Confidentiality level:INTERNAL

Product name Microwave network planning and design guidelines Version V 1.0

Confidentiality level Internal Total 20 pages

Mobile Backhaul Network Microwave Network Planning and Design Guideline

V1.0

Huawei Technologies Co, Ltd All rights reserved

Huawei confidential. No spreading without permission.

Microwave network planning and design guidelines

INTERNAL

Revision Record
Date 2011-5-12 2011-5-25 Version Draft V1.0 Description Update with capacity planning, AM/QOS characteristics,fresnel zone radius,the criteria of clearance,methods of the microwave LOS survey,etc. Author Zhang Zai Zhang Zai

Huawei confidential. No spreading without permission.

....................................................................3 Capacity plan ..........................1 KPI of the link ...........4............. 11 3......................................................................... 11 3...................................................................................................................... 5 2............................ 7 3..... 11 3.3 Tree Topology ...... No spreading without permission.........4..........4..................................................................... 5 2.......................................... 15 3..................................................................4 Link design......1 Ring Topology .......................10 Equivalent Earth Radius K Factor .. 10 3.9 LOS Survey ...........2 Calculation method..............4................................................4.......................................5 Chapter 2 Principle of network architecture .................... 13 3.. 11 3....2 Equipment protection configuration ............................. 8 3.....2 Frequency plan ................... ......................................................................3 Space diversity ..Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Contents Chapter 1 Summarize ......................................4............................... 12 3....................................................................3 Convergence of transmission capacity ........... 15 3...........3........................................................4 Frequency diversity .. 6 Chapter 3 Rules of network design .............................................................................................................. 10 3............................................................. 12 3.....................1 Route design .................................................................................2 Star Topology ............................................8 Onsite Survey ....................................................1 Microwave+ optical+ lease line ..................................................... 13 3...........................5 Hybrid diversity ................................................................................... 14 3.............................7 Chose for rain region ....3.........3...............................6 Algorithms for reliability calculation ................................................................... 16 Huawei confidential....................5 2................................................4....................................4............4............................... 7 3................... 13 3............................................................................................. 10 3...................................4.........................4 AM/QOS .....................................3.......................................................................

...... 19 Huawei confidential........4............... 18 3..................................11 Fresnel zone radius ....Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL 3............. ...........................................................4. No spreading without permission..........12 The Criteria of Clearance ..........

microwave planning engineer should follow the principle as described in this document.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL CHAPTER 1 SUMMARIZE Microwave transmission is one of the most important means for wireless transmission backhaul in wireless project all over the world. the total hops should be even in a ring topology. designer should pay attention to the interference that maybe caused from transmitter to receiver at the same site. According to the actual situation. In microwave ring network.1 RING TOPOLOGY If the frequency resource is enough. it’s recommended to use N+0 hardware protection to reduce the cost of the project. high quality and low cost network. 10 hops to comprise a self-healing ring. if the total hops have to be odd in the ring network. 6.In order to build up a reliable. such as 4. it has a wide application in Radio Access Network (RAN). . No spreading without permission. 8. BTS/ -B/ N 1 BTS/ -B -2 N BSC/RNC BTS/ -B -3 N BTS/ -B -5 N BTS/ -B -4 N . topology Figure 1 ring In order to avoid high-low violation in one site. ring topology network is recommended to improve the network’s disaster tolerance capability. 2. transmission capacity and the geographical environment can meet the requirement. CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPLE OF NETWORK ARCHITECTURE 2.2 STAR TOPOLOGY Huawei confidential.

3 TREE TOPOLOGY In order to save frequency resource (reuse the frequency). otherwise it may cause serious interference because of the limited frequency resource. 2. . star topology with a HUB site in the center is recommended. No spreading without permission. And to avoid the influence that caused by each hop. lower the configuration requirement of each hop. HU HU B B ROOT .Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL In order to reduce the transmission capacity. the leaf are the rest of the sites. shorten the distance of each hop. tree topology is recommended. Figure 2 star topology There should be no more than 10 hops connected to the HUB site for a star network. an optical access point or any site in a ring. The 1+0 protection configuration is recommended for the last hop in the star network. a RNC. the trunk is the Hub site. The root nodes could be a BSC . Figure 3 tree topology Huawei confidential. reduce the microwave antenna diameter.

