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Contact: Axel Boden Solar cells that are to be in operation for a long time need to be protected from environmental factors such as dampness. To achieve this, the upper side of the solar cells is covered with a transparent covering layer. This can be glass or plastic sheet. The covering layer is glued to the surface of the solar cells with a plastic that networks when heated.
Diagram of a vacuum laminator
In the laboratory, encapsulation takes place in a vacuum laminator (see above diagram). The solar cell is placed face up inside it on a flat heater plate. EVA (ethyl vinyl acetate) foil is laid on it and, on top of that, the transparent protective covering (glass or plastic sheet). The lid of the laminator is then closed. In this lid, there is a membrane, which now rests on the solar cell, dividing the laminator chamber into two sealed parts. At the beginning of the process, both of these spaces are evacuated and at the same time, the solar cell is heated up. On reaching a predetermined temperature (e.g. 80°C), air is let in to the space above the membrane. This presses the membrane onto the stack consisting of solar cell, EVA foil and covering layer, creating a continuous contact between the individual layers over the entire surface. Upon increasing the temperature further, the EVA foil polymerises, at about 150°C, becoming a transparent, thermally stable film and creating a strong bond between the surface of the solar cells and the covering layer.
The photo shows the encapsulation station with the vacuum laminator open on the right and control equipment on the left. The measuring instruments in the middle record the parameters to be examined during the process of lamination.
"Photovoltaic Energy Systems" Experiment PE1
Rodrigo Guido Araújo Dr. Stefan Krauter Kim Onneken Dr. Volker Quaschning
1 Influence of shadowing 12 2.4 Influence of temperature on the I-V curve 10 2 Solar module 11 2.2 MPP-Power. efficiency.1 Setting up the experiment 17 5. equivalent circuit and characteristics 4 1.1 Measurement of the solar irradiance 14 3. and can produce energy anywhere the sun shines.2 Bypass-diodes 12 3 Measurement of the solar irradiance and the temperature 14 3.2 Recording of I-V characteristics at different temperatures 18 5.2 Measurement of temperature 16 4 Preparation exercises 17 5 Experimentation 17 5. fill factor 9 1.5 Different type of module 19 6 Protocol 19 7 List of equipment 20 8 Literature 20 Prologue Electricity generated from photovoltaic (PV) systems produces zero emissions.3 Influence of irradiance on the I-V curve 10 1.1 I-V characteristic of the solar cell 7 1.4 Recording of the I-V characteristics for different states of shadowing 19 5. is modular.UFRJ-COPPE-EE TU-Berlin Contents 1 Solar cell.3 Recording of the I-V characteristics for different levels of irradiance 18 5. Investment in PV my be cost-effective in certain distributed generation and .
temperature coefficient for power output. control systems.g.and multicrystalline) Introduction In applied photovoltaics. module temperatures and shadowing. and either a back cover of glass or of a laminated foil. telephone repeaters and lighting systems. Solar cell. Determination of all module data (e.g. a spectrum equivalent to AM 1. walls. a so called "pyranometer” is used) and the cell temperature is at 40-60°C. which mean an illumination level of 1 000 W/m² (which is bright sunshine). so no moisture could harm. Small stand-alone PV systems have proven practical in many areas of the country where connection with the local distribution was too costly or impractical. Aims • • • • • • Setting-up of the experiment to trace I-V-characteristics Tracing of I-V-curves at different 3 illumination levels Tracing of I-V-curves at different 3 temperature levels Tracing of I-V-curves at different states of shadowing. efficiency and power output) this experiment was designed for. which says that the module was rated at the so called " Standard test conditions”(STC). Also a part of the module is sometimes shadowed by trees or buildings or direct dirt (e. 20 to 80 solar cells are connected in series to a "Solar Module” to get a applicable voltage of 10-40 V.5 nor perpendicular to the module surface. To observe the influence of most of the upper parameters on the electrical performance (as I-V-characteristic. The power output of a solar module is given by the manufacturer in Wp (Watt peak). The cells and the sandwich are sealed by a soft transparent plastic layer. The plastic is often EVA (ethylene-vinyl-acetate) which is melted in a vacuum laminator to avoid airbubbles in the sandwich.5 and 25°C module temperature at the test. can serve loads such as homes. equivalent circuit and characteristics . MPP). Irradiation is seldom at AM 1. and/or windows. Comparison of different types of modules (mono. 1. from birds) accumulation on the front surface. During real application most of the times the illumination is much lower than 1 000 W/m² (average is 200 to 500 W/m² .to measure the actual illumination. Such systems. radio stations. PV modules may be installed in buildings as part of the roofing. Subject of experiment Tests of PV-Modules at different illumination levels. when coupled with a storage battery. A PV solar module consists of a sandwich with a front cover of highly transmittive glass solar cells.grid-support applications where PV output tends to coincidence with local peak demands.
