which the building element would function satisfactorily while subject to a standard re test, measured in BS 476: part 20 to 23. It is the onus of the designer to accord additional and appropriate level of re protection to materials used in the building which do not meet the required rating of re resistance.

13

Sustainable Construction -

How to verify that a fire protection system or material has passed the fire resistance test ?
All testing of non-combustible materials and fire-rated construction have to be certified under the Product Listing Scheme (PLS) managed by an Accreditation Body. Currently in Singapore, the PLS is managed by Tv Sd PSB Pte Ltd (formerly known as PSB Corporation).

Any building material/system that is intended for re safety works listed under the PLS and used in compliance with the requirements stipulated in the Fire Code, would be deemed to be acceptable to the Relevant Authority. No separate approval is required. The said scheme took effect from 1 April 1998. The following URL provides more information about the PLS: http://www.tuv-sud-psb.sg/testing/prodcert_prodlist.shtml

These listed re-rated building materials/systems are usually proprietary systems that have undergone vigorous re tests to ensure that they are able to function satisfactorily in events of a real re. Some examples are red-rated partition system and re- rated ceiling board system. A partition system would consist of the steel stud frames with plaster (or gypsum) boards of certain thickness and sound insulation material (such as rockwool). A fire-rated ceiling board system would consist of the ceiling board hangers, the ceiling board and sound insulation material. Therefore, anyone who intends to use a fire-rated material/ system should check with the manufacturers to ensure that the complete system is adopted.

14

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

ABC Company 123 XYZ Road Singapore 999999

Products listed in the PLS will be granted a Certi cate of Conformity (COC) by PSB. This is a product-based certificate that is given to each individual product. For instance, a supplier who has 3 types of products listed in the PLS will have 3 COCs.

SA

LE P M

The Declaration of Compliance (DOC) is a projectbased document that is given to each individual project after the application of the listed product. For instance, after the application of intumescent paint onto a building, the manufacturer/applicator will apply to PSB for a DOC.

SA

LE P M

15

Sustainable Construction -

Compartment walls and oors


Must compartment walls be constructed using concrete or masonry?
A compar tment is a par t of a building separated from other par ts of the same building by compar tment walls, floors and other relevant separating structures. The purpose of dividing a building into compartments is to prevent the spread of fire between specified parts of a building. This is the most basic passive protection device to limit the fire size, contain the fire and prevent the spread of fire and smoke from one part of the building to another. Therefore compartment walls and floors have to be in non-combustible materials to achieve the desired fire resistance rating. Compar tment walls and floors form par t of e l e m e nt s of s t r u ct u re w h i c h i nc l u d e b ea m s , co l umns, loadbearing walls and external walls. The desired fire resistance of compartment wall, floor and other relevant separating structures is the minimum period of time during which a particular building element may be expected to function satisfactorily while subject to a standard fire test, currently measured in BS 476: Part 20 to 23.

The same compartment rules apply to both concrete and steel-framed buildings. It is not necessary for compartment walls to be in concrete or masonry construction. Drywalls that comply with the performance criteria stipulated in the Fire Code can also be used as compartment walls.

16

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Compartmentation requirements for different types of buildings


For residential buildings, compartment walls and oors have to be provided to separate a residential unit or maisonette from any other parts of the same building.

Residential Unit Residential Unit

Each residential unit has to be compartmented with a minimum one-hour fire resistance. However, higher fire resistance ratings prevail:
Res ide ntia l Un it

if the wall forms part of the protected shaft which requires more than one-hour fire resistance,

Compartment Walls & Floors

Residential Unit

OR
if the wall separates the residential section from the section of another purpose group that requires more than one-hour fire resistance. For a building that houses different purpose groups within the same building, provision of compartmentation is required because of the dissimilar risk of the rooms and spaces.

g
r tm pa l l s m o Wa en t

Production Area

Store

Office

If it is necessary to provide doors at the compartment wall, the doors are required to have the same re rating as the walls, unless otherwise stated and permitted under the Fire Code.

Compartments of different purpose groups

17

Sustainable Construction -

lls 1 Ho ur Fire- Ra ted Wa

Half Hour Fire Doors

en tm r pa all s m o W

tg

l te m s o H ro o d Be

For hotels, each hotel bedroom is to be enclosed with one-hour fire resistant construction. This requirement is to protect against fire and smoke spreading into sleeping quarters and the risk of fire starting within the privacy of bedrooms and spreading to other parts of the building. As internal corridors are requisite means of escape, the internal corridor has to be compartmented from hotel bedrooms with one-hour fire rated compartment walls and half-hour re doors.

18

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Workers dormitories have similar fire resistance requirements as hotels, i.e. each dormitory bedroom has to be enclosed with one - hour fire resistant construction while the internal corridor has to be compartmented from dormitory bedrooms with one-hour fire resistant compartment walls and half-hour fire doors. However, as cooking facilities are provided at the workers dormitory, the kitchen has to be enclosed with one-hour re resistant construction and half-hour re doors, and is not permitted to be located within the dormitory bedroom.

19

Sustainable Construction -

Can bare steel structures be used for standalone carpark construction?


Standalone carparks may be constructed with bare steel structures, provided that they satisfy the stipulated conditions in the Fire Code. For standalone steel carparks, the steel sections must comply with BS 5950 Part 8 or EC-3 Part 1-2 and all the floor beams are to be designed as composite structure within the oor slab.

