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MER NETWORKS

• Networks featuring minimum utility usage are called MAXIMUM ENERGY RECOVERY (MER) Networks.

**DIVISION AT THE PINCH
**

RECALL THAT • No heat is transferred through the pinch. • This makes the region above the pinch a HEAT SINK region and the region below the pinch a HEAT SOURCE region.

Heat Sink

Heat is obtained from the heating utility

7.5 1.5 9.0 -6.0 3.0 1.0 4.0 -4.0 0.0 14.0 14.0 -2.0 12.0

Minimum heating utility

T

Pinch

H

-2.0

Heat Source

Heat is released to cooling utility

10.0

Minimum cooling utility

• Heat exchangers will not contain heat transfer across the pinch.CONCLUSION • One can analyze the two systems separately. that is. .

in Tp TC.PINCH MATCHES • Consider two streams above the pinch TH.out= Tp.in> TC.in= Tp+Q/FCpH But TH.∆Tmin FCpH < FCpC Golden rule for pinch matches above the pinch. ∆Tmin ∆Tmin Violation when FCpH > FCpC . Q/FCpH > Q/FCpC Thus replacing one obtains TC.out+ ∆Tmin.out Q Tp.∆Tmin + Q/FCpC TH.

EXERCISE • A similar rule is obtained below the pinch. . Derive it and illustrate it.

Thus replacing one obtains Tp.ANSWER Tp TH.in= Tp.out= Tp-Q/FCpH But TH.Q/FCpC TH.in FCpC < FCpH Golden rule for pinch matches below the pinch.out> TC. ∆Tmin ∆Tmin Violation when FCpC > FCpH .∆Tmin Q TC.∆Tmin .out TC.in + ∆Tmin.

our first design rule: START BY MAKING PINCH MATCHES . Thus. one should start locating these matches first.CONCLUSION • Since matches at the pinch need to satisfy these rules.

QUESTION • Once a match has been selected how much heat should be exchanged? .

ANSWER • As much as possible! • This means that one of the streams has its duty satisfied!! THIS IS CALLLED THE TICK-OFF RULE .

0 -31.5 MW T=250 0C T=40 0C Stream Reactor 1 feed Reactor 1 product Reactor 2 feed Reactor 1 product ∆Tmin=10 oC Type Cold Hot Cold Hot Supply T (oC) 20 250 140 200 Target T (oC) 180 40 230 80 ∆H (MW) 32.0 -30.2 0.3 0.0 F*Cp (MW oC-1) 0.15 0.25 PINCH=150 oC .5 27.HANDS ON EXERCISE ∆H=27 MW T=140 0C T=230 0C REACTOR 2 T=200 ∆H=32 MW T=20 0C REACTOR 1 T=180 0C 0C ∆H=-30 MW T=80 0C ∆H=-31.

2 0.25 PINCH=150 oC .3 20 0C C1 C2 Stream Reactor 1 feed Reactor 1 product Reactor 2 feed Reactor 1 product ∆Tmin=10 oC Type Cold Hot Cold Hot Supply T (oC) 20 250 140 200 Target T (oC) 180 40 230 80 ∆H (MW) 32.25 H1 H2 180 0C 230 0C 140 0C 250 0C 200 0C 150 0C 40 0C 80 0C FCp=0.0 -31.2 FCp=0.HANDS ON EXERCISE FCp=0.15 0.0 -30.0 F*Cp (MW oC-1) 0.3 0.15 FCp=0.5 27.

25 H1 H2 250 0C 200 0C 150 0C 180 0C FCp=0.ABOVE THE PINCH FCp=0.3 230 0C 140 0C C1 C2 • Which matches are possible? .15 FCp=0.2 FCp=0.

ANSWER (above the pinch) FCp=0. .2 FCp=0. We therefore can only make the match H1-C1 and H2-C2.25 H1 H2 250 0C 200 0C 150 0C FCp=0.15 FCp=0.3 180 0C C1 230 0C 140 0C C2 • The rule is that FCpH < FCpC .