At real solar cells a voltage loss on the way to the external contacts could be observed.1) m Diode "ideally factor" m = 1. VT = 25. the simplified equivalent circuit doesn't give an optimal representation of the electrical process at the solar cell.7mV at 25°C. Furthermore leakage currents could be observed.60217733 · 10-19 As As given by the name. -23 -1 k constant of Boltzmann k = 1. [T] = K (Kelvin) 0 K = -273.and outgoing currents at point add up to zero): with IPh Photo current ID Diode current IS Diode reverse saturation current ( 1.. 1.. The current source generates the photo current IPh. . Figure 1: Simplified equivalent circuit of the solar cell. which is directly proportional to the solar irradiance E. The p-n transition area of the solar cell is equivalent to a big diode (in admissive orientation) which is also integrated in the picture. which could be described by a parallel resistor RP.380658 · 10 JK T absolute temperature.5VT Thermal voltage: .15°C e charge of an electron e = 1. This voltage loss could be expressed by a series resistor RS . Equivalent Circuits The simplified equivalent circuit of a solar cell consists of a diode and a current source which are switched in parallel.This chapter an overview of the different equivalent circuits of the solar cell is given. without discussing the physical processes in a profound way. The V-I equation of the simplified equivalent circuit could be derived from Kirchhoff's current law (first law of Kirchhoff: all in.
. Therefore a numeric method (e.ID . but at high negative voltages a breakthrough at the solar cell could be observers. Figure 3: TwoDiode-Model of a solar cell with a second current source to simulate the breakthrough of the diodes at high negative voltages... Derived from Kirchhoff´s first law the equation for the extended I-V curve could be achieved.Figure 2: Equivalent circuit with one diode of a solar cell.2) This implicit equation could not be solved to I and U in such an easy way as the equation from the simplified equivalent circuit. 0 = IPh .Ip .g.I. At the equations of the diode it was always taken for granted the there is no breakthrough at operation in the inhibited direction of the diode. as Newton-Raphson (see Stoer 1993) have to be applied. This was modeled at the following figure by a variable current source I(VD). The supplementary term of the equation models the breakthrough at high negative voltages.. The I-V curve of the equivalent circuit can also be derived from the node-law of Kirchhoff. Here two different diodes with different diode ideally factors m connected in parallel. with follows ( 1. An even more exact modeling could be achieved by the Two-Diode-Model.
respectively the second diode ( m1 1 (ideal). I terminal voltage and current at the solar cell IPh photo current IS1. The uncertainty region of the measurement values are marked as a beam. Even more accurate results could be completed by the "full" one-diode-model (Fig. .IS2 saturation current of the first.3) with V.m2 diode factor of the first. when more precise measurements as done in this experiment are carried out. ( m>1).1 -1) n exponent for avalanche breakdown (n = 1. m2 2) VT temperature voltage (see page 4) VBr breakdown voltage (VBr -15V..2). I-V characteristic of the solar cell In the figure shown below measurements and calculated I-V characteristics of a multicrystalline solar cell (10 x 10 cm) are compared. respectively the second diode RS serial resistance RP parallel resistance m1. The simplified model (Fig. A modeling by the twodiode model only makes sense.-50 V) a correction factor (a = 0.10) 1.( 1.1) with an ideal diode (m=1) shows still large deviations... while a much better fit could be achieved by modeling with a real diode.