Lilienthal multi-storey carpark, Hamburg, Germany Constructor, fabricator and erector of steelworks: Donges Stahlbau GmbH

Standalone steel carpark at Club Street

20

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

What is the minimum requirement of fire resistance for single-storey buildings?


For single-storey buildings, the minimum period of fire resistance for elements of structure can be half an hour, provided that they satisfy the stipulated conditions in the Fire Code.

The Ascott Groups learning hub, Ascott Centre for Excellence

21

Sustainable Construction -

Is submission of fire safety plan to the Relevant Authority required for a landed house?
Fire safety plan proposals for small residential developments like detached, semi- detached, terraced and linked houses which do not exceed 3 storeys or levels (including basement and attic) are not required to be submitted to the Revelant Authority for approval as provided for under the Fire Safety (Exemption) Order 1994.

The above exemption, however, does not mean that the QPs (Architects) need not comply with the relevant fire safety requirements in the Fire Code. The fire resistance requirement for such residential houses is usually half an hour for structures above ground and one hour for structures below ground. The QPs are to self-regulate and ensure that:
(1) The buildings are designed with proper means of escape (2) Walls and oors are constructed of non-combustible materials, unless otherwise permitted in attics (3) Separating walls between units are properly constructed to prevent re spread It is important to note that such detached, semi-detached, terraced or linked houses refer to houses meant for single family occupation only.

Small residential developments having more than 3 levels and townhouses are not covered by the Fire Safety (Exemption) Order 1994. Hence, SUBMISSION OF FIRE SAFETY PLANS TO THE RELEVANT AUTHORITY IS REQUIRED.

22

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

What is the fire resistance requirement for fully automated mechanised carpark?

The fully automated mechanised car park (FAMCP) incoporates the revolutionary concept of parking and retrieving a vehicle by mechanical means without the driver entering the parking area. The FAMCP is classified as a storage building under the Fire Code. Fire resistant walls/floors have to be provided to separate the FAMCP from other usage if it is connected to another building. The separating walls/floors are required to have a fire resistance of two hours. Other external walls (if required) need to have a minimum one-hour fire resistance.

23

Sustainable Construction -

Do steel-framed buildings require more building inspections for fire protection systems?
Under the current Fire Safety Act, public buildings such as of ces, hospitals and shopping complexes with an occupant load of more than 200 persons, as well as industrial buildings that fall within the stipulated criteria, are required to obtain a Fire Certi cate. This Fire Certi cate has to be renewed yearly. Prior to the application or renewal of the Fire Certi cate, inspection has to be carried out to ensure that re safety systems and measures are properly maintained and in good working condition. This requirement is the same for buildings constructed using steel or concrete. Generally the list of items to be inspected includes active re protection measures such as sprinkler system and emergency power supply. It also includes passive re protection systems such as re-rated boards, spray-on materials and intumescent paints.

Public buildings such as offices with occupant load of more than 200 persons are required to obtain the Fire Certificate.

24

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Section 2: Building Elements

25

Sustainable Construction -

STRUCTURAL FRAME

The elements of structure structural frame, loadbearing walls, oors, external walls, separating walls, compartment walls and protecting structure must have a minimum period of re resistance rating. Concrete and masonry construction are readily accepted when they are constructed according to deemed to satisfy provisions with appropriate covers. For steel frame structures, they can be designed in composite construction to exploit the inherent re resistance of the steel structures (please refer to page 61 for a quick guide). The overall stability of the steel or composite frame will have to be checked at the fire limit state if a fire-resistant design is adopted. In cases when designing in composite is not possible, protection such as fire-rated boards, cementitious spray- reproo ng or intumescent paint can be used to achieve the required fire resistance. Section 3 will provide more details of the various types of re protection. 26

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

FLOORS
Metal deck with concrete topping

The metal deck together with the concrete to p p i n g a ct s a s a c o m p o s i te s l a b m e m ber. The slab is usually supported by steel beams. As the metal deck is usually galvanized, designers would need to ensure that any applied fireproofing (if necessary) is compatible with the galvanizing.

Bon-Nut

Some metal deck systems allow attachment of suspended loads to the underside of the metal deck. Designers would need to check with the manufacturers on the type of fasteners to be used to support ttings such as pipes and ducting.

Threaded Rod

Service (Pipe/Ducting)

27

Sustainable Construction -

Is fire protection required for composite metal decking floor system?


Metal deckings that have been listed as fire rated floor systems under the Product Listing Scheme DO NOT require additional fire protection. These systems have been tested together with the concrete topping as a composite slab and can achieve the required re resistance. Fire protection would be required for any other non-listed metal decking systems. Another situation where the metal deck does not require fire protection is when the metal deck is used as a permanent formwork and does not form part of the design of the slab.

28

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Is there any other alternative dry construction for floor system?


Another alternative to achieve dry construction for oors is to use bre cement oor boards. These boards are supported on steel sections such as C-channels without any concrete topping. Cement screed can be added for tiling purpose. Designers should note that the entire design of the building should satisfy the re safety requirements of the Fire Code.

