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The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness,

Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL: IS IT APPLICABLE TO USERS AND NON USERS OF INTERNET BANKING T. Ramayah Chairman, Operations Management School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Tel: 04-6577888 Ext: 3889, Fax: 04-6577448 E-mail: ramayah@usm.my Jasman J. Maruf Faculty of Economics, Universitas Syiah Kuala Tel: 0651-54321, Fax: 0651-51014 E-mail: jasmanjm@yahoo.com Muhamad Jantan Deputy Dean, Postgraduate Research & Development School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Tel: 04-6577888 Ext: 3343, Fax: 04-6577448 E-mail: mjantan@usm.my Osman Mohamad Chairman, Marketing Management School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia Tel: 04-6577888 Ext: 2317, Fax: 04-6577448 E-mail: osman@usm.my ABSTRACT Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been used extensively in research that looks at the acceptance of new technology (Davis, 1989; Venkatesh, 1996). This paper looks at the applicability of TAM in predicting intention to use internet banking among current users and future users. We begin with the argument that the TAM model is more applicable in predicting intention to use (adoption) and usage for users than non users of a particular technological innovation. A survey of 180 bank customers (Users=136 and Non users=44) showed that when both the groups were used in the analysis, about 24.1% of the variation in the intention to use can be explained by perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. When the sample was split and analyzed separately, 39% of the variation in intentions among users can be explained whereas only 5.2% of the variation in intentions among non-users can be explained by perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. This lends support for our argument that the TAM model is more useful in predicting intention to use among users than non users. The research also confirmed the importance of perceived usefulness which has been found to be a significant predictor in most technology acceptance research with perceived ease of use showing no significant effect on intention to use. Implications are further discussed.

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

INTRODUCTION While it is difficult to directly measure IT contribution because of its hidden and intangible benefits (En Mao & Palvia, 2001), researchers have developed other measures, such as technology acceptance, which directly relates to IT usage. It is therefore important for the implementers to fully understand the determinants of IT acceptance as they need to plan effectively for it. Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) (Davis, 1989; Davis, Bagozzi & Warshaw, 1989) derived from the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) offers a powerful explanation for user acceptance and usage bahaviour of information technology. TAM is one of the most influential models widely used in the studies of the determinant of IS/IT acceptance. Many previous studies have adopted and expanded this model which was empirically proven to have high validity (Chau, 1996; Davis, 1989; Mathieson, 1991; Adams, Nelson & Todd, 1992; Segars & Grover, 1993; Igbaria, 1992, 1995; Igbaria, Zinatelli, Cragg & Cavaye, 1997; Jantan, Ramayah & Chin, 2001; Koay, 2002, Ramayah, Siron, Dahlan & Mohamad, 2002). Perceived Usefulness External Variables Perceived Ease of Use Figure 1: Technology Acceptance Model TAM theorizes that an individuals behavioral intention to adopt a system is determined by two beliefs, perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Perceived usefulness is defined as the degree to which an individual believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her productivity while perceived ease of use is defined as the degree an individual believes that using a particular system would be free of effort (Davis, 1989). Between these two, perceived ease of use has a direct effect on both perceived usefulness and technology usage (Adams et al., 1992; Davis, 1989). Davis (1989) has also found that there is a relationship between users beliefs about a technologys usefulness and the attitude and the intention to use the technology. However, perceived usefulness exhibits stronger and more consistent relationship with usage than did other variables reported in the literature. In addition, an individual may adopt a technology if he or she perceives it as convenient, useful and socially desirable even though they do not enjoy using the technology (Saga & Zmud, 1994). Thus, there might be a possibility of a direct relationship between beliefs and intentions. Subsequent research by Venkatesh (1996) refined the TAM suggesting that the mediating effect of attitude could be excluded as empirical evidence found that the attitude element did not fully mediate the effect of perceived usefulness on intention to use. Attitudes Towards Use Intention To Use Actual System Usage