When the temperature rises too much the cell could be destroyed by so called "hot spots". irradiance E=430 W/m². At negative voltages the diode blocks up to -15 V and then breaks through slowly. temperature T=300 K. To measure a dark current curve an external voltage has to be applied to the solar cell.Figure 4: I-V curve of a multicrystalline solar cell (10 x 10 cm). At a current of 2 A the heat dissipation of the dark cell is already 30 W. At this stage a high power dissipation occurs in the cell which warms it up. . In the figure below the dark current I-V curve of a solar cell for a wide range of voltage is shown. At the positive voltages the diode is in permitting stage.
efficiency. a short circuit current Isc occurs which is about equivalent to the photo current (Isc IPh). A point of operation where output power is at its maximum is preferred. 1. fill factor If a solar cell gets short circuited.Figure 5: Dark I-V curve of a solar cell for an extended voltage region. the cell area AC and the irradiance E as follows: ( 1. The photo current is therefore proportional to the irradiance. MPP-Power. This specific operation point is called MPP (maximum power point). the terminal voltage is zero. for real cells it is between 0. The fill factor is a quality consideration. Influence of irradiance on the I-V curve By increasing the irradiance level also the amount of electron-hole pairs getting separated and inducing the photo current are increasing.5) If the I-V curve would be rectangular (that is the ideal case).4) Also another value plays a role in photovoltaics.85.75 and 0. The efficiency of a solar cell could be calculated from the power at MPP PMPP. If no load is applied. which could be seen on the I-V curves. 1. the so called open circuit voltage Voc could be measured at the terminal. while voltage times current is maximal here. In both cases the electrical output power is 0 W. the so called fill factor FF. the fill factor would be 1. An irradiated cell is providing power output for a voltage region between 0 V and Voc . It is defined as follows: ( 1. Also the output power in increasing .
Influence of temperature on the I-V curve Most of the parameter of the solar cell show a temperature dependency. Figure 6: Series connection of 36 cells.4%/K). Most commercial modules have between 36 and 40 cells. Solar module At a solar module many cells are connected in series in order to achieve a higher voltage. ( 1.. .6) 1. . The current through all cells is identical. The power loss factor is around 0.1) If the electrical parameters are the same for all cells as well as the temperature and the irradiance the Voltage of the module is: V = n·V i ( 2..7) If there is a linear connection between the size y and the temperature T. Therefore the power output is decreasing for increasing temperatures.5 % per degree Celsius. The general equation to calculate the temperature coefficient TC for a value y is: ( 1. (I1 = I2 = . = I36). 1.8) The short circuit current is increasing a little bit at rising temperatures. The voltage of the module consists of the single voltages Vi over the n cells: ( 2.2) The I-V curve of the module is composed by the I-V curves of the single cells (addition of voltages at the same current).. while losses of the open circuit voltage is about ten times higher (-0.3-0. so the temperature coefficient TC is: ( 1.. so for an increase of 30°C in temperature the power is decreasing by 9-15 %.
The points of the maximum power P1 and P2 are marked in the curves of identical power output. Influence of shadowing The I-V curve is affected decisively when cells are irradiated at a different level.at this cell is 12. The following figure explains the creation of one point at the final I-V curve (1): For a given current the voltage is calculated by the addition of the shadowed cell (1a) and 35 times the voltage of a irradiated cell (1b). At a module consisting of 36 monocrystalline cells (10 x 10 cm) one cell is shadowed by 75%. the power output at MPP is reduced by 70 %.Figure 7: I-V characteristics of PV-module (36 cells) at E = 400 W/m². . The final I-V curve is also drawn in the figure: It could be seen that the module power output is reduced drastically by this single cell shadowing. 1. T = 300 K 26°C. The shadowed cell acts as a load. This will be explained at an example.7 W occurring at short circuit of the module. While there was shadowed only 2% of the module area. All other cells are irradiated completely.. The maximum power dissipation .
but for each string of 12-24 cells. Figure 9: Simplified equivalent circuit of a solar cell with a bypass diode If a bypass diode is switched to every cell as shown in Fig. Bypass-diodes At the shadowed cell there is the threat of overheating already at this experiment. the module output power is reduced only by the power of the shadowed cell in case of shadowing (plus the losses of the diode). 1.9. If the cells are operated at negative voltages. the current passes through the bypass diode. A destruction of a cell . irradiance E = 407 W/m². Therefore the manufactures of PV-modules switch bypass diodes to the cells or strings of cells.Figure 8: I-V curve of module with one cell shadowed by 75 %. The voltage at the cells is limited to the threshold of the passing operation of the diode. At most commercial modules bypass diodes are not implemented for each cell. temperature T = 300 K.