29

Sustainable Construction -

WALLS
Drywall System

In recent years, many for ward - looking developers have used the dr y wall system as internal par tition walls for residential projects. The dry wall system consists of dry boards (non-combustible plaster boards or bre cement boards) attached to metal studs and sound-insulated by rockwool.

Can drywalls be used as party walls?


Drywall system can also be used as a compartment wall or party wall separating 2 dwelling units, provided that it meets the re resistance requirement. Designers should select drywall systems that are certi ed under the PLS. Drywalls can also be used to construct protected shafts, provided that they meet the performance criteria of:

Impact (BS 5588 Pt 5 Appendix A)

Deflection (BS 5234 Pt 2)

Water Absorption and bending strength (BS 1230 Pt 1 gypsum plaster board) (ISO 1896 calcium silicate/ cement board)

For use in lift shafts, the drywall system has to meet an additional requirement of cyclic loading and dynamic test as specified under Cl. 3.3 of Building Code of Australia Specification C 1.8.

30

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Typical Drywall System

Wall track Joints to be staggered Studs

Acoustic insulation if required

1 layer Plasterboard each face

Fasteners

Wall track

Pack

31

Sustainable Construction -

Thin veneers and wall papers / coverings which are 1 mm thick (or less) and bonded to noncombustible surface (such as drywalls) need not be tested for surface flame spread.

Thin wall finish of maximum 1 mm thick onto non-combustible substrate need not be subjected to surface flame spread requirements.

32

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Are combustible materials allowed to be used in external walls?


External walls located within 1 m of boundaries or exceeding 15 m in height have to be of noncombustible construction and meet the re-rating requirements of external walls. Any beam or column forming part of an external wall has to be constructed of non-combustible material as well.
External wall to be of non-combustible construction

Distance of external wall from boundary is less than 1.0m

Boundary Line/Wall

15m External wall to be of non-combustible construction

External walls need not be in concrete or masonry construction. Dry construction is permitted, provided that it satises the re resistance and other stipulated requirements.

33

Sustainable Construction -

Materials like timber can be used as external wall systems provided that the external wall is situated 1 m or more from the relevant boundary and the building does not exceed 15 m in height. The setback of 1 m or more from the boundary is to prevent fire spreading from one building to another. Designers who intend to use any form of plastic material as external walls system would need to seek approval from the Relevant Authority.
Residential building not exceeding 3 storeys

Distance of external wall from boundary is more than 1m

Boundary Line

Wooden louvres at external wall allowed for buildings < 15 m in height and the ex ternal wall 1 m or more from boundar y

This relaxation of rule comes with a condition: The external walls must be provided with minimum period of 15 minutes insulation (method of fire exposure - from inside the building) under BS 476: Parts 20 to 23.

34

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Unprotected openings, such as windows and curtainwall cladding

Unprotected openings in external walls refer to windows, doors or other openings, and any part of the external wall which has non re-rated cladding attached to its external face. Unprotected openings are required to be determined and limited to prevent radiant heat from causing fire to start in adjacent buildings. This rule is normally applied to buildings close to boundaries or when adjacent building s are within close proximity. Appropriate setback distance of buildings from relevant boundaries may be computed as prescribed in the Fire Code.

35

Sustainable Construction -

Protected Shafts
A protected shaft is one which enables persons, objects or air to pass from one compartment to another without loss of integrity. Protected shafts can be : An exit staircase, An exit passageway, A lift, A chute, or A duct.
Compartment floor

Protected shaft may penetrate compartment floor

Can drywalls be used to construct protected shafts? Protected shafts must be constructed of non-combustible materials. Traditionally bricks or reinforced concrete walls are used to construct such shafts. Sustainable materials such as drywalls can also be used to construct the protected shafts provided they are designed to meet the performance criteria stipulated in the Fire Code.

36

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Ceilings
For a steel-framed building, firerated ceiling board system can be installed to provide the required fire resistance for bare steel structures.
Bare Steel Beam Steel Hanger Slab

Mineral Wool

Fire Rated Ceiling Board

Are services allowed within the ceiling space if a re-rated ceiling board system is used to protect bare steel structures?
In such cases, no ducting is permitted within the space above the fire resistant suspended ceiling (which forms part of the fire resistant floor ceiling system) unless the ducting is also re protected.

Fire-rated ceiling contributes to fire resistance of floor

Services in ceiling space are prohibited unless fire protected

37

Sustainable Construction -

Is re protection required for metal roofs?


For standalone buildings, the metal roof need not be re protected.

However for buildings of different heights that abut each other, 5m width of the roof over the lower part requires 1 hour fire resistance OR 9m height of the external wall abutting the lower area requires at least 1 hour fire resistance.

This is to prevent vertical spread of fire through the roof from the lower part of the building to the higher part. In such cases, fire-rated ceiling board system can be used to provide the necessary fire protection.

Minimum 9m of external wall to be fire-rated

Minimum 5m of roof to be red-rated

38

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Section 3: Fire Protection Methods

39

Sustainable Construction -

What are the available methods to fire protect Steel-framed buildings?


In buildings, fire protection entails a series of measures that lead to the provision of escapes, compartments and suppression systems to either prevent or mitigate an outbreak of fire. A wide range of materials and products are available to protect structural steelwork from fire. An appropriate type of protection can be selected based on the needs of the development. The fire protection system can be applied using the profile, box and solid methods. Steel beams that are designed as a composite section with the slab usually require a three-sided protection. Vertical members such as columns usually require a four-sided protection.