2 FCp=0.25 H1 H2 250 0C 200 0C 203.5 C1 8 140 0C C2 • The tick-off rule says that a maximum of 8 MW is exchanged in the match H1-C1 and as a result stream C1 reaches its target temperature.5 MW are exchanged in the other match and the stream H2 reaches the pinch temperature. . • Similarly 12.3 230 0C 180 0C 181.ANSWER (above the pinch) FCp=0.3 0C 150 0C FCp=0.15 FCp=0.7 0C 12.

2 140 0C 20 0C C1 • Which matches are possible? The rule is that FCpC < FCpH .BELOW THE PINCH FCp=0.25 H1 H2 150 0C 40 0C 80 0C FCp=0.15 FCp=0. Thus. we can only make the match H2-C1 .

ANSWER (below the pinch) FCp=0.2 140 0C 17.5 0C 20 0C C1 • The tick-off rule says that a maximum of 17.5 52. .25 H1 H2 150 0C 40 0C 80 0C FCp=0.5 MW is exchanged in the match H2-C1 and as a result stream H2 reaches its target temperature.15 FCp=0.

2 FCp=0. .5 0C 20 0C C1 • Streams with unfulfilled targets are colored.5 8 140 0C 140 0C 17.COMPLETE NETWORK AFTER PINCH MATCHES FCp=0.3 230 0C 180 0C 181.15 H1 H2 250 0C 203.3 0C 150 0C 40 0C FCp=0.7 0C 12.5 C2 52.25 200 0C 80 0C FCp=0.

3 230 0C 180 0C 181. • The pinch design method leaves you now on your own!!!!! • Therefore.7 0C 12.25 H2 200 0C 80 0C FCp=0. there is more flexibility to make matches.15 H1 250 0C 203.5 C2 52.3 0C 150 0C 40 0C FCp=0.2 FCp=0.5 8 140 0C 140 0C 17. so the inequalities do not have to hold.WHAT TO DO NEXT? FCp=0.5 0C 20 0C C1 • Away from the pinch. use your judgment as of what matches to select!! .

2 FCp=0. We are then forced to look for a match for H1. Please locate it.15 H1 250 0C 203.ANSWER FCp=0.7 0C 12. . Thus all hot streams need to reach their inlet temperature.5 0C 20 0C C1 • We first note that we will use heating above the pinch.5 C2 52.25 H2 200 0C 80 0C FCp=0.5 8 140 0C 140 0C 17.3 230 0C 180 0C 181.3 0C 150 0C 40 0C FCp=0.

25 H2 200 0C 80 0C FCp=0.5 7 12.15 H1 250 0C 150 0C 40 0C FCp=0.2 FCp=0.5 C2 52.5 0C 20 0C C1 .3 230 0C 180 0C 8 H 7.5 140 0C 140 0C 17. We finally put a heater on the cold stream FCp=0.ANSWER • The match is H1-C1.

5 7 12.5 140 0C 140 0C 17.5 6.ANSWER • Below the pinch we try to have the cold streams start at their inlet temperatures and we later locate coolers (one in this case).2 FCp=0.5 FCp=0. FCp=0.15 H1 250 0C 150 0C C 10 FCp=0.25 H2 200 0C 40 0C 80 0C 180 0C 230 0C 8 H 7.3 20 0C C1 C2 .

DISCUSSION • State what are your objections to the pinch design method. so far!! .

THESE ARE MINE • It seems to imply building expertise • It does not seem to guarantee that one will always obtain a good result. • What if there are unequal number of streams at the pinch? • What if the inequalities are not satisfied at the pinch? .

GENERAL FORMULA FOR UNIT TARGETING Nmin= (S-P)above pinch+ (S-P)below pinch If we do not consider two separate problems. above and below the pinch we can get misleading results. .