existed tower or shared tower with other operator. we could use some means to minimize the number of repeater station. but should to pay attention the cost of tower. Sometimes. try to postpone the site to next phase or use leased line solution. 3、 For some remote isolated sites (which need to build one or more microwave repeater stations). so it must be done quickly. In that case. Maybe the LOS issue will be resolved without build new repeater. as show in figure 4: Huawei confidential. you may consider to building a microwave repeater station.1 ROUTE DESIGN In order reduce construction costs. ring network’s reliability is better than star network. Collect the information about available resources is very important. tree network is the worst. because of the limited investment or competition pressure. we have to choose lower network protection configuration. 4、 If it can solve several BTS’ transmission problem with building a single repeater.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL It is suggested to configure with 1+1for the link that between Root site and HUB site. As the construction and maintenance costs of microwave repeater station are very high. No spreading without permission. CHAPTER 3 RULES OF NETWORK DESIGN 3. . 5、 Try to minimize the hops of end to end (such as BTS to ROOT station). In a word. even cancel it. we could reduce the quantity of ring networks and lower the device protection configuration in microwave links which are not very important. Shared tower should have high priority to sign intent agreement of rent. 2、 Sometime LOS will be fine if increase the mounting height of antenna. designer should make full use of the wireless tower. such as: 1、 Move the BTS appropriately without affect the coverage . So Increase the tower height also a good way to avoid repeater.

the link distance which is less than 20 KM is called short-haul. frequency above 10 GHz is called high band.2 FREQUENCY PLAN We should get microwave frequency information from customer firstly. To obtain the T/R spacing in each frequency band and the channel arrangement. principles can be defined for different frequency band. 3. . Commonly. Huawei confidential. while higher frequency is suitable for short range transmission. Generally. No spreading without permission. 8 GHz) is called low band.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Figure 4 It is not suggested (there is 8 hops from ROOT to end station) Figure 5 it is suggested (there is only 4 hops from ROOT to end station) 6、 Try to shorten the distance of microwave transmission and reduce antenna diameter if all the suggestions above can be satisfied. while link distance above 20km is called long-haul. which are beneficial to install antenna and improve transmission quality. frequency below 10 GHz (6. Also. Then submit to customer and get approve. 7. lower frequency is suitable for long distance transmission. According to the available microwave frequency resource. Or try to propose the microwave frequency according to the ITU recommendation and product parameters.

If the calculation result can meet the annul availability KPI and recognized by customer.) for project. second is the complex terrain and ground features information. also calculated the threshold deterioration (TD) of each hop. We should avoid same frequency band high-low violation at same site because it will cause internal interference. Same frequency channel high-low violation is strictly prohibited. For polarization. The use of different channels also can solve over-reach interference problem. Huawei confidential. Use the tools to analyze the interference hop by hop. Use the existing data and pre-planning link data to analysis frequency interference is an important course in frequency planning. The TD value could be updated to the link performance calculation. With the rapid deployment of radio network overseas. Interference calculation cannot show the intensity of the interference correctly. until the standard requirements are fulfilled.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL According to microwave products parameters. that is ok. so it is often used for the links with poor condition transmission. more frequency channels are needed. the data in existed network is hard to collect also not so accurate. microwave interference calculation is more difficult also the calculation result is getting worse. No spreading without permission. V polarization has better performance against the rain attenuation in high frequency band comparing with H polarization. it can solve the over-reach interference issue. so we have to find an available frequency through frequency scanning at site. Now. select the appropriate bandwidth (7MHz、14MHz、28/29. “VVHH” configuration was recommended for the route which turning angle is close to 180 degrees. . Also try to keep all the frequency band with high or low identity at same site. and try to avoid the H polarization application. There are two reasons mainly.65MHz、40MHz、56MHz)、modulation(QPSK、 16/32/64/128/256QAM) and corresponding transmission capacity (4E1、8E1、 16E1、44E1、53E1、75E1、STM-1、106Mb/s、183Mb/s、366Mb/s etc. If the TD value exceeds a preset standard value (usually target TD<3dB). Otherwise. For some microwave links with the TD value exceeds the preset standard (such as 3dB). microwave electromagnetic environment is becoming increasingly complex. only for a rough analysis and calculation with plane terrain. Microwave network planning tool PATHLOSS currently does not support calculating the interference with terrain and ground features information. you should find the source of interference and change the frequency and polarization configuration of some hops. first.