Profile

Box

Solid

Protection technique for three-sided protection

Profile

Box

Solid

Protection technique for four-sided protection

40

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Traditionally, designers would provide the fire protection in accordance to the prescriptive fire code. Concrete encasement or concrete infill of hollow steel sections, is one such method of fire protection for structural steelwork.

The advantages of concrete encasement are: durable and robust; used mostly in cases where resistance to impact damage, abrasion and weather exposure are important elements can be designed as composite members to enhance the load resistance

The disadvantages are: building weight increases considerably due to thick encasement time consuming at site to carry out encasement works overall section size can be quite large for concrete encasement compared to bare steel and other systems

41

Sustainable Construction -

Besides concrete encasement and concrete infill of hollow steel sections, there are other f i re protection systems s uch a s fire - rated board s , s pray- on material s and intumescent paint to enhance the fire resistance of structural steel members.

Fire-Rated Board

Intumescent paint

Is modification to a proprietary fire protection system allowed?


Most of these fire protection systems are proprietary systems fire-tested in approved laboratories according to standards stipulated by the Relevant Authority, before they can be listed in the PLS. The fire tests are carried out on a mock-up that is built for the purpose of testing. Therefore the protection system applied at site must be similar to the set- up of the mock- up. For instance, the intumescent paint primer used at the site must be the same as the one used in the mock-up fire test. Hence, if the proprietary systems have to be modified to suit the project, the system has to be re-tested at an approved laboratory. 42

Mock-up of fire test

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Fire-Rated Board Systems


F i re - ra te d b o a rd s y s te m s t h a t m e et t h e re quired fire resistance rating are permitted to be used for protection to structural steel beams a n d c o l umns in buildings. Such boards are usually made from calcium silicate or gypsum plaster and are used for cladding steelworks. The boards may vary from 15 mm to 30 mm thick and can provide up to 4 hours of fire-rating.

Jointing and Fixing


Proprietary board systems (including the framing and fixing details) must be installed in accordance with the manufacturers specifications.

Do the re-rated boards need to be in full contact with the steel element?
The re-rated boards need not be in full contact with the steel element. Gaps between the board and steel element are allowed. However, all board joints should be lled with non-combustible materials such as gypsum or cement grout. The purpose of the joint lling is to provide support to the boards to prevent them from being damaged due to impact. 43

Joints to be filled with non-combustible materials such as gypsum or cement grout

Sustainable Construction -

Fire-Rated Board Systems


Are fire-rated boards suitable for circular steel members?
Fire-rated boards can also be used to clad circular steel members and any other non-standard steel members.

Architectural Treatment
a) Corner Reinforcement Corner beads made of rigid vinyl create a rust-proof, dent-resistant finished corner. The exposed nose of the bead helps to prevent damage from impact and provides a screed for nishing. It provides a key for the jointing compound and eliminates shadowing and edge cracking. b) Control Joint The purpose of the control joint is to relieve stresses of expansion and construction across the joint in large wall areas. Materials such as rolled formed zinc with perforated flangers may be used for this purpose. c) Joint Compound All purpose ready- mixed joint com pound may be u sed.

44

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Fire-Rated Board Systems


Is there any restriction to the use of fire-rated board systems? The Fire Code does not restrict the use of fire-rated boards for any particular type of building.

CORROSIVE

However, re-rated boards should not be used to protect structural steel in industrial areas which may be subjected to accidental blasts as the boards may be displaced by the force of the blast. If QPs intend to use the fire-rated boards at areas where corrosive atmosphere may be present, they are to consult the Relevant Authority.

The advantages of fire-rated boards are: easy to install in a dry process easy to finish with decorative materials

The disadvantages are: holes cut into the board (e.g. for services) have to be filled with a compatible fire protection material. Gypsum plasterboard will lose its insulation property after a fire, so replacement is likely to be required.

45

Sustainable Construction -

Fire-Rated Board Systems


What are the good practices on storing and handling of fire-rated boards?

Store the boards flat and clear of the ground

Protect the boards from weather. Use additional coverings, even if the boards are already in provided packing.

It is recommended that pallets stack to a maximum height of 800 mm high and on firm level ground. If two or more pallets are stacked, the total stack height should not exceed 3200 mm.

46

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Fire-Rated Board Systems

Wherever possible, always lift boards from the stack below rather than slide board on board. This will prevent damage or scratches to the lower boards.

Always carry the boards on edge but do not store on edge.

Limitations

Are fire-rated boards allowed at wet areas?


Generally, boards are not recommended to be used for fire protection of external steelworks, at areas that are permanently wet, or in areas of high humidity.

47

Sustainable Construction -

Cementitious spray-reproong

Cementitious spray applied fireproofing is a form of plaster which requires only addition of water at site to form a consistent, pumpable slurry. It is then conveyed by pumping and dispersed onto building structures by compressed air at the spray nozzle. All these products are factory-mixed formulations consisting of dry ingredients including aggregates or fibres, gypsum or Portland cement, and other binders. There are a number of spray-applied reproo ng products available in the market. Some products possess fast-setting characteristics that facilitate higher field application efficiency. The fire rating performance of these products is veri ed through a series of re tests. Therefore, for the same fire rating requirement, the spray thickness would vary according to the product manufacturers specications. Environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature and abrasion will affect the working life of the spray-on system, and these points have to be considered by the designer.