Measurement of the solar irradiance To measure solar irradiance different measurement systems for different purposes exist.g. This voltage. the higher the temperature of the black absorber plate. The higher the intensity. The reflection losses of a sphere are more independent from the direction of the incidencing irradiance than plane surfaces. Figure 10: IV curve of solar module (1) completely irritated (2) one cell shadowed entirely with a bypass diode at the cell (3) with a bypass diode at each sting of cells only (4) without bypass diode. but the losses of output power are significantly higher. . Measurement of the solar irradiance and the temperature 2. 1. it hits an absorber plate which is warming up by that.by "hot spots" could be avoided by this. In our experiment we use a pyranometer because it gives us a spectral independent value of the irradiance while the slow reaction time is less important for our purpose. which is also proportional to the global irradiance (direct and diffuse irradiance). painted in white) or a massive metal body as a reference. The advantages and disadvantages are shown in the table. The thermocouple generates a small voltage which is proportional to the temperature difference. The pyranometer is covered by two glass spheres. could be measured by a very sensitive Voltmeter. The temperature difference is measured by a thermocouple which uses either a absorbing area (e. After the solar radiation passed the spheres.
exact E() spectral measurement slow. fast. good accuracy electrically calibrated open air calibration E very good accuracy thermal receiver solar cell open air measurement E lab measurement E robust. In our experiment we us a so called star-pyranometer which has got black-and-white areas on the absorber area which are thermally isolated from each other. fast.Figure 11: Schematic of a pyranometer. very accurate E() 1. some aging. so for fast changes of irradiance (e. in order to get temperature reference points for the thermocouple.g. Measurement of temperature . fast moving clouds) the results differ form reality. limited accuracy robust. It is relatively slow. A pyranometer allows high accuracy for long periods of measurements. at small. exact (if spectral mismatch was corrected) reference cell photo diode pyro electrical radiometer thermal receiver solar cell photo element pyro electrical thermocouple column spectral measurement very accurate E() spectral measurement slow. Table 1: Overview over the different types of instruments to measure the solar irradiance E Name Type of receiver Application Properties pyranometer hollow radiometer silicon sensor thermocouple open air measurement E slow.
1) To get accurate values for the temperature. power at MPP. • Which current and voltage are at a resistor of a) 1 and b) 20 connected to the module of Fig.g. 1. for a certain range of temperatures it could be approximated as a linear function and expressed by a temperature coefficient. 8 short circuit current. For different temperatures the according resistance is given as follows: ( 3. 1. 3.g. e.2 Thermal resistance A temperature dependent resistor (as the Pt 100) is used.At the experiment three different kinds of temperature measurements are considered. the efficiency and the fill factor have to be determined for both.1 Thermoelectric voltage The thermoelectric voltages of a thermocouple junction (each consisting of two different metals solded together) at the measuring point (the solar cell) and at a reference point (e. 7 ? The output power of the module has to be calculated for both loads. If done properly the results of this kind measurement are very accurate (deviation less than 0. while PTC show a positive temperature coefficient of the electrical resistance towards the temperature. linearized device (output e.g.g. completely irradiated and shadowed condition. Preparation exercises The theory has to be known as well that all experiments could be done quickly without hesitation. Therefore this kind of measurement requires a reference temperature and a quite sensitive voltmeter it is not used here. The Pt 100 resistor has got a reference value of R(T0) = 100 at T0 = 0 °C.00385 K-1 for a platinum resistor. the measurement of the resistance has to be carried out very precisely (e. open circuit voltage. A semiconductor as silicon shows a temperature dependency of its conductivity. 5 mV/K) are often used. at a temperature coefficient of TCR =0. If the preparation is not good enough the students are obliged to do the experiments another time. by a so called four-wire-measurement which eliminates the resistive losses of the cables from the sensor to the Ohmmeter) .2. The resistance of the resistor increases as its temperature increases. they have different properties.2. Although the temperatureresistance dependency is non-linear. 3. advantages and disadvantages. Temperature measurement by NTC or PTC. . ambient) are measured and compared. As a recent development integrated circuits with an attached amplifier to get an active. NTC devices show a negative temperature coefficient.1 K). The voltage difference indicates the temperature at the measuring point. this effect is used to use it as a temperature sensor. • From Fig.