Each separated microwave network can be constructed from the root point. Scan polarization: V and H. which has less demand for transportation capacity.3. . You’d better choose the pre-installed antenna position to scan frequency. In the case of more demand of bandwidth in the 3rd generation and LTE network. when you do the frequency scanning. which is an access point of the optical network. Transmission rate increases as the increasing of the subscribers and type of services. it’s better to build the backhaul network by mixed transmission network. The total capacity of microwave link is depend on the sum of the capacity of the base stations which through it. 3.1 MICROWAVE+ OPTICAL+ LEASE LINE Operator usually has a developing plan in 3-5years according to market forecast for the 3rd generation or LET wireless network project. No spreading without permission. Frequency range: frequency that customer could acquire. A further construction plan of optical transmission network can be made according to the structure of the carrier network and the demand of capacity. requirements are as follows: Scan angle: 360 degrees. Step angle: 10-15 degrees.3 CAPACITY PLAN Every base station needs one or several E1 in GSM network. 3. Optical resources in existence and under construction should be utilized fully before using the microwave. 3.3.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL There must have no obvious obstacles around the antenna.2 CALCULATION METHOD Huawei confidential. Lease line also can be used as transmission root point and solve the transmission problem of remote isolated site. Microwave capacity maybe can’t match the requirement due to shortage of the frequency resource. and 25% redundancy should be considered for network developing.

The transmission system is “Outage” when the received Huawei confidential.4 LINK DESIGN 3. 3. The convergence ratio is different due to different user custom in different wireless network.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL The terminal link capacity should consider the peak rate of the last base station.4. The receive threshold is related to the transmission BER. AM function is a method for developing the network in further. . The equipment is on the status of “Below Level” when the received signal is lower than the threshold.1 KPI OF THE LINK Calculate the probability of the received signal which is lower than the threshold is a common method in wireless backhaul network. the total capacity is not equal to the sum of the link rate but convergence of it.3. Both of the transmission rate and unavailability ratios can be fulfilled. It can fulfill the demand of transmission capacity and used as the protection link in further carrier network. and suggested to disable it. at the same time bit error will show up or communication will break down. and we usually get the percentage of “Below Level” based on the BER of 10-6. AM function can run properly under uniform QOS strategy. No spreading without permission.3 CONVERGENCE OF TRANSMISSION CAPACITY All the base stations which using the Ethernet protocol as the transmission interface share the transmission bandwidth in 3rd generation and LET network. 3. or the rent plan of leased line. Transmission rate of every base station should be recorded and analyzed to decide the transmission convergence ratio.3. The maximum transmission rate should be configured when transmission capacity exceed the maximum rate of the equipment. As a result.4 AM/QOS AM is an effective method to deal with the decline of KPI in the case of limited size of antenna. 3. Peak rate and average rate can be obtained from the long-term wireless network planning. It is useful for modification of the construction plan and operation plan. and the capacity of the rest link is the sum of the average rate of all connects base station.

4.997% 3、Transmission capacity larger than STM-1:99. .995% 2、Transmission capacity larger than 16E1:99. and the exact value is decided by the importance of the link in the network. Acceptable annual unavailability range from 99.995% 3. Space diversity should also be considered for short distance (less than 20km).995% to 99. Huawei confidential. such as: 1、Transmission capacity equal to 4E1/8E1:99. and the distance of the two antennas should be 6-20m. So suggest: 1、1+0 for the terminal hop (or the last 3 hops). Unless the reflection fade is less than 10 dB and annual availability can be satisfied. 3.1605.4. 2、1+0 for links in a ring protection group.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL signal is lower than the threshold according to ITU-T F.3 SPACE DIVERSITY Space diversity should be used to deal with multipath and insufficient fade margin in the case of bad transmission condition (such as: Over water /long-haul/large capacity). over-water links if the external condition is allowed. 3、 1+1(HSB) or N ×(1+1)for the rests. Overmuch protection of equipment will increase the cost of construction.999%. It’s better design with same size of the main antenna and the diversity antenna. No spreading without permission. Calculate the precise space between the two antennas through PATHLOSS in the case of severity reflection of water in order to make sure the received signals are complementary as show in Figure 6.2 EQUIPMENT PROTECTION CONFIGURATION We can use 1+1 backup to protect the equipment and enhance the reliability in order to decrease the influence for transmission performance due to failure of the equipment.