48

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Cementitious spray-reproong
Can cementitious spray-fireproofing be used for all steel sections?
Cementitious spray-fireproofing can be used on structural steel columns, beams, joists, trusses, floor and roof decking. However, for application on columns, the spray-on material will be more susceptible to damage during construction, tting-out or maintenance. Therefore the site personnel should exercise care to ensure that the applied protection remains in place.

The advantages of spray-fireproofing are: Lower cost compared with other passive fire protection system Easy to apply onto complicated detailing and connections Quicker in application through spraying Higher productivity for fast-setting versions

The disadvantages are: Application method is wet, and can be messy when the building is in use Compared to architectural finishes, the resulting textured surface finish is not as aesthetically pleasing Spray-on material needs to be protected from damage during construction, fitting-out or renovations Not suitable for off-site application due to the risk of damaging the protection during transportation and erection

49

Sustainable Construction -

Cementitious spray-reproong
What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the spray-fireproofing?

r
Before spraying, the steel to be re protected has to be free of oil, grease, excess rolling compounds or lubricants, loose mill scale, excess rust, non-compatible primer or any other substance that will impair proper adhesion.

Bonding Agent

A bonding agent may be required to be applied to the steel substrates to receive the spray fireproofing. Designers should check with the product manufacturer on the requirement.

50

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Cementitious spray-reproong
What are the dos and donts when applying the spray-fireproofing?

To prevent damage to the spray-fireproofing, fireproofing to the underside of roof deck assemblies should start only after roofing application is complete and there is no more roof traffic.

Similarly, fireproofing application works should be carried out after the completion of concrete work on steel decking.

51

Sustainable Construction -

Cementitious spray-reproong

BEFORE AFTER

Installation of trades such as clips, hangars, support sleeves, and other attachments which are required to penetrate the fireproofing should be done BEFORE the application of the fireproofing material.

Installation of services such as ducts, p i p i n g , e q u i p m e nt o r other suspended items should be done AFTER the reproo ng is completed and inspected.

52

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Cementitious spray-reproong
How can the surface appearance of the spray-fireproofing be improved?
1. Hand troweling may be applied to some spraya p p l i ed f i re p roof i n g p rod u ct s to i m p rove t he surface appearance of the products. 2. Sur face decorative paint may be used as an overspray on spray-applied fireproofing products for sealing, surface colouring or to increase light reflection.

Other important considerations:


a) Primed/Painted Steel Substrates Spray-fireproofing obtains its maximum bond when applied to unprimed/unpainted structural steel. Priming of interior structural steel is generally unnecessary. The use of non-compatible primer may result in bond failure. Designers should consult the product manufacturer for guidance.
Unpainted steel member

b) Experienced fireproofing applicators To ensure the fireproofing is properly carried out, it is recommended that the manufacturer confirm the applicator has been properly trained and has the experience to meet the qualification of an approved applicator for the spray-fireproofing product. c) Track records The applicator and manufacturer are to provide a list of local project references for review by the designers.

53

Sustainable Construction -

Intumescent Paint
The use of intumescent coating to give fire protection to steel structure is permissible as long as it is applied appropriately and the environment in which the structure is subjected to is non-detrimental to the fire protective properties of the coating. Intumescent paint coatings may be applied to give up to 120 minutes of fire protection. Only intumescent paint products listed in the PLS are acceptable to the Relevant Authority.

How does intumescent paint work? In the event of fire, the thin coating of intumescent paint expands up to 50 times to form a layer of insulating foam. The carbonaceous material in the intumescent paint, typically starch, is charred whilst the heat also causes the release of acids. These act to produce large volumes of non-inammable gases which blow up the charring starch within the softened binder of the intumescent paint into an insulating cellular carbon layer.

54

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Intumescent Paint
Generally intumescent paints are applied in three layers primer, intumescent layer and the finishing coat. The thickness of the intumescent layers depends on: (a) (b) (c) steel size steel type steel section used as column or beam fire rating required (e.g. 60 minutes or 120 minute) exposure (2, 3 or 4-sided) and so on.

4th coat: Finishing Coat 3rd coat: Finishing Coat 2nd coat: Intumescent Layer 1st coat: Primer Coat

(d)

(e)

Steel Surface

Do bigger steel sections require thicker coat of intumescent paint?


For the same level of fire resistance requirement, a bigger steel section will require a thinner intumescent paint coating as compared to a smaller section.

55

Sustainable Construction -

Intumescent Paint
The intumescent paints have to be tested to BS 476: Part 20/21 and BS 8202: Part 2.

C a n i nt u mescent pa i nt a p plied to external areas?

be

For intumescent paints intended for external area, they have to pass a 2year local weathering test in accordance to BS8202: Part 2, prior to listing in the PLS. One advantage of intumescent paint is that it allows the architects to express the architectural intent of the building through the steel sections. The nish external coats also come in various colours, to suit different designs.