• Which voltage could be read at the millivoltmeter connected to the pyranometer at an irradiance of E = 200 W/m² ? Which voltage has got the thermocouple at a temperature of 40 °C ? • 1.5 mV at 1000 W/m2) and the I-V characteristic to be traced by varying the electrical load resistor. 1. The Pyranometer is to be placed at different positions of the solar module because the distribution of the irradiance is not equal. The irradiance is to be measured by the pyranometer at different positions of the module area (calibration factor is 15. The first measurement has to be carried out quickly therefore the module is heating up very fast at the beginning. The IV curves should be made at every 10 K temperature difference. For the I-V plot the following adjustments should be taken: • V: 1 V/cm • I: 2 mV/cm It is to be calculated which amplitude (in cm) occurs at a current of 1 A (with the suggested shut resistor of 3A/60mV). Also the cell or module temperature is to be measured. Setting up the experiment The experiment to record the I-V curves is set up according to Figure 12. Experimentation 2. Recording of the I-V characteristics for different levels of irradiance . The results are recorded by the computer. The position with the lowest irradiance is taken as the reference point. Recording of I-V characteristics at different temperatures The lamps are switched on. starting from ambient temperature up to a limit when a thermal equilibrium is reached and temperature stops rising (about 50-60°C). The irradiance is done by the halogen lamps. Due to the irradiance the temperature of the module is rising. Figure 12: Experiment for recording the I-V characteristics or the PV-module 1.
1. the irradiance according to the readings by the millivoltmeter has to be calculated: Very often the low inner resistance of the millivoltmeter influences the measurement. going up to the maximal irradiance (about 800 W/m 2). Minimum and maximum of irradiance on the module area has to be noted. For the different shadowing states the according I-V curves are recorded. The I-V characteristics are to be discussed. efficiency and fill factor as a function of temperature and irradiance. These states have to be examined: • no shadowing • an entire cell at the center of the module • an entire cell at the corner of the module • ¾ cell at the corner of the module • ½ cell at the corner of the module • ¼ cell at the corner of the module • 2 neighboring cells at the corner of the module • 2 cells at different corners of the module 1. Recording of the I-V characteristics for different states of shadowing The average irradiance on the module area is fixed at 500 W/m².The irradiance level should be increased in steps by 100 W/m². as well as ambient and module temperature. Protocol The protocol should include the following points: • Circumstantial answering of the preparation exercises • Results of the experiments: Curves. Different type of module The same procedure has to be carried for a different kind of module. short circuit current and power at MPP. Then the I-V characteristics could be recorded: The measurements should be done quickly to keep the temperature almost constant for all measurements. starting at 100 W/m². efficiency and fill factor for all I-V curves • Graphical representation of power at MPP. For doing that. After doing the experiments the students are obliged to dismantle the experiment for the next group to come. 1. . this deviation has to be taken into account. The irradiance could be varied either by changing the voltage of the lamps (unfortunately this changes also the spectrum of the lamps) or keeping the voltage of the lamps constant and using different kind of neutral filters in front of the lamps or in front of the module. axis and scales have to be marked and described. • Determination of the temperature coefficients of open circuit voltage. • Determination of power at MPP. The temperature has to be recorded too in order to determine the temperature coefficients later.