6 ALGORITHMS FOR RELIABILITY CALCULATION There are several algorithms for reliability calculation such as: Vigants-Barnett/KQ Factor/ITU-6/7/8/9/10/11/12. 3. No spreading without permission. which work as frequency diversity. It is not suggested to apply in the city or suburb but countryside due to the limitation of frequency resources.4.5 HYBRID DIVERSITY A link can be configured with both space diversity and frequency diversity at the same time in order to get double effect of improvement of diversity if is allowed. ITU-9/10/11/12 are released by ITU. We can choose the algorithm as follow: A Chose Vigants-Barnett in USA unless special demand of customer.4.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Figure 6 Reflection analysis of space diversity 3. 3. As a result. Huawei confidential. And we usually use ITU-7/8 which is satisfied in most area besides the places where have severe duct type fade. the Mediterranean and the West Africa.4. .4 FREQUENCY DIVERSITY Frequency diversity is one of the effective solutions to deal with demanding for large size of antenna in Middle East area such as Bahrain where has poor transmission condition. such as the seacoast of the Persian Gulf. The trunk link of microwave can be configured to mode of N+1 or 2*(N+1).

001%. No spreading without permission. ITU-R divided the whole world into several rain regions (A-Q) based on long-term statistics of rainfall. It should not be ignored when designing the microwave link especially for the high frequency band (Higher than 10GHz).Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL B Chose KQ Factor in China unless special demand of customer. show as follow: Huawei confidential. .7 CHOSE FOR RAIN REGION The signal deteriorates when passing through the rain region.4. which is defined as the rain fading. C Chose ITU-7/8 or ITU-12 for the rest area according to the result of the arithmetic. Figure 7 world rain regions Possibility of rain of every rain area from 1% to 0. 3.

accuracy and uniqueness of the survey. The information is for reference during the microwave routing design.); 5、 The conditions of the existing microwave site (site layout plan. or to ensure the LOS. size and azimuth. Typical Methods of the Microwave LOS Survey: Huawei confidential. the power system configuration. etc. the length of various cable and the cable laying); 6、 The conditions to build a new microwave site(hydrology. all the information collection can be done by one team in order to improve the efficiency.). The main content: 1、 The actual co-ordinates and altitude of the site.4.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Both Figure 7 and Table 1 can be obtained from ITU-R P. space and direction); 3、 360-degree panoramic photos of the microwave site. and to provide the survey report. 3. accurate heights of the ground features. the antenna height. (capacity. power supply and place etc. geology. The collected information and submitted reports are used for reference during the microwave planning and system implementation. (take photos every 30-degree and mark the directions); 4、 The information of the existing microwave link. and mark the precise location on the 1:50000 map. . indoor layout plan. Alternatively. 3.8 ONSITE SURVEY The main tasks of the microwave onsite survey are to collect relevant site information. and to provide a terrain profile diagram.837-1. or you can mark the location of the antenna will be installed by using Google Earth; 2、 Available tower information on site. A joint-survey is suggested for both microwave and wireless teams to finish the survey at the same time.(tower heights. tower types. It is suggested to use the data got from the customers.9 LOS SURVEY The main tasks of the microwave LOS survey are to obtain the terrain information. available antenna height.4. No spreading without permission. frequency. roads. to conduct the site measurement.