NUS Cultural Hub fire protected by intumescent paint

External coats come in various colours

Steel-framed building adopts a red finishing coat for its intumescent paint

56

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Intumescent Paint
Is there any restriction to the use of intumescent paint? The Fire Code does not restrict the use of intumescent paints for any particular type of building. However in
buildings where there may be presence of corrosive atmosphere that may affect the effectiveness of protection by the intumescent paints, QPs are to consult the Relevant Authority. For submission procedures and documents required for submission, please refer to Appendix F of the Fire Code.
CORROSIVE

Building Owners Take Note: Highly flammable/combustible materials should not be stored within the vicinity of any structural steel members protected by intumescent paint.

The advantages of intumescent paints are: Do not require architectural cladding Allow buildings structure to be expressed architecturally Can be applied off-site

The disadvantages are: Require regular inspection and maintenance Fire resistance is limited to 2 hours

57

Sustainable Construction -

What are the surface preparation works needed to receive the intuescent paint?
For mild steel, the untreated surface has to be blasted to grade Sa 2.5 (95 -99 % clean) for priming purpose. This requirement is also stated in the work section on Protective Works for Structural Steelworks in the National Productivity and Quality Speci cations (NPQS). For galvanized steel, the surface must be etched using a compatible and approved etching primer.

Sa 2.5

Sand-blasted Material Surface

Galvanised steel must be etched using a compatible and approved etching primer

Hot-dip Galvanized Material Surface

58

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Intumescent Paint
Application Process

Application of primer coat

Application of intumescent layer

Intumescent layer completed

The final product

Application of finishing coat

59

Sustainable Construction -

Intumescent Paint
How to vertify the thickness of intumescent paint?
The thickness of the intumescent paint can be checked by using a Dry Film Thickness (DFT) gauge. Dry film thickness readings should be taken when the intumescent coat is suf ciently hard to prevent the probe indenting the surface, and prior to the application of the nishing coat.

The application of intumescent paint on each member has to be recorded by the applicator in detail. An example of such records submitted to PSB for the purpose of DOC is illustrated below.

Col marking C3/1-1

Location

0.5m

4.05

3.96

3.97

3.91

4.05

4.04

1.0m

4.04

3.94

3.98

4.02

3.95

4.03

1.5m

3.80

3.99

4.07

3.91

3.88

4.06

Average

3.98

3.96

3.99

3.95

3.96

4.04

(for simplicity, only a few sides are indicated) 60

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Quick Guide on Fire Resistance for Steel Members


The following table shows the level of re resistance period which a combination of columns and beams can achieve.
Fire resistance (min) Beam type

Column type
protected unprotected

slim oor systems

shelf angle

partially encased

> 60
protected

15

60

60

> 60

15

15

15

15

15

Table extracted from The design of steel framed buildings without applied fire protection by C.G. Bailey and G.M. Newman, The Steel Construction Institute.

unprotected

30
blocked-in

15

30

30

30

60
partially encased (unreinforced)

15

60

60

60

> 60
partially encased (reinforced)

15

60

60

> 60

> 60
concrete-lled hollow sections

15

60

60

> 60

61

Sustainable Construction -

What are the ways to achieve a cost-effective re protection system?


Cost comparisons made between different systems should be based on total costs, instead of fire protection costs alone. The time required for the fire protection works, the need for additional finishes and future maintenance will have an impact on the overall cost. Nevertheless, the following pointers should be useful in achieving a more cost-effective fire protection system. (a) Design the members to be built into walls and oors wherever possible Any exposed face of a steel section will usually require fire protection. Hence to reduce the cost of re protection, designers should consider building the steel members into walls and floors wherever possible. For example in the case of the Supreme Court, the steel beams and columns are integrated with precast concrete. The use of precast concrete provides both fire protection to the steel members and unblemished off-form Steel sections integrate with precast surface finish.
concrete

(b) Integrate re protection methods with the architectural intent Fire protection method should integrate with the architectural finishes. Steel members protected with cementitious spray-fireproofing may retain their rough nishes if they are hidden above the ceiling boards. For aesthetics reasons, hand trowelling may be applied to the spray-reproong to improve the surface appearance of the steel elements which are exposed. Alternatively, intumescent paint may be preferred for exposed columns and beams as it provides a more aesthetically pleasing appearance.

Spray fireproofing is used on the beams

(c) Communicate with the steel fabricators early on the requirements of re protection Designers should involve the steel fabricators early and state the fire protection requirements. Fabricators need to know the type and brand of fire protected system prior to preparing the steel surface. For example, some cementitious spray-reproong bond better on unprimed/unpainted steel members than primed surface. On the other hand, steel members receiving intumescent paint have to be primed with a compatible and approved primer. Failure to communicate such useful information to steel fabricators early may result in abortive or remedial works, which incurs additional costs. 62

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Section 4: Performance-based Approach to Fire Safety Design

63

Sustainable Construction -

What is performance-based re engineering?

The performance-based approach to re safety design relies on the use of re engineering principles, calculations and/or appropriate software modelling tools to satisfy the intentions of the Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in Buildings 2007 (Fire Code). This new approach provides alternative means of meeting the intentions of the Fire Code. Building practitioners will have the added exibility in the application of re safety for their buildings by having a choice of using the performance-based approach, the prescriptive approach or a combination of both. The performance-based approach is unique in that its provisions spell out the intent of the code qualitatively but the means of achieving the desired intent of the code is open to the building practitioner. The building practitioner will need to substantiate that the proposed solution fully meets the intent of the Fire Code using established re safety engineering methodology. The performance-based regulatory system was ofcially launched on 1 July 2004.