5 140 0C 40 0C FCp=0. which is wrong 7 Note: A heat exchanger network with 5 exchangers exists. .25 H2 200 0C 80 0C 180 0C 230 0C 8 H 7.2 FCp=0. This is beyond the scope of this course.3 140 0C 17.15 H1 250 0C 150 0C C 10 FCp=0.5 20 0C C1 C2 Nmin= (S-P)above pinch+ (S-P)below pinch = =(5-1) + (4-1) = If we do not consider two separate problems Nmin= (6-1)= 5.EXAMPLE FCp=0.5 6.5 7 12. but it is impractical and costly.

UNEQUAL NUMBER OF STREAMS AT THE PINCH Above the pinch. we notice the following rule SH ≤SC .

2 FCp=0.4 150 OC 140 OC 130 OC 100 OC Target=170 OC Target=140 OC 127. then no pinch matches are possible. FCp=0.25 FCp=0.5 10 C2 Assume the matches H1-C1 and the matches H2-C2 have been selected. What is then.15 FCp=0. if the number of hot streams is larger than the number of cold streams.UNEQUAL NUMBER OF STREAMS AT THE PINCH Indeed.5 OC 122.5 OC 90 OC C1 7.1 H1 H2 H3 FCp=0. the solution? . Since H3 needs to go to the pinch temperature. Such matching would be infeasible. even if there is portions of C1 or C2 that are left for matching. there is no cold stream left to match.

15 127.ANSWER Split cold stream until the inequality is satisfied. FCp=0.25 FCp=0.1 H1 H2 H3 150 OC 140 OC 130 OC 100 OC Target=170 OC Target=140 OC FCp=0.5 90 OC C1 C2 Notice that different combinations of flowrates in the split satisfy the inequality.2 FCp=0.5 OC 130 OC 110 OC 10 3 7.25 FCp=0. .15 FCp=0.

. SH ≥SC and similar splitting of hot streams may be necessary. that is.UNEQUAL NUMBER OF STREAMS AT THE PINCH A similar rule can be discussed below the pinch.

.4 90 OC C1 C2 Target=140 OC Suggest a solution.INEQUALITY NOT SATISFIED Consider the following case: FCp=0.2 FCp=0.5 H1 150 OC 100 OC Target=170 OC FCp=0.

3 H1 150 OC 100 OC Target=170 OC Target=140 OC FCp=0.2 FCp=0.2 FCp=0.ANSWER Split the hot stream FCp=0.5 OC 15 10 90 OC C1 C2 .4 140 OC 127.

7 90 OC 30 OC C1 .SOLVE THE FOLLOWING PROBLEM Below the Pinch : FCp=0.5 FCp=0.3 H1 H2 100 OC Target=40 OC Target=20 OC FCp=0.

2 90 OC 30 12 30 OC C1 .5 FCp=0.3 H1 H2 100 OC 40 OC Target=40 OC Target=20 OC 60 OC FCp=0.ANSWER Below the Pinch : FCp=0.5 FCp=0.

COMPLETE PROCEDURE ABOVE THE PINCH Start Yes FCpH≤FCpC at pinch? Yes SH ≤ SC No Split Cold Stream No Place matches Split Hot Stream .

COMPLETE PROCEDURE BELOW THE PINCH Start Yes FCpH ≥ FCpC at pinch? Yes SH ≥ SC No Split Hot Stream No Place matches Split Cold Stream .

HANDS ON EXERCISE Type Hot Hot Cold Cold Supply T (oC) 750 550 300 200 Target T (oC) 350 250 900 550 F*Cp (MW oC-1) 0.04 0.4 MW .2 MW Minimum Cooling Utility= 6.02 ∆Tmin=50 oC Minimum Heating Utility= 9.045 0.043 0.

05 0C FCp=0.4 FCp=0.04 H2 686.2 1 8 500 0C 6 8.02 900 0C 550 0C 358.6 200 0C .89 0C 350 0C 250 0C 400 0C 6 300 0C C1 C2 550 0C 9.045 H1 0.ANSWER FCp=0.04 750 0C FCp=0.043 FCp=0.

ANSWER We are minimizing the number of matches. We saw already that different answers can be obtained if separate regions are not considered. .

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