Due to the limitation of the accuracy of the terrain data. No spreading without permission. If there have obvious obstacle on the far-end site and the microwave link route is determined. Seeing with eyes. 3. read the terrain elevation values of the microwave route by using 1:50000 (or smaller proportion). the microwave radiation spread in the atmosphere will have a slightly bent (such as optical refraction). not as a basis to determine the LOS condition.LOS simulation using satellite technology to provide high-precision of terrain elevation values to guide the determination of the microwave antenna height. Usually microwave LOS survey should draw up the plan and range of survey in order to avoid bundling with the onsite survey. it can only as a reference for the route planning.4. use eyes and digital camera to check the LOS of the radio link. red flag. you can get the terrain elevation values and the surface feature height by using the GPS altitude meter with the same mode. or hydrogen balloon can help in checking whether the LOS is available; 2. It introduced the equivalent earth radius factor K concept in the microwave communication engineering. When this method is adopted. the terrain profile diagram can be generated by using the UTM electronic map. and then generate the terrain profile diagram. if you cannot acquire the 1:50000 map. 3. the SRTM electronic map or the map download from Google Earth website. .Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL 1. you can perform both LOS survey and onsite survey. K=Re/R Re is the equivalent radius of the earth; Huawei confidential. confirm the location of the site and the height of the surface feature onsite.When two microwave sites are located in suburb areas or in the country field . a telescope. During the pre-planning stage of the project. flash of the digital camera. determine the microwave antenna height.10 EQUIVALENT EARTH RADIUS K FACTOR As a result of atmosphere refraction. The onsite LOS survey is not necessary if the microwave link can get the terrain elevation values by LOS simulation or it has obviously LOS condition. viewfinder. For the second method. 4.

the microwave propagated around the earth parallel to the surface. Huawei confidential. K=∞,it is considered the microwave curvature is the same as the earth surface curvature. k=∞ k=4/3 Tx k=1 k=2/3 Actual microwave radiation Rx Equivalent microwave radiation Tx hc k=2/3 Rx Actual earth surface d1 d d2 d1 k=1 k=4/3 k=∞ d d2 a. actual propagation trail b. and is not bent. No spreading without permission.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL R is the actual radius of the earth. equivalent propagation trail Figure 8 introducing the equivalent earth radius K factor The microwave propagated under the standard atmosphere when the K value is 4/3,and it is considered the microwave propagation trail slightly bent upward. Under the actual atmosphere.530 curve proposed. . R=6370km。 K=1,it is considered the microwave is propagated along a straight line. the K value is changed from Kmin to K=∞。 The Kmin value can be found through the ITU-R P.

No spreading without permission.4. When the field strength first reach the max. the radius of the circle section of P is represented by the first Fresnel zone radius (F1).Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Value of kmin exceeded for approximately 99. Huawei confidential. The field strength of the receiving point(Rx) will change as the radius of the circle section of P changes. . The region encircled by the trail of P is an ellipsoid.99% of the worst month (continental temperature climate) Figure 9 Kmin and propagation distance K factor is a very important concept which should be considered in microwave engineering.11 FRESNEL ZONE RADIUS The sum of the distance from P to Tx (transmitter) and the distance from P to Rx (Receiver) is constant. 3.

3. the value of clearance (Hc) should meet the request below. For link with a single obstacle. the unit is meter; d1 d2 d ,the unit is kilometer. clearance (Hc) should be guaranteed from the obstacle to the microwave straight line. the unit is meter; Fn is called the Nth Fresnel zone radius. the unit is meter; λis the length of microwave.12 THE CRITERIA OF CLEARANCE Consider the range of the K value changes. No spreading without permission. Huawei confidential.4.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL Tx F1 Rx d1 P d d2 Figure 10 the first Fresnel zone radius In the last formula: F1 is called the first Fresnel zone radius. .

Huawei confidential.(d is the distance away from the antenna,D is the diameter of the antenna,λis the wavelength). . the Receive Signal Level should not less than the calculate result with free space.1D2/λ. No spreading without permission. the clearance(Hc) should be greater than the value of the first Fresnel zone radius (F1) for the area away from the antenna which complies with the formula.Microwave network planning and design guidelines INTERNAL The standard of clearance value The tape of obstacle Knife style Kmin Hc≥0 K=4/3 Hc≥0. For link with Space Diversity.6F1 Description K:equivalent earth radius factor Hc:clearance F1:the first Fresnel zone Smooth ground and others Hc≥0. and the loss introduced by obstacles should be less than 15dB for the clearance to diversity antennas(for link with one or more obstacles). d>17.3F1 Hc≥1F1 radius Kmin:the minimum of K value The value of clearance for link with some obstacles should meet the request below: When K=Kmin . the clearance to main antennas should meet the demand in the sheet above. the diffraction fading loss caused by obstacles should less than 10dB; When K=4/3, If without fading. Moreover.

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