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

Perceived Usefulness External Variables Perceived Ease of Use Figure 2: Refined Technology Acceptance Model (Refined TAM) In Malaysia, the refined TAM model was used by Jantan, Ramayah & Chin (2001) to study the various factors influencing personal computer acceptance by small and medium sized companies. Basyir (2000) replicated TAM model to study the various factors associated with acceptance of Internet shopping behavior. Fok (2001) adopted TAM that explicitly incorporates self-efficacy and its determinants as factors that affect perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and the use of the Internet. Wong (2001) extended the refined TAM into examining the impact of extrinsic and intrinsic motivational factors in influencing individuals acceptance of Internet job search. On the other hand Koay (2002) used the TAM model to measure receptiveness of E-banking by Malaysian consumers. Ramayah et al. used the basic TAM model to predict technology usage amongst SME owners/managers by including three demographic variables such as age, education level and gender as predictors. While there are some convergent results from the IT acceptance research, the effects of some determinants remain debatable. While most researchers have found perceived usefulness to be a key determinant in IT acceptance, there has been mixed results for the perceived ease of use construct. This is particularly evidenced in the researches of Adams et al. (1992), Hu et al. (1999), Igbaria et al. (1995) and Ndubisi et al. (2001). Although the TAM literature reveals that certain inconsistencies exist but they are rarely dealt with clearly (En Mao & Palvia, 2001). So this research delves into one of the many inconsistencies which may be explored to enrich the literature in the TAM research. Therefore this study aims to test the applicability of TAM in predicting intention to use internet banking among current users and future users. We begin with the argument that the TAM model is more applicable in predicting intention to use (adoption) and usage for users than non users of a particular technological innovation. This study attempts to answer the following questions: (1) What is the impact of perceived ease of use on intention to use internet banking? (2) What is the impact of perceived usefulness on intention to use internet banking. (3) Is TAM more applicable in predicting the intention to use among users or non users of internet banking. Intention To Use Actual System Usage

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

RESEARCH MODEL For the purpose of our research we have used the TAM model (Davis, 1989) minus the external variables. The research model is as shown in Figure 3. The reason why we stopped at intention to use and exclude the actual usage is because the Internet banking is a new phenomenon in Malaysia which has not caught on with the bank customers. Warshaw and Davis (1985) defined intention as the degree to which a person has formulated conscious plan to perform or not to perform some specified future behavior.

Perceived Usefulness Intention to Use Perceived Ease of Use

Figure 3: Research Model METHODOLOGY A questionnaire was used to gather the information required for the study. The questionnaire elicited information about demographic, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use and intention to use. The questionnaire was developed based on researches conducted by Davis, Bagozzi and Warshaw (1989), Basyir (2000), Ndubisi et al. (2001) and Polatoglu et al. (2001). The Cronbach alpha obtained for the two measures were 0.70 for perceived usefulness and 0.69 for perceived ease of use. The intention to use measure was adopted from Davis et al. (1989). Respondents were asked to rate their opinion using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1=Strongly disagree, 2=Disagree, 3=Neither disagree nor disagree, 4=Agree and 5=Strongly agree, for perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Questions measuring intention to use Internet banking used a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1=Very Unlikely, 2=Unlikely, 3=Neither unlikely nor likely, 4=Likely and 5=Very Likely. A factor analysis with varimax rotation was performed to validate whether the respondents perceived the two constructs of perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness to be distinct from each other. The results showed a two factor solution with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 and the total variance explained of 60.92%. KMO measure of sampling adequacy was 0.721 indicating sufficient intercorrelations while the Bartletts Test of Sphericity was significant (Chi square=207.827, p< 0.01). The criteria used by Igbaria et al., 1995 (as cited by Teo, 2001) to identify and interpret factors were: each item should load 0.50 or greater on one factor and 0.35 or lower on the other factor. Table 1 shows that result of the factor analysis.

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

These results confirm that each of these constructs is unidimensional and factorially distinct and that all items used to measure a particular construct loaded on a single factor. Table 1: Result of Factor Analysis Items PEU1 PEU2 PEU3 PEU4 PU1 PU2 Factor 1 0.801 0.663 0.594 0.728 0.187 0.095 Factor 2 0.012 0.315 0.309 0.070 0.845 0.857

Eigenvalue 2.524 1.131 Percentage variance 33.43 27.49 Cronbach Alpha 0.69 0.70 Mean 3.51 3.84 Standard deviation 0.52 0.64 * 2 items from Perceived Usefulness were dropped due to low anti image correlation Sampling and Profile A convenience sampling method was used, since it is against the Banking And Financial Institution Act (BAFIA) to obtain a list of bank customers and contact numbers and addresses from financial institutions, telephone interviews cannot be implemented. In order to ensure a better response rate and co-operation from potential respondents, mail drop survey might not be suitable as the response rate might be low. The questionnaire was distributed to selected respondents of different banks, and the researcher collected the questionnaires directly from the respondents. A total of 194 questionnaires were collected out of the total 230 questionnaires distributed. There were 14 incomplete questionnaires that were discarded. Therefore, only 180 questionnaires were used for data analysis, thereby giving a response rate of 78.26%. Table 2 presents the demographic profile of the respondents who participated in this survey. Whereas Table 1 shows the descriptives of the main variable of the study.