energy and material.20 mV o 1 Shunt-resistor 3A. 3 A o 1 I-V-curve tracking device (X-Y-Plotter or a computer with a A/D converter. R. A. 130 V o 1 Pyranometer with amplifier and Millivoltmeter 0. Literature • • Wenham. EVA) and a second sheet of glass (Figure 1). do not produce carbon dioxide or other dangerous green house gases and thus. have a strongly positive influence on the climatic balance in the atmosphere... "Solar-Server" on the Internet http://emsolar. Green. 1994. M. Thin film solar cells have the potential of low cost. The process can not be easily automated and needs a lot of time. The encapsulation of thin film solar cells is made by a vacuum lamination process using an encapsulating polymer (ethylene vinyl acetate.• Determination of number of bypass diodes of the module..: Applied Photovoltaics. the development of new encapsulation . which will be decisive for future dissemination of PV. Sydney. each 500W. Australia.TU-Berlin. E. Watt. where moisture and gas can enter into the photoactive layers and cause degradation. 1. List of equipment o 1 PQ10/40 and 1 SM 55 solar module o temperature sensors with measurement transformer and amplifier. Besides. University of New South Wales.DE Flexible polymer barrier films for the encapsulation of solar cells Initial situation Renewable energies. it is not possible to produce flexible modules in this way. S. such as photovoltaics (PV). PV can also partly replace nuclear energy which always entails hazardous risks.ee. Center of Photovoltaic Systems and Devices. 60mV or an equivalent magnetic sensor with instrument amplifier o 1 Potentiometer 200 Ω. 2. printer) o connection cables o 1 digital multimeter for check o paper for plotter or printer o different cover materials: black mosquito net (to cover module and to reduce irradiance) black carton (to cover some solar cells for the shadowing experiment). The disadvantages of this technology are high weight and the gap between the two sheets of glass at the edges. M. high efficiency and low material demand. Therefore. if necessary o 4 Halogen lights.
To protect the solar cell from water vapor in the atmosphere. The barrier systems were produced by the combination of SiOx (PVD) and ORMOCER® barrier layers on a special PET 36 µm film which was optimized for vacuum coating. All these functions had to be combined in one composite („one component encapsulant“). The project Eight partners joined in the EC funded project HIPROLOCO in order to overcome the disadvantages of the double-sided glass encapsulation for thin film solar cells. an additional system of barrier layers on the polymer film is necessary. For the four-layered barrier system the OTR . Sputtered layers have been found to give the best barrier properties. Combined with sputtered layers the hybrid polymers usually result in ultrabarriers which show transmission rates below 0. water vapor and oxygen transmission rates (WVTR. new encapsulants which are based on flexible polymer materials had to be developed. an encapsulation system with very high barrier properties is necessary (Figure 2). Figure 3 Scanning transmission micrograph of a thin hybrid polymer coating on SiOx deposited on a flexible PET film processes for thin film solar cells is necessary to reduce costs and to increase competitiveness of PV. Different layer structures were tested (Figure 4). In this way the overall cost reduction for encapsulation should reach about 50 per cent. whereas electron beam coatings (PVD) allow the production of transparent barrier layers at relatively low cost. These barrier layers were applied by roll-to-roll coating processes at Fraunhofer IVV.Figure 1 Detailed scheme of a thin film solar cell of the stateof-the-art (CIGS module). Currently available polymer films do not meet these high requirements. Through the combination of barrier layers (Figure 3) high and ultra-high barrier properties can be achieved. Fraunhofer ISC was responsible for the development of ORMOCER® barrier layers. Fraunhofer ISC and Fraunhofer IVV have cooperated with Alcan Packaging Services in order to develop the high barrier systems needed for the encapsulation composite (Figure 2). Solution The barrier system With hybrid polymers very good barrier properties regarding permeation of gases and vapors can be obtained. For the application envisaged here. Altogether. the new polymer film based encapsulants had to include an adhesive/sealing layer. which together with the inorganic vapor deposited SiOx layer could guarantee sufficient protection to ensure a long durability of the encapsulated solar cells. CVD).1 [g/m2d] and 0. the barrier properties of the encapsulating polymer film had to be improved by means of at least one inorganic vacuum deposited barrier layer in combination with a barrier coating system based on hybrid polymers. The barrier system is only one part of the whole encapsulation system. The barrier improvement of the hybrid polymers depends to a great deal on the quality of the vapor deposited oxide layers (evaporation. sputtering etc. If the hybrid polymers are applied on inorganic oxide layers deposited by physical or chemical vapor processes (PVD. The SiOx layers were produced by Alcan Packaging Services.1 [cm3/m2dbar] are accessible. stepby-step or continuously operating encapsulating process for rigid and for flexible thin film solar cells. ORMOCER®s. It was the task of Fraunhofer ISC to develop new barrier coating materials based on ORMOCER®s.005 [g/m2d] for water vapor and 0. Products on top have the highest requirements. Therefore. a barrier system against water vapor and gases and an outside layer for weatherability. with kind permission of ZSW Figure 2 Requirements on the barrier layer technology.). OTR) below 0. It was the aim of this project to develop a new automated.005 [cm3/m2dbar] for oxygen (barrier structure: PET/Al2O3 sputtered/ORMOCER®).