64

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

What is the rationale of allowing developers/Qualified Persons (QPs) to choose the type of approach (i.e. prescriptive or performance-based) to fire safety design?
The introduction of a performance-based approach to fire safety design offers building designers greater flexibility in design and possible cost optimisation. The prescriptive approach is more restrictive in the sense that the building designers have to adhere strictly to the requirements stipulated in the Fire Code. The performance-based approach, however, provides a platform for customised building designs so long as fire safety standards are maintained.

65

Sustainable Construction -

Is performance-based approach less stringent than prescriptive approach?


The performance-based approach should not be viewed as less stringent, but it is definitely less restrictive. The use of the performance-based approach to complement the prescriptive approach is widely accepted in many countries, such as Australia, New Zealand, UK, USA, Sweden and Japan. In Singapore, there are several buildings where the performance-based approach has been successfully used, such as the Changi International Airport and the Singapore Expo.

66

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Singapore Expo Convention and Exhibition Centre, the largest most flexible event venue in Singapore. All photos courtesy of Singex Venues Pte Ltd.

67

Sustainable Construction -

When should performance-based approach be adopted?


Only registered Fire Safety Engineers (FSEs) are qualified to assess a performance-based design approach. It is a norm in the industry that the prescriptive approach is used for standard-design buildings whereas the performance-based approach is for more complex buildings. If there is possible cost optimisation or design constraints faced when using the prescriptive method, the decision may then be made to use the performance approach. Ultimately, it is a decision to be made by the developers and QPs.

68

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

When are the Fire Safety Engineer (FSE) and Peer Reviewer required?
The Building Developer should engage the FS E on the onset of building project involving per formance-based works, during the conceptual design stage, and not as a remedial solution to resolve deadlocks in the approval process. The Building Developer should engage the Peer Reviewer only after the FSE has completed his Fire Safety Engineering Report (FSER) , detailed specifications and drawings and the Building Operations and Maintenance manual (O & M). It is important that the Peer Reviewer does not participate or interfere with the design process prior to this stage. The Peer Reviewer will make his comments in his Peer Reviewers Report. In the event that the Peer Reviewer has disagreeable comments on the documents reviewed, the FSE and the Peer Reviewer will need to discuss objectively to resolve the outstanding issues. The Project QP is responsible to submit all the mentioned documents to the Relevant Authority for final plan approval.

69

Sustainable Construction -

Is it mandatory to engage a Registered Inspector (RI) who is a n FSE for performance-based re safety works?
Yes, it is mandatory to engage an RI who is an FSE for inspection of the completed performance-based re safety works. These RIs are qualied re safety engineers and are in a better position to highlight any irregularities in the fire safety engineering works that are implemented on-site for a building.

Is it necessary to engage an FSE to re-evaluate addition and alteration works?


For buildings designed to a performancebased fire safety design, the Building Owner can refer to the O&M manual prepared by the orginal FSE. The O&M manual would spell out the extent of the performance-based solution in the building. Based on the information provided, the Building Owner has the responsibility to engage an FSE to reevaluate addition and alteration works where necessary.

FSE may be required to re-evaluate addition and alteration works

70

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Can a building be entirely designed to performance-based solutions?


Theoretically, it is possible to design a building entirely to performance-based solutions. In practice, most performance-based submissions are likely to be a hybrid of performance-based and prescriptive solutions to meet the fire safety requirements stipulated in the Fire Code. FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS

PERFORMANCEBASED SOLUTION

DEEMED-TO-SATISFY SOLUTION

HYBRID PERFORMANCE & DEEMED-TO-SATISFY SOLUTION

Approach to a Performance-based design


Performance-based design is a tool that can be used to look at re safety from a whole building perspective. Performance-based design is an engineering approach to fire safety design based on (1) established fire safety goals and objectives, (2) analysis of fire scenarios, and (3) quantitative assessment of design alternatives against the fire safety goals and objectives using engineering tools, methodologies, and performance criteria.

PERFORMANCE-BASED DESIGNS

IDENTIFY SAFETY GOALS FOR BUILDING

ESTABLISH FIRE SCENARIOS

SELECT FIRE PROTECTION STRATEGIES

EVALUATE USING ENGINEERING TOOLS AND MODELS


Determine whether fire safety goals are met for each fire scenario

Life Safety Property protection Business continuity Environmental protection

Types of fires from which the building is intended to provide protection

Detection Suppression Egress Fire endurance

71

Sustainable Construction -

Case Study: The National Library


The National Library is one of the first few buildings in Singapore to have performance-based fire safety design for its structural steel.

Project description:
16-storey building with basement, divided into 2 blocks (Function and Programme Blocks) interconnected by link bridges on most floors library areas, drama centre, associated ancillary areas, and offices steel-framed construction for all the above ground floors 72

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Fire Scenarios:
A fire starts in a given building, and Occupants fail to extinguish the fire, and Automated fire sprinklers fail to control or extinguish the fire, and Fire continues to grow, but only on the storey of origin or on floors connected by a void, until the fire fighters intervene to control and extinguish it.

In the event that a major fire develops and the automated fire sprinklers fail to control or extinguish the fire, the performance-based design is to ensure that the structural adequacy of the building frame is maintained until the re ghters intervene.