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

Table 2: Profile of respondents Demographic Gender Age Male Female < 20 years 21-30 years 31-40 years 41-50 years > 50 years Master Degree Bachelor Degree Diploma High School or lower Student/ Unemployed < RM 10,000 RM 10,000-RM 24,999 RM 25,000-RM 49,999 RM 50,000-RM 74,999 RM 75,000-RM 99,999 RM 100,000-RM 149,999 > RM 150,000 < RM 10,000 RM 10,000-RM 24,999 RM 25,000-RM 49,999 RM 50,000-RM 74,999 RM 75,000-RM 99,999 RM 100,000-RM 124,999 RM 125,000-RM 149,999 RM 150,000-RM 199,999 > RM 200,000 Executive/ Top Management Middle Management Supervisory Administrative/ Clerical Technical Others Single Married Divorced Frequency 85 95 5 96 57 17 5 24 90 30 36 7 9 47 70 25 14 6 2 8 7 46 50 27 23 7 6 5 39 56 21 22 21 21 95 83 2 Percentage 47.2 52.8 2.8 53.3 31.7 9.4 2.8 13.3 50.0 16.7 20.0 3.9 5.0 26.1 38.9 13.9 7.8 3.3 1.1 4.5 3.9 25.6 27.9 15.1 12.8 3.9 3.4 2.8 21.7 31.1 11.7 12.2 11.7 11.7 52.8 46.1 1.1

Education level

Total Personal Income Per Annum

Total Family Income Per Annum

Position

Marital Status

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

Table 3: Frequency of Internet Usage Variable Internet or Computer Access Internet Experience Duration use Internet or Computer Yes No Yes No < 6 months 0.5- 1 year 1-2 years > 2 years Only once before Few time before Few time a month Once a month Once a week Few times a week Everyday Frequency 177 3 174 6 8 7 17 147 2 6 12 0 4 50 105 Percentage 98.3 1.7 96.7 3.3 4.5 3.9 9.5 82.1 1.1 3.4 6.7 0 2.2 27.9 58.7

Frequency of use

Table 4: Frequency of Internet Banking Usage Variable Know Internet Banking websites Internet Banking Experience Frequency of use Yes No Yes No Only once before Few time before Once a month Few times a month Once a week Few times a week Frequency 139 40 44 136 5 13 6 13 4 3 Percentage 77.7 22.3 24.4 75.6 11.4 29.5 13.6 29.5 9.1 6.8

Hierarchical regression was used to test the hypotheses. We used a two step hierarchical regression where perceived ease of use was entered in the first step. Perceived usefulness was entered in the second step to see the additional variance explained in addition to that explained by perceived ease of use. We performed three separate hierarchical regression, first on both the users and non users combined (aggregate) , second only for the current users (users) and third for current non-users (non-users). The adjusted R2 will be used to see if there are differences in the variation explained between the three models. Table 5 presents the result of the hierarchical regression. As can be seen from Table 5, the adjusted R2 for both the groups combined (aggregate) shows a value of 0.24, whereas for the

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

current users, the adjusted R2 is 0.357 whereas for the non users, the adjusted R2 is 0.052. The comparison shows that the TAM model is able to explain higher variation in intention to use among currents users as compared to non users or when both the groups are combined. This provides strong support for our earlier contention that the TAM model will be more applicable to predict intention to use of current users than future users or non users. Table 5: Results of regression analysis Variable Perceived ease of use 0.314** Perceived usefulness F value 19.372** 2 Adjusted R 0.094 * ** p<0.05, p < 0.01 Aggregate Step 1 Step 2 0.173* 0.413** 29.205** 0.241 Step 1 0.331* 4.690** 0.086 Users Step 2 0.177 0.551** 11.836** 0.357 Non Users Step 1 Step 2 0.170* 3.823* 0.029 0.120 0.160* 3.491* 0.052