Germany. Upcoming and future products require flexible films that have high barrier or even ultra-high barrier properties (Figure 2). Especially flexible thin film solar cells cover broader fields of application because they can be adapted to non-planar surfaces. The new material can be used from the roll. We thank the EC for funding and all partners for their cooperation. PV could be a standard integrated part of construction components. Thus. Therefore. These results are in the range of the necessary barrier requirements for the encapsulation of solar cells. consists of the following single layers: an ETFE (ethylene tetrafluoro-ethylene copolymer) film which gives mechanical stability and weatherability.01 g/m2d. the SiOx layer working also as a primer for a UV absorber containing adhesive and additionally working as a first barrier layer. The design of the encapsulation system Besides the barrier film laminate additional layers with different properties have to be used for both the front and the rear side of the solar cell to reach the requirements mentioned above (Figure 6). façades.The front side material. which has to be a transparent film composite.01 cm3/m2 d bar while the WVTR reached the value 0. will save material and energy consumption in the production of the new encapsulating material. Thin barrier layers. balustrades. the design of the rear side material is less complicated (Figure 6b). Partners of Fraunhofer ISC: Fraunhofer IVV. the barrier system (multilayer structure) which provides the required high barrier properties against moisture and gases. That means. Therefore. in e. This is planned in the frame of a further project.und Wasserstoff-Forschung BadenWürttemberg ZSW. a larger number of potential users could benefit from the solar technology. For the rear side of the solar cell there is no need for protection against UV-light. They were used for the production of test modules at Kloepper Maschinentechnik GmbH. Some optimization work with regard to scaling up and adaptation of the single process steps has still to be carried out. the result of this project is a material and energy saving encapsulation technology. Therefore. like SiOx. g. Germany. with kind permission of IVV Figure 6 Encapsulation system for solar modules: encapsulation material for a) the front side and b) the rear side of the solar cell was measured below 0. Light transparency of the back layer is not an important issue. Cooperation The work described was carried out in the HIPROLOCO project funded by the European Commission (ENK5-CT-2000-00325). ZSW and Free Energy Europe SA. Austria. The suitability of the new process of encapsulation has been proved. combined with ORMOCER® based barrier coatings. thus providing an easy handling and automation in the production of flexible modules. The encapsulation film for solar modules is one important example which illustrates that there is still a great need for the development of improved polymer barrier systems. roofing materials.Figure 4 Barrier properties of the barrier systems produced by roll-to-roll processes (OR: ORMOCER®) Figure 5 Encapsulation films for solar modules. Kloepper Maschinentechnik . This will help to promote the application of thin film solar cells in the building industry and to increase the number of users of solar cells. Zentrum für Sonnenenergie. this layer structure was used for the new encapsulation process tested at the end of the project. Customer benefits The flexible nature of the encapsulants results in an optimized encapsulation process and especially in good protection of the edge area. The process of encapsulation The composite encapsulating materials were produced by Isovolta according to Figures 5 and 6. Isovolta österreichische Isolierstoffwerke AG.
Slovak University of Technology. France. Slovakia.de Ulrike Weber Phone +49(0)9 31/41 00-6 21 Fax +49(0)9 31/41 00-6 98 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-Mail: email@example.com. Switzerland.de © 2005 Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung ISC . Sabine Amberg-Schwab Phone +49(0)9 31/41 00-6 20 Fax +49(0)9 31/41 00-6 98 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org E-Mail: email@example.com. Your contact Dr. Alcan Packaging Services AG.GmbH. Free Energy Europe SA. Germany.
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