73

Sustainable Construction -

The Approach:
Analyse the risk of fire starting in building. Check the effectiveness of the automated fire sprinkler system Take measures to increase the reliability of the automated fire sprinkler system Study the fire growth and compartment fire conditions, taking into consideration the fire fighters intervention

In terms of structural performance, allow: Load-carrying mechanisms for beams and slabs in a structural frame to include membrane action Load redistribution from members

The Solution:
The performance-based design allows most of the steel floor beams to be unprotected while maintaining the buildings structural stability in a fire. This enabled the bare steel structure to be expressed and enabled cost-effective construction of the building. The performance-based solution also allowed the two blocks to face each other with no additional fixed fire protection systems. Only selected beams were fire rated. These key steel beams were chosen to be fire-rated for enhanced safety factor and they generally occur in critical areas like corners of the building or in long span areas.

74

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Steel Framing Plan of Typical Floor

The red line indicate the key steel beams with 90-minute re-rated protection while the secondary steel beams are not fire protected

75

Sustainable Construction -

References
The following URLs provide information on fire protection and fire engineering. Association for Specialist Fire Protection, UK http://www.asfp.org.uk/index.html Nanyang Technological University Fire Engineering Research Group http://www.ntu.edu.sg/cee/research/research_groups/fireresearch/research.htm Singapore Civil Defence Force http://www.scdf.gov.sg/Building_Professionals/Fire_Safety_Plan_Approval/performance /index.html http://www.scdf.gov.sg/Building_Professionals/Publications/index.html University of Manchester One-Stop Shop in Structural Fire Engineering http://www.mace.manchester.ac.uk/project/research/structures/strucfire/ University of Sheffield Fire Engineering Group http://www.fire-research.group.shef.ac.uk/

76

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Acknowledgements
This publication was developed with inputs from members of the Working Committee and fire protection specialists. BCA would like to thank them for their valuable contributions towards the completion of this Guide.

Members of the Working Committee: Mr Lim Tee Yoke (Chairman) Ms Goh Siam Imm Ms Rose Nguan Ms Phua Hui Chun Er. Teh Poh Suan Assoc Professor Tan Kang Hai LTC Philip Tham Mr Song Yew Kee (DP Architects Pte Ltd) Er. Tay Yak Hong (TYH Consulting Engineers)

From Building and Construction Authority

From Housing & Development Board From Nanyang Technological University From Singapore Civil Defence Force Representing Singapore Institute of Architects Representing Singapore Structural Steel Society

BCA would also like to thank the following persons/ organizations for their consent to use their materials and photographs: Arup BlueScope Lysaght (Singapore) Pte Ltd Boral Plasterboard (M) Sdn Bhd Donges Stahlbau GmbH, Germany DP Architects Pte Ltd Industrial Contracts Marketing (2001) Pte Ltd Professor Colin Bailey, University of Manchester and Mr Gerald Newman, The Steel Construction Institute Promat Building System Pte Ltd Singex Venues Pte Ltd The Ascott Group TTJ Design and Engineering Pte Ltd W.R. Grace (Singapore) Pte Ltd Yongnam Engineering & Construction Pte Ltd

77

Sustainable Construction -

Photographs/Graphics Credit:
Copyright to photographs and graphics from the following pages are held with the respective company who has granted permission to BCA for reproduction in this publication.

Company BlueScope Lysaght (Singapore) Pte Ltd Boral Plasterboard (M) Sdn Bhd Industrial Contracts Marketing (2001) Pte Ltd Promat Building System Pte Ltd TTJ Design and Engineering Pte Ltd W.R. Grace (Singapore) Pte Ltd Yongnam Engineering & Construction (Pte) Ltd

Page 27, 28 and 51 (top) 14 15, 42 (bottom), 55, 56 (bottom left), 59, and 60 16, 17, 18, 32, 33, 34 (left), 36, 37, 38, 42 (top left and top right), 43, 44, 46, 47, 52 (top) and 54 (bottom) 53 (bottom) and 58 (left) 39, 48 (top), 49 (top) and 51 (bottom) 58 (right top and right bottom)

78

A Guide Fire on Protection Fire Protection and Performance-based and Performance-based Fire Engineering Fire Engineering

Copyright @ 2008 Building and Construction Authority, Singapore. All rights reserved. This document or any part thereof may not be reproduced for any reason whatsoever in any form or means whatsoever and howsoever without the prior written consent and approval of the Building and Construction Authority. Whilst every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this publication, the Building and Construction Authority, its employees or agents and members of the Working Committee shall not be responsible for any mistake or inaccuracy that may be contained herein and all such liability and responsibility are expressly disclaimed by these said parties. This publication may include information of suppliers who have, in one way or another, contributed to the development of this publication. The Building and Construction Authority does not endorse the products included. It is the responsibility of the users to select the appropriate products and ensure the selected products meet their specific requirements. ISBN 978-981-05-9686-6
a touche design production @ 6743 5450

79

5 Maxwell Road, #16-00 Tower Block MND Complex, Singapore 069110 Tel: +65 6325 7720 Fax: +65 6325 4800 Website: www.bca.gov.sg
ISBN 978-981-05-9686-6
Printed on Recycled Paper