In the aggregate model both the peceived ease of use and perceived usefulness are significant, perceived usefulness is a partial mediator. For the users, perceived usefulness is significant and perceived ease of use is not significant in the second step, which provides support for perceived usefulness as a full mediator. In the third model for the non users, perceived usefulness is significant and perceived ease of use is not significant in the second step, which provides support for perceived usefulness as a full mediator. DISCUSSION Although the findings confirms the validity of the TAM model in explaining intention to use Internet banking, there remains the issue of applicability of the model to both users and non users. We have shown evidence that the TAM model is more applicable for predicting the intention to use among current users. This findings might be attributed to the nature of the technological innovation in question. As Internet banking is still new, there are not many users at the present moment, this might be a potential explanation for the anomally. It cannot be argued that the respondents do not know the existence of Internet banking as 77.7% of the respondents have indicated that they were aware of Internet banking websites. The findings that perceived usefulness is more influential in determining technology use confirms previous research such as Adams et al. (1992), Hu et al. (1999), Igbaria et al. (1995) and Ndubisi et al. (2001), which have highlighted that perceived usefulness is more significant in explaining computer usage. Thus it is important for designers to develop a system that is perceived to be useful more than easy to use. LIMITATIONS There are however several limitations to this research. First, this research only looks at the basic TAM model and not the extended TAM. Second, the sample was drawn from the

The proceedings of The International Seminar, Indonesia-Malaysia, The Role of Harmonization of Economics and Business Discipline in Global Competitiveness, Banda Aceh, Indonesia 14-15th October 2002

northern region of Malayisa only and may not represent the whole population. The third limitation is that although the variables that we have forwarded may explain the variation in intention to use, there are other variables that may also influence intention to use that have been left out such as self efficacy (Bandura, 1977, 1982, 1986; Gist, 1987; Gist & Mitchell, 1992) and external variables such as computer skills, organizational support and social pressure (Chang & Cheung, 2001) CONCLUSION While TAM is one of the most influential models used widely in the studies of the determinant of IS/IT acceptance and which has empirically been proven to have high validity, it must be used to a certain extent with caution as we have shown in this research. While many previous researches have used technological innovation which have been widely accepted, there is scarce research which delves into the acceptance in newer technologies and innovations. Let alone separating the users and non users to study if there are differences. For future researches we would suggest that they look at this new angle with more zest and see if our notion is supported, for other types of technological acceptance and innovations. BIBLIOGRAPHY Adams, D. A., Nelson, R. R., and Todd, P. A. (1992). Perceived Usefulness, Ease of Use, and Usage of Information Technology: A Replication, MIS Quarterly, 16(2), 227-247 Ajzen, I., and Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-Behavior Relations: A Theoretical Analysis and Review of Empirical research, Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888-918. Anandarajan, M., Igbaria, M., and Anakwe, U.P. (2000). Technology Acceptance In The Banking Industry: A Perspective From A Less Developed Country, Information Technology & People, 13 (4), 298-312 Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavioral Change. Psychology Review, 84, 191-215 Bandura, A. (1978). Reflection On Self-efficacy. In Advances in Behavioral Research and Therapy (1),S. Rachman (ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, England, 1978, 237-269 Bandura, A. (1982). Self-efficacy Mechanism In Human Agency. American Psychology, Vol 37, 122-147 Bandura, A. (1986). The Explanatory And Predictive Scope of Self-efficacy Theory. Journal of Social Clinical Psychology, 4, 358-373 Bandura, A., and Cervone, D. (1986). Differential Engagement of Self reactive Mechanisms Governing The Motivational Effects Of Goal Systems. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 38 (1), 92-113 Bandura, A. (1988). Reflection On Non-ability Determinants of Competence. In R. J. Sternberg and J. Kolligian, Jr. (Eds.) Competence considered: Perceptions of competence and incompetence across the lifespan , 315-362, Dordrecht, Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Basyir, A. (2000). A Model of Consumers Acceptance of Internet Shopping. MBA thesis, School of Management, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang Chang, M. K., and Cheung, W. (2001). Determinants of the intention to use Internet/WWW at work: a confirmatory study, Information & Management, 39, 1-14. Chau, P. Y. K. (1996). An Empirical Assessment of a Modified Technology Acceptance Model, Journal of Management Information Systems, 12 (2), 185-204

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